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Botanical Abstracts 

A monthly serial furnishing abstracts and citations of publications in the international 

field of botany in its broadest sense. 



VOLUME V 
AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1920 



PUBLISHED MONTHLY UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

THE BOARD OF CONTROL OF BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, INC. 

A democratically constituted organization, with members representing man}' societies 

interested in plants. 



BALTIMORE, U. S. A. 

WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 

1920 






1 



. 



Copyright, 1920 

Williams & WilkinB Company 

Baltimore, U. S. A. 



THE SOCIETIES NOW REPRESENTED 

AND 

THE MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL 

{The Executive Committee for 19Z0 are indicated by asterisks) 



American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, Section G. 

*B. E. Livingston, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Maryland. 

A. F. Blakeslee, Station for Experi- 
mental Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, 
Long Island, New York. 

Botanical Society of America, General 
Section. 

B. M. Davis, University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

*R. A. Harper, Columbia University, 
New York City. 

Botanical Society of America, Physiology 
Section. 

B. M. Duggar, Missouri Botanical 
Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 

W. J. V. Osterhout, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Botanical Society of America, Systematic 
Section. 

J. H. Barnhart, New York Botanical 
Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 

A. S. Hitchcock, U. S. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D. C. 

American Society of Naturalists. 

J. A. Harris, Station for Experimental 

Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, Long 

Island, New York. 
E. M. East, Harvard University, Bussey 

Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, 

Massachusetts. 

Ecological Society of America. 

Forrest Shreve, Desert Laboratory, 
Carnegie Institution, Tucson, Arizona. 
*Geo. H. Nichols, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 



Paleontological Society of America. 

E. W. Berry, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

F. H. Knowlton, U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

American Society of Agronomy. 

C. A. Mooers, University of Tennessee, 

Knoxville, Tennessee. 
E. G. Montgomery, Cornell University, 

Ithaca, New York. 

Society for Horticultural Science. 

*E. J. Kraus, University of Wisconsin, 

Madison, Wisconsin. 
W. A. McCue, Delaware Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Newark, Dela- 
ware. 

American Phytopathological Society. 
*Donald Reddick (Chairman of the 
Board), Cornell University, Ithaca, 
New York. 
C. L. Shear, U. S. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D. C. 

Society of American Foresters. 

J. S. Illick, State Forest Academy, 

Mount Alto, Pennsylvania. 
Barrington Moore, American Museum 

of Natural History, New York City. 

American Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties. 

Henry Kraemer, University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Wortley F. Rudd, Medical College, 
Richmond, Virginia. 

Royal Society of Canada. 

No elections. 

At large. 

W. A. Orton, U. S. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D. C. 



111 



BOARD OF EDITORS FOR 1920 
AND ASSISTANT EDITORS 

Editor-in-Chief, Burton E. Livingston 

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 

Associate, Lon A. Hawkins 

U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

EDITORS FOR SECTIONS 



Agronomy. C. V. Piper, U. S. Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. — 
Assistant Editor, Mary R. Burr, U. S. 
Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 
D. C. 

Bibliography, Biography, and History. 
Lincoln W. Riddle, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Botanical Education. C. Stuart Gager, 
Brooklyn Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, 
New York. — Assistant Editor, Alfred 
Gundersen, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 
Brooklyn, New York. 

Cytology. Gilbert M. Smith, University 
of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.— 
Assistant Editor, Geo. S. Bryan, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Ecology and Plant Geography. H. C. 
Cowles, The University of Chicago. 
Chicago, Illin ois. — Assistant Editor, Geo. 
D. Fuller, The University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Forest Botany and Forestry. Raphael 
Zon, U. S. Forest Service, Washington, 
D. C— Ass stant Editor, J. V. Hofmann, 
U. S. Forest Service, Wind River Experi- 
ment Station, Stabler, Washington. 

Genetics. George H. Shull, Princeton 
University, Princeton, New Jersey. — 
Assistant Editor, J. P. Kelly, Pennsyl- 
vania State College, State College, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Horticulture. J. H. Gourley, New Hamp- 
shire Agricultural College, Durham, New 
Hampshire. 

Miscellaneous, Unclassified Publications. 
Burton E. Livingston, The Johns 
Hopkins University, Baltimore, Mary- 
land. 

Morphology, Anatomy, and Histology of 
Vascular Plants. E. W. Sinnott, Con- 
necticut Agricultural College, Storrs, 
Connecticut. 



Morphology and Taxonomy of Algae. E. N. 
Transeau, Ohio State University, 
Columbus, Ohio. 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes. 
Alexander W. Evans, Yale University, 
New Haven, Connecticut. 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi, 
Lichens, Bacteria, and Myxomycetes. 
H. M. Fitzpatrick, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

Paleobotany and Evolutionary History. 
Edward W. Berry, The Johns Hopkins 
University, Baltimore, Maryland. 

Pathology. G. H. Coons, Michigan Agri- 
cultural College, East Lansing, Michi- 
gan. — Assistant Editor, C. W. Bennett, 
Michigan Agricultural College, East 
Lansing, Michigan. 

Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy. 
Heber W. Youngken, Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy and Science, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. — Assistant Edi- 
tor, E. N. Gathercoal, University of 
Illinois, 701 South Wood St., Chica o, 111. 

Physiology. B. M. Duggar, Missouri 
Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. — 
Assistant Editor, Carroll W. Dodge, 
Brown University, Providence, Rhode 
Island. 

Soil Science. J. J. Skinner, U. S. Bureau 
of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. — 
Assistant Editor, F. M. Schertz, U. S. 
Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 

D. C. 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. J. M. 
Greenman, Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, Missouri. — Assistant Editor, 

E. B. Payson, Missouri Botanical Gar- 
den, St. Louis, Missouri. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE FOR 1920 

J. R. Schramm, Chairman, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

H. O. Buckman L. Knudson 

W. H. Chandler E. G. Montgomery 

A. J. Eames D. Reddick 

R. A. Emerson L. W. Sharp 

H. M. Fitzpatrick K. M. Wiegand 

Pi Hosmf.r 



IV 



CONTENTS 

The Societies Represented and the Board of Control for 1920 Page iii 

Board of Editors and Assistant Editors for Volume V Page iv 

Section: 

Agronomy Entries 1-71, 1086-1233 

Bibliography, Biography, and History Entries 72-90, 1234 1259 

Botanical Education Entries 97-115, 1260-1264 

Cytology Entries 116-127, 1265-1269 

Forest Botany and Forestry Entries 128-252, 1270-1418 

Genetics Entries 253-505, 1419-1702 

Horticulture: 

Fruits and General Horticulture Entries 506-515, 1703-1789 

Floriculture and Ornamental Horticulture Entries 516-535, 1790-1844 

Vegetable Culture Entries 536-539, 1845-1861 

Horticulture Products Entries 540-542, 1862-1877 

Morphology, Anatomy, and Histology of Vascular Plants. . . . Entries 543-590, 1878-1914 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Algae Entries 591-613 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes Entries 614-629, 1915-1924 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria, and Myxomycetes. Entries 
630-705, 1925-1977 

Paleobotany and Evolutionary History Entries 706-724, 1978-2000 

Pathology Entries 725-774, 2001-2111 

Sugar-Cane Diseases Entries 2112-2122 

Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany Entires 775-841, 2123-2135 

Physiology: 

General Entries 842-845, 2136 

Protoplasm, Motility Entry 846 

Diffusion, Permeability Entries 847-852, 2137-2144 

Water Relations Entries 853-856, 2145-2148 

Mineral Nutrients Entries 857-S64, 2149-2155 

Photosynthesis Entries S65, 2156 

Metabolism (General) Entries 866-894, 2157-21S5 

Metabolism (Nitrogen Relations) Entries 895-938, 2186-2192 

Metabolism (Enzymes, Fermentation) Entries 909-928, 2193-2209 

Metabolism (Respiration) Entries 929-932, 2210-2213 

Organism as a Whole Entries 933-939, 2214-2219 

Growth, Development, Reproduction Entries 940-946, 2220-2225 

Movements of Growth and Turgor Changes Entries 947, 2226-2227 

Germination, Renewal of Activity „ Entries 948-953, 2228 - 

Radiant Energy Relations Entries 954-956, 2235-223S 

Temperature Relations Entries 957-959, 2231-223 1 

Toxic Agents Entries 960-967, 2239-2244 

Electricity and Mechanical Agents Entry 96S 

Physiology of Diseases Entries 969-971 

Miscellaneous Entries 972-979, 2245-2256 

Soil Science: 

General Entries 9S0-994 

Influence of Biological Agents Entries 995-99S, 2277 -2287 

Fertilization Entries 999-1002. 2267-2276 

Methods Entries 1003-1007, 2322-2326 

Acidity and Liming Entries 2257-2206 

v 



VI CONTENTS 

Soil Science — Continued. 

Fertilizer Resources Entries 2288-2292 

Soil Analysis Entries 2293-2294 

Soil Classification Entries 2295-2319 

Moisture Relations Entries 2320-2321 

Miscellaneous Entries 2327-2335 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants: 

General Entries 2336-2360 

Pteridophytes Entries 2361-2368 

Spermatophytes Entries 1008-1065, 2369-2402 

Miscellaneous, Unclassified Publications Entries 1066-1085, 2403-2426 

Index to Authors' Names appearing in Volume V Page 317 



Vol. V 



AUGUST, 1920 



No. 1 



ENTRIES 1 1085 

Botanical Abstracts 

A monthly serial furnishing abstracts and citations of publications in the international 

field of botany in its broadesl Benee 

PUBLISHED MONTHLY UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

THE BOARD OF CONTROL OF BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, INC. 

A democratically constituted organization, with members representing many soci< ■' 

interested in plants. 

THE SOCIETIES NOW REPRESENTED 

AND 

THE MEMBERS OF THE BOARD OF CONTROL 

■ 

(The Executive Committee for 1020 are indicated by asterisks) 

American Association for the Advancement 

of Science, Section G. 
*B. E. Livingston, Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Maryland. 

A. F. Blakeslee, Station for Experimental 
Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, Long 
Island, New York. 

Botanical Society of America, General 
Section. 

B. M. Davis, University of Michigan, Ann 
Arbor, Michigan. 

*R. A. Harper, Columbia University, 
New York City. 

Botanical Society of America, Physiology 
Section. 
B. M. Dtjggar, Missouri Botanical 

Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 
W. J. V. Osterhout, Harvard University, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

Botanical Society of America, Systematic 

Section. 
J. H. Barnhart, New York Botanical 

Garden, Bronx Park, New York City. 
A. S. Hitchcock, U. S. Bureau of Plant 

Industry, Washington, D. C. 

American Society of Naturalists. 
J. A. Harris, Station for Experimental 

Evolution, Cold Spring Harbor, Long 

Island, New York. 
E. M. East, Harvard University, Bussey 

Institution, Forest Hills, Boston, 

Massachusetts. 

Ecological Society of America. 
Forrest Shreve, Desert Laboratory, 
Carnegie Institution, Tucson, Arizona. 
*Geo. H. Nichols, Yale University, New 
Haven, Connecticut. 

At large. 
W. A. Orton, U. S. Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, Washington, D. C. 



Paleontological Society of America. 

E. W. Berry, Johns Hopkins University, 
Baltimore, Maryland. 

F. H. Knowlton.U. S. National Museum, 
Washington, D. C. 

American Society of Agronomy. 
C. A. Moobrs, University of Tennessee, 

Knoxville, Tennessee. 
E. O. Montgomery, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, New York. 

Society for Horticultural Science. 
*E. J. Kraus, University of Wisconsin, 

Madison, Wisconsin. 
W. A. McCtje, Delaware Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Newark, Dela- 
ware. 

American Phytopathological Society. 
*Donald Reddick {Chairman of the Board), 
Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 
C. L. Shear, U. S. Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, Washington, D. C. 

Society of American Foresters. 
J. S. Illick, State Forest Academy, 

Mount Alto, Pennsylvania. 
Barrington Moore, American Museum 
of Natural History, New York City. 

American Conference of Pharmaceutical 
Faculties. 

Henry Kraemer, University of Michi- 
gan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 

Wortley F. Rtjdd, Medical College, Rich- 
mond, Virginia. 

Royal Society of Canada. 
No elections. 



WILLIAMS & WILKINS COMPANY 

BALTIMORE, U. S. A. 

THE CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS 

FETTER LANE, LONDON, E. C 

Entered as second-class matter, November 9, 1918, at the post office at Baltimore, Maryland, under the Act of 

March 3, 1879 



Copyright 1920, Williams & Wilkins Company 

f 86.00 United States, Mexico, Cuba 
Price, net postpaid for two volumes: < S6.25 Canada 

I S6.50 Other countries 



1019 Volumes: I and II 
1920 Volumes: III, IV, V and VI 



CONTENTS 

Entry nos. 

Agronomj' 1-71 

Bibliography, Biography and History 72-96 

Botanical Education 97-115 

Cytology 116-127 

Forest Botany and Forestry 128-252 

Genetics 253-505 

Horticulture 506-542 

Morphology, Anatomy and Histology of Vascular Plants 543-590 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Algae 591-613 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes 614-629 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi 630-705 

Paleobotany 706-724 

Pathology 725-774 

Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany 775-841 

Physiology 842-979 

Soil Science 9S0-1007 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants 1008-1065 

Miscellaneous and Unclassified Publications 1066-10S5 

BOARD OF EDITORS FOR 1920 

AND ASSISTANT EDITORS 
Editor-in-Chief, Burton E. Livingston 

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 

Associate, Lon A. Hawkins 

U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 



EDITORS FOR SECTIONS 



Agronomy. C. V. Piper, U. S. Bureau of Plant. Indus- 
try, Washington, D. C— Assistant Editor, Mart R. 
Burr, U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 
D.C. 

Bibliography, Biography and History. Lincoln W. 
Riddle, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Botanical Education. C. Stuart Gager, Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, New York. — Assistant 
Editor, Alfred Gundersen, Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden, Brooklyn, New York. 

Cytology. Gilbert M. Smith, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin.— Assistant Editor, Geo. S. 
Bryan, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Ecology and Plant Geography. H. C. Cowles, The 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. — Assistant 
Editor, Geo. D. Fuller, The University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Forest Botany and Forestry. Raphael Zon, U. S. Forest 
Service, Washington, D. C. — Assistant Editor, J. V. 
Hofmanx, U. S. Forest Service, Wind River Ex- 
periment Station, Stabler, Washington. 

Genetics. George H. Shull, Princeton University, 
Princeton, NewJerscy.— Assistant Editor, J. P. Kelly, 
Pennsylvania State College, State College, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Horticulture. J. II. Godrlet, New Hampshire Agri- 
cultural College, Durham, New Hampshire. 

Miscellaneous, Unclassified Publications. Burton E. 
Livingston, The Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

Morphology, Anatomy and Histology of Vascular Plants. 
E. W. Binnott, Connecticut Agricultural College, 
Storrs, Connecticut. 



Morphology and Taxonomy of Algae. E. N. Transeau 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes. Alexander 
W. Evans, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Morpholcgy and Taxonomy of Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria 
and Myxomycetes. H. M. Fitzpatrick,' Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. 

Paleobotany and Evolutionary History. Edward W. 
Berry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

Pathology. G. H. Coons, Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, East Lansing, Michigan. — Assistant Editor, C. W. 
Bennett, Michigan Agricultural College, East Lans- 
ing, Michigan. 

Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy. Heber W. 
Youngken, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
Science, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.— Assistant Editor, 

E. N. Gathercoal, University of Illinois, Urbana, 

Illinois. 

Physiology. B. M. Duggar, Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, Missouri. — Assistant Editor, Carroll W. 
Dodge, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 

Soil Science. J. J. Skinner, U. S. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D. C. — Assistant Editor, 

F. M. Schertz, U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. J. M. Greenman, Mis 
souri Botanical Garden, St. - Louis, Missouri. — 
Assistant Editor, E. B. Payson, Missouri Botanical 
Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE FOR 1920 

J. R. Schramm, Chairman, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

II. O Buckman L. Knudson 

W. II. Chandler E. G.Montgomery 

A.J. Eames D. Reddick 

R. A. Emerson L. W. Sharp 

II. M. Fitzpatrick K. M. Wiegand 

It. HOSMER 



IMPORTANT NOTICE TO SUBSCRIB- 
ERS FOR BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS 

FOUR VOLUMES FOR 1920 

Since the systematic collection of citations and abstracts for Botanic m. 
Abstracts (by the Bibliography Committee, the collaborators and the 
Abstractors) has now been perfected to such an extent that almost all of 
the world literature in this field is now being currently cared for, it is pos- 
sible to revise the original preliminary plans for the journal at this time. 
The text pages for volumes I and II were published for 1919, but these 
two volumes do not include the total of GOO pages called for. Much of the 
material really belonging in volumes I and II has appeared, or is about to 
appear, in 1920, and it is now clear that a total of six volumes (averaging 
300 text pages each) will be required to publish the entries from the beginning 
through December, 1920. 

The deficit in text pages for volumes I and II has been made up by the 
text of volume III. It is now planned to publish the material as rapidly 
as it is collected, in monthly installments, and to make no attempt to fur- 
nish any stated number of volumes per year, each volume containing at least 
300 pages. The number of volumes to appear in any year will be deter- 
mined simply by the amount of literature to be cared for. 

The issue for July, 1920, constitutes the text for the whole of volume IV and 
with it subscribers receive the preliminary and author-index pages for vol- 
ume II. The text of volume IV contains more entries and more pages than 
do the whole six issues of volume I. 

The August and September issues, 1920, which are now in press, icill con- 
stitute volume V, and it seems probable that volume 1 ' 1 wiU contain thn e issues, 
for October, November and December, 1920. 

These new plans will secure for subscribers the prompt receipt of ab- 
stracts, which is highly desirable. About ninety per cent of all journals 
containing articles on plant life are now being abstracted, and the work 
of collecting and editing the abstracts is moving forward in a very satisfac- 
tory manner. It is hoped that the number of subscribers to Botanii al 
Abstracts will soon be sufficientl}- increased so that the original pric< s may 
be continued, in spite of the very high cost of printing ami papt r. It is inter- 
esting to note that Botanical Abstracts is now supplied to subscribers at 



a cost of less than one cent per page, since more than 300 pages are furnished 
per volume. The average number of entries per page is now 6.76. 

Statements to cover volumes V and VI will be rendered on the basis of 
$6.00 for the United States and dependencies; $6.25 for Canada; and $6.50 
for other countries. 

AUTHOR INDEXES 

The author index for volume II was sent out with the July (1920) issue. 
Author indexes for volumes III and IV are in preparation, and they will be 
sent to subscribers as rapidly as possible. It is planned to improve the 
author index, for volume III and thereafter, by inserting abbreviated and 
distinctive titles, so that these indexes together with the tables of contents for 
the several volumes, may partially take the place of annual subject indexes. 

SUBJECT INDEXES 

The important problem of subject-indexing botanical and other scientific 
literature is receiving much serious attention in many quarters and it is 
hoped that a satisfactory and feasible system for this indexing may be 
worked out in the near future. While it has been disappointing not to be 
able to publish a subject index for volumes I and II together, as was origi- 
nally planned, various difficulties and bibliographic considerations have ren- 
dered the decision necessary not to issue any subject index until after six 
volumes have appeared. When issued, the subject index will be sold by 
subscription. The first subject index will be announced in due time. 

PLANS FOR 1921 

Beginning with January, 1921, subscribers will be rendered statements 
to cover Volumes VII and Mil (averaging 300 text pages each). It is 
now hoped that 650 pages will be sufficient to carry the 1921 material. 
The subscribers, however, should be prepared for a larger or smaller 
number of pages, as this matter of pages to be published will be deter- 
mined by the amount of literature to be cared for. 

THE PUBLISHERS. 



LIRVAK* 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS 

A monthly serial furnishing abstracts and citations of publications in the international field of 

botany in its broadest sense. 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

THE BOARD OF CONTROL OF BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, INC. 

Burton E. Livingston, Editor-in-Chief 
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 



Vol. V AUGUST, 1920 No. 

ENTRIES 1-1085 



AGRONOMY 

C. V. Piper, Editor 
Mary R. Burr, Assistant Editor 

1. Anonymous. Electricity in agriculture. Sci. Arner. Supplem. 88:269. 1919. 

2. Anonymous. The value of lupins in the cultivation of poor, light land. Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 88: 265. 1919. [Abstract of paper read by A. W. Oldershaw before Agricultural 
Section, British Assoc. Adv. Sci. Reprinted, Ibid. 88: 321. 1919. 

3. Anonymous. Rispentypen des Hafers. [Types of oat panicles.] Illustrierte Landw. 
Zeitg. 39: 87. Fig. 68-72. 1919.— This article is taken from the book entitled "Der Hafer" 
by Adolph Zade: Jena, 1918. Five different types of panicles are described and illustrated: 
1. Stiff or vertical panicle. 2. Loose or hanging panicle. 3. Bushy panicle. 4. Spreading 
or open panicle. 5. Flag-shaped panicle. — John W. Roberts. 

4. Anonymous. Kartoffelanbauversuche in der Schweiz. [Potato culture experiments in 
Switzerland.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 97-98. 1919.— Two portions of a field were 
planted to potatoes. In one portion the cut surface of the tubers was placed downward, in 
the other it was placed upward. Each portion of the field was divided into four plats accord- 
ing to the portion of the tuber used in planting: 1. "Kopfe." 2. Tubers cut into halves 
longitudinally. 3. Entire tubers. 4. Eyes cut out from tubers. For each plat, the weight 
of the seed potato, the total crop, and the proportion of weight of seed potato to weight of 
yield are given. The position of the cut surface made no difference in the yield. There was 
little difference in the yields from plats 1, 2. and 3; a good yield was had from all three. In 
proportion to the weight of the material planted, the yield of plat 4 was the highest of all, 
but the yield was not sufficient to make proper use of the ground. Experiments to determine 
proper plant spacing are also given. — John W. Roberts. 

5. Anonymous. Seed importation act defined. Seed World. 6 12 :20. 1919. 

6. Anthony, Stephen, and Harry V. Harlan. Germination of barley pollen. Jour. 
Agric. Res. 18: 525-536. PL 60-61. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 919. 

7. Barber, C. A. The effect of salinity on the growth of sugar cane. International 
Sugar Jour. 22: 17-18. 1920.— From experiments carried on at the cane breeding station at 
Coimbatore it was found that common salt in the soil seriously affects the sprouting of sugar 
canes; the color of the leaves is rarely good; and the growth is stunted. — E. Koch. 

1 
O 

£—\ BOTANICAL ABSTBACT8, VOL. V, NO. 1 



2 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

8. Becker, Josef. Versuche zur Unterscheidung landwirtschaftl. Samerelen und 
Futtermittel mit Hilfe der Serumreaktion. [Serum reaction an aid in the determination of 
agricultural seeds and feeds.] Fiihl. Landw. Zeit. 67 : 114-120. 1918. — An antiserum, produced 
by inoculating into animals (rabbits) a certain albumen, possesses the power of causing pre- 
cipitation of the substance used for inoculation. By means of such a serum reaction it is 
possible to clearly distinguish between various agricultural seeds and feeds and easily detect 
adulterations. In preparing the material for inoculation the seeds are ground into a fine 
powder, extracted with a 10 per cent sodium chlorid solution, the extract filtered and the 
protein precipitated with ammonium sulphate. The precipitate is filtered, washed and dried. 
Before being used the dried powder is dissolved in a physiological salt solution — 5 grams of 
the powder in 100 cc. of solution. Of course, it must also be borne in mind that the serum 
is in man}^ cases specific only when used in the proper dilution. — Ernst Artschwager. 

9. Brown, W. H., and A. F. Fischer. Philippine forest products as sources of paper 
pulp. Forest. Bur. Philippine Islands Bull. 16. 13 p. PI. 1. (1918) 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 
6, Entry 161. 

10. Bussy, P. Etude agricole des terres de la Cochinchine. [An agricultural study of 
the soils of Cochinchina.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 1-11. 1920. 

11. Chalmers, D. F. Report on the operations of the Department of Agriculture, Burma, 
1919. 15 p. 1919. — The annual report of the Director of Agriculture for Burma, giving the 
results of development and testing of improved varieties of crop plants, commonly cultivated 
in Burma. Pebyugale, a variety of Phaseolus lunatus, condemned for export purposes on 
account of its hydrocyanide content, is found to contain a negligible amount of the poison. — 
V/infield Dudgeon. 

12. Chevalier, A. Culture et valeur alimentaire des principales legumeneuses tropi- 
cales. [Culture and food value of the principal tropical legumes.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 
1: 330-340. 1919. — A general discussion of the commonly cultivated species of the genera 
Soja, Arathis, Mucuna, Phaseolus, Vigna, etc. — E. D. Merrill. 

13. Chittenden, E. J. The effect of "place" on yield of crops. Jour. Roy. Hortic. 
Soc. 44: 72-74. Fig. 20, 21. 1919. — This is a report of a comparison of yields of outside and 
inside rows of potatoes planted in plots in which the yields averaged 100 for the former to 72 
for the latter. — J. K. Shaw. 

14. Christianson, C. General consideration of peat problems. Jour. Amer. Peat Soc. 
13: 7-9. 1920. — Peat and peat lands are valuable for both agricultural and industrial pur- 
poses. Working out the details of the utilization of peat lands for agricultural and fuel 
purposes, constitutes the peat problem. — G. B. Rigg. 

15. Clouston, D. The selection of rice on the Raipur Experimental Farm. Agric. and 
Co-op. Gaz. [India] IS 1 .: 5-9. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 543. 

16. Collens, A. E., and others. Sugar-cane experiments in the Leeward Islands. 
Report on experiments conducted in Antigua and St. Kitts-Nevis in the season 1916-17 and 1917- 
18, Part 1. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — In Antigua the experi- 
ments were carried on at nine different stations of varying soil conditions. The varieties 
which have given the best results as plant canes over a long period of experimentation are 
B. 4596, Sealy Seedling, B. 6308, B. 1528 and B. 3922. B. 3412 tops the list in the experiments 
with ratoons over a period of 16 years. In the Colony of St. Kitts-Nevis, B. 6308 heads the 
list of plant canes for 1916-17. In 1917-18, Ba. 6032 is first, followed very closely by B. 6308 
and B. H. 10(12). As ratoons, A. 2 and B. 1528 head the lists respectively.—/. S. Dash. 



No. 1, August, 1920] AGRONOMY 3 

17. Connor, S. D. Agricultural value of Indiana peat and necessary fertilizers. Jour. 
Amer. Peat Soc. 13: 13-17. 1920. — Indiana contains several hundred thousand acres of peat 
and muck soils, mostly neutral, but some acid. If properly drained and fcrt ilized t hese soils 
are capable of producing large and profitable crops. Ordinary crops on neutral peat soils 
respond to potash fertilization; on acid ones to lime and phosphate. — G. B. Rigg. 

18. Dunbar, B. A., and E. R. Bin nic wins. Proso millet investigations— analysis of 
the oil— a characteristic alcohol. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 658-666. 1920. 

19. Elayda, I. A preliminary report on the acclimatization of alfalfa. Philippine Agric. 
8: 70-76. 1 pi. 1919. 

20. Ellis, J. H. The stage of maturity of cutting wheat when affected with black stem 
rust. Agric. Gaz. Canada 6: 971. 1919. — Experiments conducted at the Manitoba Agricul- 
tural College show that, contrary to popular notion, wheat attacked by rust should not be 
cut on the green side. Two fields of badly rusted Marquis wheat were divided into seven plots 
each. Seven stages of maturity starting with the late milk stage were examined in relation 
to weight and quality of grain yield. Premature cutting resulted in a brighter color of the 
grain but decreased yield. Cutting when the grain was firm showed the greatest weight per 
bushel and greatest yields. Grain cut in the "late" milk stage gave 56 pounds per bushel 
and that cut in the "firm" stage 59 pounds per bushel. — O. W. Dynes. 

21. Francis, T. C. Tobacco-growing in Cuba. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 304-305. 6 
fig. 1919. 

22. Garner, W. W., and H. A. Allard. Effect of the relative length of day and night 
and other factors of the environment on growth and reproduction in plants. Jour. Agric. Res. 
18: 553-605. PI. 64~79, 35 fig. 1920. — The duration of the daily period of illumination was 
found to be a factor of the first importance in the growth and development of plants, par- 
ticularly with respect to sexual reproduction. At Washington, D. C, during the summer 
months a number of species and varieties were subjected to continuous daily periods of solar 
illumination of 5, 7 and 12 hours' duration, by placing the different series of test plants in a 
dark chamber at 3, 4 and 6 o'clock, p.m., respectively, and returning them to the open at 
10, 9 and 6 a.m., respectively, on the following morning. In certain cases the daily exposure 
consisted of two periods, daylight at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. to dark, 4 hours of darkness at mid- 
day thus intervening. The control plants were fully exposed throughout the entire day. 
Soja max, Nicotiana tabacum, Aster linariifolius, Mikania scandens, Phaseolus vulgaris, 
Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Raphanus sativus, Daucus carota, Lactuca saliva, Brassica oleracea, 
Hibiscus moscheutos, Viola fimbriaiula, Solidago juncea, were used. In all species tested 
the rate of growth was proportional to the duration of the daily exposure to light. The length 
of the vegetative period (germination to flowering stage) was shortened, lengthened or not 
affected, depending on the species and variety. The time required for ripening of fruit was 
markedly reduced. Under the artificially shortened daily illumination the duration of the 
vegetative period of early, medium, late, and very late maturing varieties of soy beans was 
only 21 to 28 days while the respective periods of the controls were 26, 62, 73, 110 days. All 
varieties thus behaved as early maturing ones. Similarly, the vegetative period of Aster 
linariifolius was reduced from 122 to 36 days and that of Maryland Mammoth tobacco was 
reduced from 155 to 60 days while Connecticut Broadleaf tobacco was not materially affected. 
A variety of Phaseolus vulgaris from the tropics attained the flowering stage in 28 days under 
the shortened exposures as against 109 days required by the controls, and the corresponding 
periods for Ambrosia artemisiifolia were 27 and 85 days. Mikania scandens, Raphanus sati- 
vus and Hibiscus moscheutos, on the other hand, were unable to flower under the reduced light 
exposures. Two daily exposures with 4 hours' darkness intervening had little effect on time 
of flowering. By suitably controlling the duration of the daily illumination soy beans, aster 
and ragweed were induced to complete two vegetative and reproductive cycles in one season. 
The relation of the seasonal length of day to the natural distribution of plants and to practical 



4 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

crop production are discussed. The above results showing the significance of the length of 
day in sexual reproduction were confirmed by the use of incandescent electric lights to lengthen 
the normal daily illumination period during the winter months. Under suitable exposures 
Fagopyrum vulgar e, Spinacea oleracea and other plants assumed the ever-blooming type of 
development. Although the plants of buckwheat showed general similarity in behavior under 
the normal illumination of the short winter days, the individuals growing under the influence 
of the lengthened illumination period manifested striking differences among themselves in 
time of flowering and in size attained. Under controlled conditions differences in water sup- 
ply and light intensity were without effect on the time of flowering of soy beans. It is tenta- 
tively concluded that: Sexual reproduction can be attained by the plant only when it is ex- 
posed to a specifically favorable length of day (the requirements in this particular varying 
widely with the species and variety), and exposure to a length of day unfavorable to reproduc- 
tion but favorable to growth tends to produce gigantism or indefinite continuation of vege- 
tative development, while exposure to a length of day favorable alike to sexual reproduction 
and to vegetative development extends the period of sexual reproduction and tends to induce 
the "ever-bearing" type of fruiting. The term photoperiodism is suggested to designate the 
phenomena disclosed. A bibliography is appended. — W. W. Garner. 

23. Hawtrey, S. H. C. Notes on a few useful plants and home industries of Paraguay. 
South African Jour. Indust. 3: 35-41. 1920. 

24. Helyar, J. P. Report of the Department of Seed Analysis. New Jersey Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1918: 93-97. 1919. — Gives a summarization of the tests for field crop 
seeds, vegetable seeds and corn. — Mel. T. Cook. 

25. Hendry, G. W. Mariout barley with a brief discussion of barley culture in Cali- 
fornia. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 312: 57-109. Fig. 19. 1919.— A brief history of 
Mariout barley is given, including an account of its introduction into the United States. The 
bulletin is devoted mainly to a discussion of the practical aspects of barley culture in Cali- 
fornia. The moisture and soil requirements, methods of preparing the soil and seeding, meth- 
ods of harvesting the crop and comparative yields in different states are discussed. — W. P. 
Kelley. 

26. Hepner, Frank E. Wyoming forage plants and their chemical composition. Wyo- 
ming Agric. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 28 (1917-18): 117-128. 1918.— This paper consists of two 
parts. Part I deals with the relation of the soil to the nitrogen content of high altitude 
plants. In earlier work done at this station (Wyoming Agric. Exp. Sta. Bulls. 65, 70, 76, and 
87) it was discovered that the native plants were richer in nitrogen than those of the same 
species grown in the more humid climates of lower altitudes, and later investigations devel- 
oped the fact that there was a tendency for the nitrogen content to increase with the altitude. 
In an attempt to find out whether the cause of this increase might not be found in the higher 
nitrogen content of the soil at higher altitudes, 54 samples of 33 different species of grasses, 
sedges and rushes were collected at different altitudes and at the same time the soils on which 
they grew were sampled. These were analyzed and the results are given in tabular form. 
These results appear to show that the increase of nitrogen in the plants at higher elevation 
is not so marked as the earlier work would indicate, although the statements made in the ear- 
lier bulletins were generally true. Regarding the question as to whether the soils of high alti- 
tudes are richer in nitrogen than those of lower elevations, the conclusion is that although 
nitrogen in the soil is practically the sole source of the nitrogen in the plant, and that the quan- 
tity present doubtless exerts a considerable influence on the amount taken up by the plant, 
still the abundance of nitrogen found in high altitude grasses is not due entirely, if at all, to 
the greater amount of nitrogen, either total or nitrate, in the soils, nor is it due to excessive 
quantities of any other soil constituent. Part 2 gives the complete proximate analyses of 
some of the forage plants including those dealt with in the previous paper. They are all 
Grasses, Sedges, and Rushes, including Agropyron occidenlale Scribn. ; Agropyron pseudo- 



No. 1, August, 1920] AGRONOMY 

repens Scribn. & Smith; Agropyron tenerum Vasey; Agrostis alba L; Bcckmannia erucaeformie 
(L) Host; Boutcloua oligostaehya (Nutt.) Torr. ; Bromus inermis Leyss; Bromus porteri (Coult.) 
Nash; Carex arislata R. Br.; C 'ar ex J 'estiva cbenea (Rydb.) A. Nels.; Carcx nebrascen.si.s Dew; 
Carex scopulorum Holm; Carex siccata Dew; Carex ulriculala Boott.; Carex variabilis Bailey; 
Deschampsia caespilosa (L.) Beauv. ; Elcocharis palustris L. ; Elymus macounii Vasey; Gly- 
cerin grandis Wats. ; Hordeum jubatum L; Juncus ballicus L; Juncus longistylis Torr. ; J uncus 
nodosus L; Juncus mcrtensianus Bong; Juncus richardsonianus R. & S. ; Phleum alpinum L; 
Phleum pratense L; Poa reflexa Vasey it Scribn.; Poa nevadensis Vasey; Puccinellia airoides 
(Nutt.) Wats & Coult.; Scirpus americanus Pers.; Sporobolus airoides Torr.; Sporobolus 
brevifolius (Nutt.) Scribn.; Trisetum subspicatum Beauv. — James P. Poole. 

27. Hillman, F. H., and Helen M. Henry. Identification of seed of Italian alfalfa 
and red clover. Seed World 7 3 : 15. 1920. — Studies made in the Federal Seed Laboratory of 
the United States Department of Agriculture indicated that it is possible for the expert seed 
analyst to identify with reasonable certainty alfalfa and red clover seed grown in Italy, 
when the seed is represented by samples of sufficient size. The six kinds of incidental seeds 
peculiar to the Italian strains constitute the basis of identification, namely: Heelysarum 
coronariwn, Galega sp., probably G. officinalis, Trifolium supinum, Cephalaria transylvanica 
of the Dipsacaceae, a species of Phalaris closely allied to Phalaris canariensis, and an un- 
determined species of Valerianella very similar to V. dentata. — M. T. Munn. 

28. Hiltner, Lorenz. Vermehrte Futtergewinnung aus der heimischen Pflanzenwelt. 
1. Teil. Die Gewinnung von Futter auf dem akerland. II. Teil. Wald, Heide und Moor als 
Futterquellen. Die Verwertung der Wasser- und Sumpfpflanzen. Futtergewinnung aus Ge- 
miise— Obst-, Wein- und Hopfengarten. [Increased forage production from the native flora. 
Pt. 1. Obtaining of cattle feed from the farm. Pt. 2. Forest, meadow and moor as sources of 
cattle feed. The use of aquatic and swamp plants as cattle feed, etc.] Stuttgart, 1917-1918. — 
The first part of Hiltner's book was written in the spring of 1917 and is perhaps best described 
to American agronomists by saying that it is comparable in subject-matter and manner of 
treatment to a high-grade station or Department bulletin on forage and fodder crops, with 
special reference to war conditions. The 84 pages of this publication are devoted to a discus- 
sion of forage products grown on the fields, both cultivated plants and weeds. Under each 
of the more important crops the author gives the composition in terms of the percentage of 
protein, fat, and nitrogen-free extract, discusses methods of culture, fertilizers, and the best 
methods of utilizing the feed, whether green, ensiled, or as dried feed. In the second part, 
written in the spring of 1918, the author discusses fodder that may be secured from woodland, 
moorland, or other waste lands, water and swamp plants, feeds from the waste of gardens, 
orchards, vineyards, and hop fields. And finally, in an appendix the author discusses the 
methods of treating straw to make it a desirable feed. — In 1913 Germany imported a total 
of one million tons (of 1000 kg. each) of food stuffs for farm animals. This had a value of 43.3 
marks per head of large live stock (Hauptgrossvieh), while the value of food imported 
for human consumption was valued at 26.66 marks per capita. A large part of the 
imports too consisted of protein and fat-rich foods. The object of Hiltner, therefore, is to 
point out how German farmers may increase their output of forage by producing more per 
acre or by utilizing weeds and other plants not commonly used, and waste products. Much 
of the advice given the German farmer would be inapplicable to American conditions because 
of the considerable amount of hand labor involved. The saving of waste products by labor- 
ious processes may be necessary under certain conditions, but would certainly not appeal 
to American farmers. — The author frankly points out that while many plants not commonly 
used may be fed, these will in most cases serve only as roughage, and have not the protein or 
fat content to make them valuable as substitutes for imported concentrates. — The discussion 
in part I falls under five heads: 1. Legumes and clovers. 2. Potatoes. 3. Sugar beets, 
mangels, swedes, carrots. 4. Miscellaneous forage plants. 5. Weeds. — The cultivation of 
legumes is urged but nothing new is brought out. Most emphasis is placed on potatoes and 
sugar beets. Before the war 12 per cent of the arable land in Germany was devoted to pota- 



6 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

toes and 40 per cent of the crop was fed to animals. Besides the tubers the herbage, cut just 
as the tubers ripen can be used as hay or ensilage. Miscellaneous information is given on 
various minor forage plants and weeds with a view to the more general utilization of every- 
thing edible. — In part II food stuffs to be secured from trees, shrubs, water and swamp plants 
and from various water products are discussed. — The use of forest tree foliage and twigs is 
especially urged and there is an alphabetical list of species under which are given the essential 
items of information for each species. — Wood, chemically treated, was being used in 1918 but 
apparently not as yet very largely or successfully. The author refers hopefully however to 
many plans underway. In an appendix the treatment of straw with caustic soda is dis- 
cussed. — A. J. Pieters. 

29. Himber, F. C. Flour and mill feed prices. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Sta. Special 
Bull. 15: 360-368. 1919. — A questionnaire sent to flour mills in North Dakota secured whole- 
sale flour prices at a date when federal supervision of milling was in force and thereafter. 
Comparative profits on flour and mill feeds are discussed. — L. R. Waldron. 

30. Holmes Smith, E. Flax cultivation. South African Jour. Indust. 2: 1153-1159. 
1919. 

31. Jabs, Asmus. Einiges iiber unsere Torfmoore. [Notes on our peat bogs.] Natur- 
wissenschaften 7: 491-495. 1919. — The agricultural use of peat lands in Germany as well as 
the industrial uses of peat are discussed in the light of post-war conditions. — Orion L. Clark. 

32. Jones, James W. Beet top silage and other by-products of the sugar beet. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Farmers Bull. 1095. 84 p. Fig. 1-12. 1919. 

33. Kaiser, Paul. Der Stachelginster. [Prickly broom. (Ulex europaeus.)] Illus- 
trierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 38. 1919. 

34. Kidd, Franklin. Laboratory experiments on the sprouting of potatoes in various 
gas mixtures. [Nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.] New Phytol. 18: 248-252. 1919. — 
See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 960. 

35. Kling, Max. Die Kriegsfuttermittel. [War live-stock food.] Stuttgart, 1918. — 
This is essentially a handy compendium of information regarding the various feeds on the 
German market in 1918 or which might be produced by the farmer. In general it covers the 
same ground as Hiltner but without the cultural directions and with the data on the compo- 
sition of the various substances more conveniently arranged. In many cases only the trade 
name and chemical composition of the substance is given. References to sources of chemical 
data are given, and as a rule there are one or two, rarely three analyses. — Besides prepared 
feeds there are data on all sorts of major and minor forage crops, trees and shrubs, weeds, 
swamp plants, vegetable and animal wastes. Preparations from chemically treated wood and 
straw are discussed and some directions given. — A. J. Pieters. 

36. Kondo, M. Ueber Nachreife und Keimung verschieden reifer Reiskorner (Oryza 
sativa). [After-ripening and germination of rice seeds in various stages of maturity.] Ber. 
Ohara Inst. Landw. Forsch. 1: 361-387. 1918. — Grains in the "milk stage" are capable of 
germination, though the percentage germinating is small. However, if they are kept 15 
days in dry storage, or 30 days in moist storage, they will germinate well. The "yellow- 
ripe" grains germinate sparingly, but if kept for 3 months they will germinate as well as fully 
ripe grains. The "fully-ripe" grains germinate at once, but germinate better if kept for a 
month after harvesting. The "dead-ripe" grains germinate immediately after harvesting 
and need no after ripening. — The after-ripening process is rapidly accomplished, if the rice 
seeds are kept in a dry condition, but is delayed under moist conditions. Seeds ripened 
under moist conditions germinate better, however, than those ripened under dry conditions. 
It is unnecessary to keep the seeds in the panicles. — The germination of freshly harvested, 



No. 1, August, 1920] AGRONOMY 7 

unripe seeds is hastened after drying in the sun. — The riper the seeds and the further t he after- 
ripening has progressed, the more quickly they germinate and the higher the percentage of 
germination and the better the seedlings they produce. — Abnormal seedlings often app< 
"Milk-ripe" grains often produce radicles but no plumules. Fully ripe grains often produce 
plumules but no radicles. — 11. B. Reed. 

37. Kondo, M. Ueber die in der Landwirtschaft Japans gebrauchten Samen. [Seeds 
used in Japanese agriculture.] Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Forsch. 1:261-32-1. 17 fig. 1918. — 
An account of the morphological characters of certain seeds and their seedlings. Discusses 
such features as the external appearance of the seed, color, size, weight, anatomical structure 
of the seed coat, embryo, and seedling. — Seeds of the following plants are so described: 
Raphanus salivus, Solanum Melongena, Cucurbila moschata var. Toonas Makino, Lagenaria 
vxdgaris, Benincasa cerifera, Citrullus vulgaris, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Cucu- 
mis melo, Cucumis sativus. — Literature cited. — H. S. Reed. 

38. Kulkarxi, M. L. Further experiments and improvements in the method of planting 
sugar cane and further study of the position of seed in the ground while planting. Agric. Jour. 
India 14 : 791-796. PI. 29-32. 1919.— Sugar cane cuttings with one bud, planted wit h the bud 
pointing upward, sprouted 82 per cent and averaged 5.1 pounds per cane as compared with 
50 per cent sprouting and 4.3 pounds per cane where cuttings with three buds were planted 
with the buds pointed sideways. The yield of crude sugar was about 25 per cent greater from 
the single bud plantings. Results from placing maize, cotton and jack beans with the seeds 
pointing upwards, sideways and downwards are given. In all cases seeds pointed upwards 
gave the poorest results. The author attributes poor stands and sickly plants to indiscrim- 
inate placing of seeds, or of buds where cuttings are used in planting. — J. J. Skinner. 

39. Maceda, F. N. Selection in soy beans. Philippine Agric. 8: 92-98. 1919. 

40. Menual, Paul, and C. T. Dowell. Cyanogenesis in sudan grass: A modification 
of the Francis-Connell method of determining hydrocyanic acid. — Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 447- 
450. 1920. — Sudan grass [Andropogon sorghum Sudanensis] is found to contain about one- 
third as much hydrocyanic acid as is found in grain sorghums. The quantity is greatest in 
the young plant and decreases rapidly as the plant matures. There is more acid in the plant 
in the morning than in the afternoon. — D. Reddick. 

41. Mievelle, R. Essais des culture du ble au Tran-ninh. [Experiments in cultivating 
wheat in Tran-ninh.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 1: 364-369. 1919. 

42. Molegode, W. Transplanting of paddy. Tropic. Agriculturist 52: 199-200. 1919. 
— Results of many experiments on the effect of transplanting rice are given which show an 
increase of 33^ to 220 per cent in yield. Figures are also given to show that in all recorded 
tests the increased yield and the seed saved by transplanting more than equalled the extra 
cost incurred by the operation. — R. G. Wiggans. 

43. Mooers, C. A. Planting rates and spacing for corn under southern conditions. 
Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 1-22. 1920. — In general the small and short seasoned varieties 
require thicker planting than the large long-seasoned varieties. Experimental results indi- 
cate a close relationship between the best rate of planting for grain production and a definite 
yield of grain per plant. To approximate the proper stand of corn a simple equation may be 

56Y 

used as follows: N = ■ In this equation N stands for the number of stalks per acre, Y 

F 

for the expectancy or approximate production in bushels per acre of the field in question under 

average seasonal conditions and F is the standard varietal factor or the average weight of 

grain per plant in pounds at the best rate of planting as determined experimentally for the 

variety in question. In the spacing experiments it was concluded that the best results in 

practice will probably be attained with a width of row which permits the satisfactory use of 

tillage implements but allows the determined number of stalks to be as widely spaced as 

possible. — F. M. Schertz. 



8 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts.. Vol. V . 

44. Moulton, R. H. Kudzu, the latest forage plant. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 364-365. 
5 fig. 1919. — Descriptive of a rapid-growing perennial plant, rich in protein, starch and sugar, 
which it is asserted gives promise of becoming one of the leading sources of wealth in certain 
sections of the U. S., especially in some of the southern states. — Cltas. II. Otis. 

45. Mundy, H. G., and J. A. T. Walters. Rotation experiments. 1913:1919. Rho- 
desia Agric. Jour. 16: 513-520. 1919. 

46. Nagel, . Kartoffellagerungsversuche. [Potato storage experiments.] Illus- 

trierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 6. 1919. — Contrary to the results of Noffe, who found that potatoes 
lost the least starch when stored in a cool, dry, but well lighted place, the author's experiments 
resulted in the least loss of both starch and sugar in potatoes stored in a cool, dry, but dark 
place. Tables showing the percentages of loss under different conditions are given. — John 
If". Roberts. 

47. Oldershaw, A. W. The value of lupins in the cultivation of poor, light land. Jour. 
Ministry Agric. Great Britain 26: 982-991. Fig. 1-3. 1920.— The value of the cultivation of 
lupins (Blue and yellow, Lwpinus luteus) as a means of improving and reclaiming poor light 
land is not sufficiently appreciated. Lupins grow with surprising luxuriance upon poor, 
blowing sand, which will grow practically nothing else but rye. The effect of a crop of lupins 
upon the succeeding crop is really astonishing. Information is given on the sowing, harvest- 
ing and utilization of lupins and on the removal of the possible poisonous properties from 
lupins.— M. B. McKay. 

48. Parnell, F. R. Experimental error in variety tests with rice. Agric. Jour. India 
14: 747-757. 1919. — Experimental errors in field work under Indian conditions are given and 
data presented. The probable error of long, narrow field plots (20 X 250 Iks.) is much less than 
square plots. — J. J. Skinner. 

49. Perez, P. F., Manuel A. Suarez, Manuel F. Grau, and Antonio GarcIa Villa. 
Experiencias en el cultivo del tabaco. [Experiments in the cultivation of tobacco. 1 Revist. 
Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 484-488. 1919. — This is the report of a commission appointed by the 
Secretary of Agriculture to report on the results of experiments with tobacco obtained by 
Francisco B. Cruz. The experiments involve the comparison of tobacco grown without shade, 
shaded by palm leaves and shaded with cheese cloth. Tobacco produced under shade was 
declared most desirable for the American market. The yield produced under cheese cloth 
was largest. — F. M. Blodgelt. 

50. Pescott, E. E. Excursion to Nobelius's nursery, Emerald. Victorian Nat. 36: 
9, 124, 125. Jan. 8, 1920. — Paper read before the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria, Australia. 
The paper is a popular account of an excursion taken to the tree-nursery of Messrs. C. A. Nobel- 
ius and Sons at Emerald. Uncultivated plants which attracted especial attention were noted 
including Erica arborea; Ranunculus re-pens the English buttercup, which has become natural- 
ized; and Chiloglottis the Green Bird Orchid, a clump of which was found in the top of a tree 
fern. The feature of the nursery, however, was the establishment of the flax industry, many 
acres of land being devoted to the culture of the New Zealand Flax, Phormium tenax. A 
flax mill has been installed. The flax plants are ready to cut at three years old, and subse- 
quently every three years for an indefinite period. The leaves are graded by throwing a 
bundle of them upright in a sunken cask. The different lengths are withdrawn and assembled 
in three grades. They are then scutched, the freed fiber washed, dried and bleached and the 
fiber is ready for baling and despatch to the rope mills. A ton of fiber is obtained from seven 
tons of leaves, whereas in New Zealand eight to ten tons of leaves are required to produce 
one ton of fiber. In New Zealand the flax grows best in swamps, while all of Mr. Nobelius' 
was hill grown. The local fiber is of superior quality — and graded "special" at the rope 
mills. — F. Detmcrs. 



No. 1, August, 1920J AGRONOMY 9 

51. Pltmen, F. J. Nitrate of soda as a manure for cotton. Agric. and Co-op. r, ;i /. 
[India] 15 7 : 10-11. 1919. — Nitrate of soda is strongly recommended as a fertilizer for cotton. 
Methods for application and instructions for storage arc given. — Winfield Dudg 

52. Poxsdomexech, J. Elementos quimicos necesarios a un terreno para cana. [Fer- 
tilizer necessary for sugar cane.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 489 493. 1919. 

53. Powers, W. L. The improvement of wild meadow and tule land. Jour. Amer. 
Peat Soc. 13: 1S-25. 1920. Oregon has about 500,000 acres of such land. There are two soil 
types — peat and silt loam. Its crop production can be greatly increased by regulating the 
water supply by drainage and irrigation. — G. B. Rigg. 

54. Richey, Frederick D. Formaldehyde treatment of seed corn. Jour. Amer. S 
Agron. 12: 39-43. 1920. — Seed corn was treated with solutions of 5, 15 and 25 cc. of formalde- 
hyde per liter. The weakest solution did not materially affect the vitality of the seed while 
the 15-cc. solution was injurious, as evidenced by the germination and development in sand. 
The treatment with 5 cc. per liter was markedly injurious. Fungus development was best 
checked by soaking the seed in a solution (5 cc. HCHO in 9.95 cc. of water) and "fuming" 
the seed for 2-24 hours. This treatmsnt did not interfere with the normal development 
of corn seedlings in water culture. — F. M. Schertz. 

55. Rixdl, M. Vegetable fats and oils. I. South African Jour. Indust. 3 : 14-23. 1920. 

56. Robsox, W. Cotton experiments. Report on the Agricultural Department, Mont- 
serrat, 1917-18: 3-12. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados, 1919. — Full account 
is given of the breeding and selection work with this crop done by the Agricultural Depart- 
ment. — J. S. Dash. 

57. Roemer, Tii. Die technik der Sortenpriifung. [The technique of variety testing.] 
Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 35-36. 1919. — As a result of experiments to determine the best 
experimental technique in variety tests, the author considers the following as important 
factors: (1) weather (2) kind of fruit (3) size of plats (4) shape of plats (5) number of replicate 
plats (6) number of plats for comparison (7) situation of the plats with regard to one another 
(8) treatment at harvest time. The field for the experiments should be carefully selected. 
There should be at least six replicates of each plat. Care should be taken to give each plat 
proper cultivation. The author also discusses the things to be considered in determining 
the quality of the yield. Among these are size of grain, susceptibility to fungous attack, and 
ability of the seeds to germinate. — John W. Roberts. 

58. Rosexfeld, A. H. Kavangire: Porto Rico's Mosaic Disease-Resisting Cane. In- 
ternal Sugar Jour. 22: 26-33. 1920. — An account of the history and behaviour of Kavangire 
in the Argentine is presented. — From investigations carried on for the purpose of combating 
the mosaic or mottling disease of sugar cane in Porto Rico, it was found that of 20 imported 
varieties there was one Japanese variety (Kavangire) which proved to be immune. This 
cane was obtained from the National Agricultural School in Tucuman, which in turn obtained 
the variety from the Experiment Station in Campinas, Brazil. When tried out at the Tucu- 
man Sugar Experiment Station, it showed on first germination remarkable vigor, dark color, 
high agricultural production, fair juice if left for late cropping, and extreme resistance to 
fungous disease and attacks of boring insects. — It is a typically thin Japanese bamboo t}-pe 
of cane, identical with the Uba variety of Natal and bears no relation to the Cavangerie which 
is a large soft red cane with faint black stripes. Experiments were continued with the variety 
under the name of Kavangire and a consignment of this variety was sent to the Federal Ex- 
periment Station at Mayaguez, Porto Rico. — Being resistant to root disease, borer and stem 
rot, and to frost, it requires less replanting than other varieties which reduces cost of pro- 
duction. Experiments at Tucuman with Kavangire in comparison with native striped and 
purple canes (Cheribon) show that the yield of cane per hectare as second, third, and fourth 



10 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

year stubble of Kavangire is in each case much greater than that of the local cane. One 
crop of plant and four of stubble gives an average yield of cane and sugar per hectare for 
Kavangire of three times that of the local striped cane. — The objections to this type of cane 
can be controlled and if the Kavangire turns out to be the only variety in Porto Rico immune 
to the mottling disease, it will be adopted as the staple cane of the Island. — E. Koch. 

59. Russell, E. J. Report on the proposed electrolytic treatment of seeds (Wolfryn 
Process) before sowing. Jour. Ministry Agric. Great Britain 26: 971-981. 1920. — Tests made 
chiefly with wheat, oats, and barley to determine the value of the electrolytic treatment of 
seeds before sowing gave uncertain results, with occasionally an increase, sometimes no 
influence, and at other times a reduction in yield. At present the treatment should be looked 
upon as an adventure which may or may not prove profitable. — M. B. McKay. 

60. Schander, R. Beobachtungen und Versuche iiber Kartoffeln und Kartoffelkrank- 
heiten im Sommer 1917. [Observations and investigations of potatoes and potato diseases in 
1917.] Fuhl. Landw. Zeit. 67: 204-226. / fig. 1918. — In general, uncut tubers are to be pre- 
ferred to cut tubers for seed. The practice of permitting the cut surfaces of seed potatoes to 
dry before planting seems to be inferior to direct planting; at least the yields are higher in 
the latter case. Spacing the plants 30 to 40 cm. apart in the row with the rows 50 to 60 cm. 
wide gives the highest net yields. In light soils the distance may be decreased while in heavy 
soils it may safely be increased. Varieties with red skin, notably variety Wohltman, pro- 
duced a number of tubers which were of a light color and contained red stripes. No explana- 
tion for this phenomenon has been given. The extreme dryness of the summer of 1917 delayed, 
and, in the early varieties, prevented the occurrence of late blight. On examination of the 
tubers, however, it was found that many were covered with mycelium of Phytophthura infes- 
tans. After all, is the fungus carried on the tubers and does it from them enter the stems and 
foliage? The stems and foliage seem to be least resistant to the fungus between the time of 
flowering and maturity. The best way to combat the fungus is to grow varieties which, at 
the time of the appearance of the fungus, are but little affected. — Ernst Artschwager. 

61. Shepherd, F. R. Cotton experiments. Report on the Agricultural Department, 
St. Kitts-Nevis, 1917-18: 7-14. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — 
Details given relating to selection work with cotton in the Colony ; boiling and flowering curves 
are included. — J. S. Dash. 

62. Stokes, Fred. The food value of vegetables. Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 21-30. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1857. 

63. Stormer, . Kelmungshemmungen bei blauen Lupinen. [A case of arrested 

germination in blue lupines.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 12. 1919. — The seeds of the 1918 
crop of blue lupines gave a germination percentage of only 24. However, a high percentage 
of germination (89 to 92 per cent) was obtained after treatment with concentrated sulphuric 
acid for 15 minutes, followed by a thorough washing with water and then drying. — John W. 
Roberts. 

64. Stormer, . Die Anwending von schwefelsauren Ammoniak und Kalkstickstoff 

als Kopfdiigung zu Winterroggen. [The use of ammonium sulphate and calcium nitrate as the 
principal fertilizers for winter rye.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 73-74, 83-84. 1919. 

65. Taylor, H. W. Tobacco culture. Harvesting [and curing. Rhodesia Agric. Jour. 
16:521-530. 6 fig. 1919. 

66. Trueman, J. M. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Nova Scotia Agricultural College 
and Farm. Part 2— Report of J. M. Trueman, Professor of Agriculture and Farm Superin- 
tendent. Prov. of Nova Scotia Ann. Rept. Secretary Agric. 1918: 26-50. 1919. 



No. 1, August, 1920] BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY 1 1 

67. Vendrell, Ernesto. Estudio sobre los abonos verdes en rotacion con las demas 
plantas cultivadas en Cuba. [Green manures in the rotation.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 
2 : 553-556. 1919. 

68. Vieillard, P. Notes sur le fonctionnement de quelques services de recherches 
agricoles de Java. [Notes on the functions of certain services of agricultural research in Java.] 
Bull. Agric. Inst, Sci. Saigon 1: 353-358. 1919. 

69. Waldron, L. R., and John C. Thtsell. Report of the Dickinson Sub-station for 
the years 1914 to 1918 inclusive. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 131. 8/ t p. 19 jig. 
1919. — Authors not jointly responsible. Yields are given for wheat, oats, barley, emmer, 
flax, maize, potatoes, and certain forage crops for the years indicated and for earlier years for 
certain crops. Also tables are presented showing the effect of the previous crop treatment 
and cultural treatment upon the succeeding crop, especially upon the wheat crop. Weather 
data are presented. — L. R. Waldron. 

70. Westover, H. I., and Samuel Garver. A cheap and convenient experimental 
silo. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 69-72. 1920. — Experiments conducted at Redfield, S. Dak- 
kota, showed that nearly all of the common plants can be preserved as silage which is readily 
eaten by cattle. Motor oil barrels were used as experimental silos. — F. M. Scher'z. 

71. Wilson, J., and F. J. Chittenden. Some further experiments with potatoes. 
Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 83-88. 1919. — I. Effect of spacing on yield. In 1917 nine different 
spacings were used. In 1918 more spacings, namely sixteen, were used ranging from 9 to 18 
inches between plants in the row. For spacings used in 1918 they reiterate their conclusions 
drawn in 1917 as follows: "(1) The greater the space given to the individual plant the greater 
the yield of that individual is likely to be. (2) The greater the number of plants on a given 
area the greater the yield from that area will be." In spacing the other important factors 
besides yield that must be given due consideration are "relative quantity of seed required," 
"convenience in cultivating among and earthing up the plants and the need of circulation 
of air as a preventative of disease." — II. Effect of different origin on yield of potatoes. The 
author is of the opinion that locality alone is not a guarantee of seed potatoes of high pro- 
ducing value. Other factors besides immaturity of seed potatoes at time of planting may be 
important. Emphasis is laid upon the importance of uniform condition of temperature and 
moisture in the soil during the growing and maturation periods. — H. A. Jones. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 

Lincoln W. Riddle, Editor 

72. Anonymous. Ethel Sargant. (1863-1918.) New Phytol. 18: 120-128. 2 fig. 1919. 
— This is an obituary account of Miss Sargant, with a critical appreciation of her botanical 
work. A bibliography of her papers is appended. — /. F. Lewis. 

73. Anonymous. Introduction of the sugar-cane into the West Indies. Agric. News 
[Barbados] 18: 242. 1919. — Information given is based principally on what is known of the 
life and voyages of Christopher Columbus, and it appears that sugar-cane was not indigenous 
to the West Indies but that it was introduced by Columbus on his second voyage about 1493. 
— J . S. Dash. 

74. Barber, C. A. Reminiscences of sugar cane work in India. International Sugar 
Jour. 21 : 390-395. 1919. — An historical account of the difficulty of cane growing in India due 
to faulty methods of cultivation and an attack of Colletolrickum falcatum is presented. Bar- 
ber worked out a system for cultivation and discovered resistant varieties which when intro- 
duced to the cultivators made cane growing successful. — E. Koch. 



12 BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY[ Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

75. Bonnier, G. Notice sur Viviand-Morel. Rev. Gen. Bot. 31: 5-9. 1919.— A brief 
sketch of M. Viviand-Morel (1843-1915), a French taxonomist whose researches dealt chiefly 
with the problem of elementary species. — L. W. Sharp. 

76. Chodat, R. Casimir De Candolle, 1836-1918. [Avec tin portrait.] Arch. Sci. 
Phys. Nat. Geneve v: 1: 5-28. 1919.— Anne Casimir De Candolle was born in Geneva, Feb. 
20, 1836, the son of Alph. De Candolle. He received a thorough training in physics, mathe- 
matics and chemistry in Paris under the direction of Berthelot. He then visited London 
where he remained for some time with the mycologist Berkeley. England became to him a 
second home; there he married the daughter of a fellow countryman and there his four chil- 
dren were born. De Candolle's botanical contributions were varied, including collaboration 
with his distinguished father on the Prodromus; but his love for the physical sciences led 
him mainly into the newer physiological fields of his day, and it was in these fields that he 
did his best work. De Candolle's strong human sympathies and great versatility won many 
close friends, and his death is widely lamented. One son, M. Augustin, continues the botan- 
ical labors of the family De Candolle, a race of outstanding botanists. — J. H. Faull. 

77. Farlow, W. G., Roland Thaxter, and L. H. Bailey. George Francis Atkinson. 
Amer. Jour. Bot. 6: 301-302. 1919. — A sketch of the life and work of Professor Atkinson. — 
E. W. Sinnolt. 

78. Fitzpatrick, Harry M. George Francis Atkinson. Science 49: 371-372. 1919. — 
An appreciation of Professor Atkinson as a teacher, investigator and friend, together with 
a brief resume of his life and work. — A. H. Chivers. 

79. Fitzpatrick, Harry M. Publications of George Francis Atkinson. Amer. Jour. 
Bot. 6: 303-308. 1919. — A compilation of 178 titles of Professor Atkinson's papers, arranged 
in chronological order. — E. W. Sinnott. 



80. Friedel, J. Notice sur Charles-Louis Gatin. Rev. Gen. Bot. 31: 65-74. Por- 
trait . 1919. — An account of the work of Charles-Louis Gatin (1877-1916), a French botanist 
who fell at Douaumont. In Algiers and at the Sorbonne he carried out a number of im- 
portant researches on the anatomy and physiology of germination in palms and certain other 
monocotyledonous families. A list of his 51 papers is given. — L. W. Sharp. 

81. Hamilton, A. G. List of papers and books on, or containing references to, the pol- 
lination of Australian plants. Australian Nat. 4: 81-86. 1919. 

82. Janvrin, C. E. The scientific writings of Thomas J. Burrill. Trans. Illinois Hoi- 
tic. Soc. 51: 195-201. 1918. — A complete bibliography of the scientific publications of this 
pioneer botanist is given. The first paper was in 1869 and the last in 1917. Most of the 
papers dealt with some phase of plant pathology. — H. W. Anderson. 

83. Krok, Th. O. B. En sallsynt botanisk skrift. [A rare botanical publication.] 
Bot. Notiser 1919: 165-166. 1919. — In the Royal Library at Stockholm, there is found a little 
publication of 31 unnumbered pages in small 8vo, entitled: "Catalogus plantarum Tain in 
excultis quam incultis locis prope Aboam superiori aestate masci abservatarum. In gratiam 
Philo-Botanicorum concinnatus. Ab Elia Til-Landz. Maij 1673, Aboae-Excusus a Petro 
llansonio." This is the only copy now known in existence. It contains the enumeration 
of 496 plants, wild and cultivated. A second edition was published in Abo 1683, enumerating 
536 plants. Til-Landz was born in 1640. His original name was Tillander, but after having 
been saved from a shipwreck, he changed it to Til-Landz, which means "on land." Linnaeus 
named Tillandsia of the Family Bromeliaceae after him. — P. A. Rydberg. 

84. Mangin,L. Paul Hariot (1854-1917). Notice necrologique. [Obituary notice.] Bull. 
Soc. Path. Veg. France 5: 65-70. [With portrait.] 1918. [Issued April 1919.]— The subject 
of this notice was the son of a pharmacist and was trained in the. same profession. His 



No. 1, August, 1920] BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY 13 

first botanical work was in connection with an expedition to Cape Horn. Upon hie return 
to Paris, he became associated with Van TlEGHEM in the Natural History Museum. Be 
chiefly interested in the algae and fungi. Later he gave special attention to the rusts, and 
became one of the founders of the Plant Pathological Society of France. At the time of his 
death, he was curator of the Crypt ogam ic Herbarium at the Jardin des Plantes. [See also 
next following Entry, 85.] — C. L. Shear. 

85. Mangin, L. Paul Hariot (1854-1917). Notice necrologique. [Obituary notice.) 
Bull. Trimest. Soc. Mycol. France 35: 4-11. 1919. — See also next preceding Entry, 84. 

86. Mitra, Sarat Chandra. On the use of the swallow-worts in the ritual, sorcery, 
and leechcraft of the Hindus and the Pre-Islamitic Arabs. Jour. Bihar and Orissa Research 
Society [Patna] 4:191-213,351-356. 1918. — Treats of religious beliefs and ritualistic practices 
with reference to Calolropis gigantca and C. procera. — B. Lavfer. 

87. [Nordstedt, C T. O.] [Swedish rev. of: Gertz, O. Christopher Rostii Her- 
barium Vivum i Lund.] Bot. Notiser 1918: 214. 1918. — A notice of a Pre-Linnean herbarium 
found in the University Library at Lund, Sweden. It has the title: "Herbarium vivum de 
anno 1610," and contains 372 plants. It became the property of the University in 1687. — 
P. A. Rydberg. 

88. Ostenfeld, C. H. Botanikeren Johan Lange. [John Lange, the botanist.] Bot. 
Tidsskr. 36: 175-181. 1918.— Address on the occasion of the commemoration of the birth of 
John Lange, author of the handbook of the Danish flora. This took place on March 20, 191S. 
— A. L. Bakke. 

89. Pamjviel, L. H. Recent literature on fungous diseases of plants. Rept. Iowa State 
Hortic. Soc. 53 : 185-225. 1918. — Contains abstracts of recent literature on fungous diseases 
of plants under the following heads, diseases of apple, pear or quince; diseases of the potato; 
tomato diseases; root crops and vegetable diseases; diseases of forest trees; miscellaneous dis- 
eases of fruits ; miscellaneous fungicides ; diseases of cereal and forage crops ; systematic papers, 
biographical and historical. Under the last topics are given a review of Whetzel's History of 
Phytopathology, and notices of R. H. Pearson, H. S. Coe, Geo. F. Atkinson, V. M. 
Spalding, Byron D. Halsted and P. H. Mell. — L. H. Pammcl. 

90. Roberts, H. F. The founders of the art of breeding. I. Jour. Heredity 10: 99-106. 
4 fig. 1919. — An historical discussion of the investigations and writings of the founders of the 
art of breeding. It is shown that sex was recognized in the date palm by the Babylonians 
and Assyrians but was forgotten. The Greek writers, Aristotle, Pliny and Theophrastus, 
commented upon the supposed nature of sex in plants, but it remained for Camerer, professor 
of Natural Philosophy in the University of Tubingen in 1694, to discover by actual experiment 
that pollination is indispensable to seed production. The article closes with a bibliography 
of the early publications. [See also next following Entry, 91.] — .1/. ./. Dorse y. 

91. Roberts, H. F. The founders of the art of breeding. II. Jour. Heredity 10: 147- 
152. 1 jig. 1919. — The second article describing the work of the early hybridists. Koelreuter 
published a series of articles from 1761 to 1766 in which he records the results of 136 experi- 
ments in crossing plants. To Koelreuter belongs the credit of having produced in 1760 the 
first plant hybrid — a cross between Nicoliana paniculata and N. rustica. He also experi- 
mented with other plants. The author points out, however, that Thomas Fairchild, an Eng- 
lishman, crossed two kinds of pinks 41 years previous to the experiments of Koelreuter, and 
that Richard Bradley, who wrote of the experiments of Fairchild, had, two years before 
this (1717), removed the anthers from twelve tulips in a remote corner of the garden and found 
that they produced no seeds, while some four hundred others in another section of the garden 
produced seeds freely. Still others experimented with sex in plants before the work of Koel- 
reuter. In 1739 James Logan, governor of Pennsylvania, found that when isolated corn plants 



14 BOTANICAL EDUCATION [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

were detasseled, or the ears covered before pollination, no seeds developed. He showed the 
direct relation of the tassels to seed production by cutting the tassels off of a portion of the 
ear before pollination, in which case he found that that portion from which the tassels were 
cut bore no grains. Philip Miller repeated the experiments of Bradley in 1741. In 1750 
Gleditsch published a learned account of his experiments in the palm. A pistillate palm 
some eighty years old had never fruited but when pollinated with "male" pollen bore fruit, 
the seeds of which germinated in 1751. Thus between the time of Camerarius and Koelreu- 
ter a number of experimenters were investigating sex in plants, but these experiments ap- 
peared to have had but little influence upon the scientific thought of their day. Following 
these experiments Sprengel (1750-1816) first showed the extent of insect pollination. In the 
early 19th century the work of Andrew Knight and William Herbert in England and 
Gartner in Germany is outstanding. The author shows that there were many breaks in 
the trend of thought regarding sex in plants up to the time of the publication of Mendel's 
papers in 1866. [See also next preceding Entry, 90.] — M. J. Dorsey. 

92. Romell, L. Svamplitteratur, sarskilt for studium av hymenomyceter (hattsvampar) . 
[Mycological literature, especially for the study of the hymenomycetes (cap fungi).] Svensk. 
Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 110-112. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 680. 

93. Rosen vinge, L. Kolderup. Jacob Severin Deichmann Branth. Bot. Tidsskr. 36: 
213-218. 1918. — A biographical sketch of Branth, the well known student of the lichens 
of Denmark. — A. L. Bakke. 

94. Shear, C. L., and Neil E. Stevens. The mycological work of Moses Ashley 
Curtis. Mycologia 11: 181-201. 1919. — The life and work of Curtis as revealed mainly 
through his correspondence is presented in a thorough manner. He was not only a mycolo- 
gist but also a student of flowering plants and lichens. He collected lichens at the sugges- 
tion of Tuckerman (1845) , and then turned his attention to the fungi (1846) . In 1848 appeared 
his first mycological paper, in which he acknowledges indebtedness to Berkeley for assistance 
in its preparation. From 1846 to 1872 he corresponded with Berkeley, exchanging notes and 
specimens of fungi and thus making possible the important mycological contributions which 
appeared under their joint authorship. Curtis's original herbarium now forms part of the 
Farlow Herbarium of Harvard University. Among other institutions which are known to 
have collections of Curtis's fungi are the Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, England; the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture, the New York State Museum, and the University of Nebraska. 
— //. R. Rosen. 

95. Stevens, N. E. Two southern botanists and the Civil War. Sci. Monthly 9: 157- 
166. 1919. — Rev. M. A. Curtis and H. W. Ravenel were distinguished for their contribu- 
tions to botany, especially in the field of mycology. The letters of these two botanists to 
each other and to others are quoted and commented upon. In those days as well as in the 
world war just ending, the botanist placed his knowledge at the disposal of his country. — 
L. Pace. 

96. Whetzel, H. H. George Francis Atkinson. Bot. 'Gaz. 67: 366-368. Fig. 1919.— 
A biographical sketch. 

BOTANICAL EDUCATION 

C. Stuart Gager, Editor 
Alfred Gundersen, Assistant Editor 

97. A[damson], R. S. The quadrat method. [Rev. of: Weaver, J. E. The quadrat 
method in teaching ecology. Plant World 21: 267-283. 7 fig. 1918.] Jour. Ecol. 7: 216. 
1919. 

98. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Bower, F. O. Botany of the living plant. Macmillan and 
Co.: New York, 1919.] New Phytol. 18: 259-261. 1919. 



No. 1, August, 1920] BOTANICAL EDUCATION 15 

99. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Cork, M. T. Applied economic botany. £61 p., 1',: fig. 
J. B. Lippincott: Philadelphia, 1919.] Amer. Bot. 25: 110-117. Aug., 1919.— "One of the first 
books to indicate an approaching change in the subject matter of plant studies." — Reviewer. 

100. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Ellis, G. S. M. Applied botany, viii + 248 p. 67 fig. 2 
maps. Hodder & Stoughton. "One of the new teaching series of practical text-books."] 
Jour. Botany 58: 93-94. 1920. 

101. Bancroft, Wilder T. [Rev. of: Buisson, Ferdinand, and Frederick E. Far- 
rington. French educational ideals of today. 21 X 14 cm., xii + 326 p. Yonkers-on-Hudson: 
World Book Company, 1919. $2.25.] Jour. Phys. Chem. 24: 80. 1920.— "It is a good book 
and an interesting one" but the title is misleading for "it does not help the university teacher 
with his problems and never was intended to." — H. E. Pulling. 

102. Boulger, G. S. [Rev. of: Martin, John N. Botany for agricultural students. 
x 4- 585 p.] Jour. Botany 58: 29-30. 1920. 

103. Buckman, H. C. The teaching of elementary soils. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 
55-57. 1920. — The paper discusses the placing of soil science on a sound theoretical pedagogi- 
cal basis. — F. M. Schertz. 

104. Clute, Willard N. Plant names and their meanings. Amer. Bot. 25: 122-129. 
1919. — The derivation of scientific and vernacular names of the Ranunculaceae discussed. — 
W. N. Clute. 

105. Davis, Bradley M. Introductory courses in botany. School Sci. Math. 20: 52- 
56. Jan., 1920. — Outline No. 7. Structure and function, breeding, economic plants, plant 
communities. Activities and structure showing adaptation emphasized. Outline No. 8. 
Parts of seed plants, the cell, functions, life histories, plant families, evolution. Emphasis 
on philosophical aspects. Outline No. 9. History of botany, soil, root, transpiration, photo- 
synthesis, respiration, growth, reproduction. Classification. Emphasis on functions. Out- 
line No. 10. Structure and function of tissues 3 weeks, reproduction 3 weeks, survey of plants: 
thallophytes 4 weeks, higher plants 3 weeks. [See also next following Entry, 106.] — 
A. Gundersen. 

10G. Davis, Bradley M. Introductory courses in botany IV. School Sci. Math. 20: 
352-360. April, 1920.— Outline No. 11. Water relations of plants, nutrition, growth, seeds. 
Dependent plants. Principal groups of independent plants, industries, plant geography.— 
No. 12. Seed plant, composite flowers, herbarium of autumn flowers, weeds, pollination, seeds, 
trees, fall gardens. Algae, bacteria, etc.— No. 13. Plant as a whole. Seeds, fruits, bacteria, 
yeast, algae and main groups. Last forestry, gardening, orcharding.— No. 14. Nasturtium 
or Bouncing Bet and composite. Weeds, fruits, bulbs, bacteria, algae, etc., ending with 
leaves and flowers.— No. 15. Morphology of common plants, physiology, commercial products. 
Trees, soils, wild flowers, weeds. Decorative planting, plant breeding, seeds, ecology, the 
cell, algae, fungi, field trips.— No. 16. Algae, bacteria, fungi, gymnosperms, plant physiol- 
ogy, water relations, soils, monocotyledons and dicotyledons, roots, fertilization, budding, 
fertilizers, weeds, visits to farms. [See also next preceding Entry, 105.]— A. Gundersen. 

107. Giles, J. K. Corn club lessons. Georgia State Coll. Agric. Bull. 193. 20 p., 3 
fig. 1920.— Contains ten lessons for the Corn Club boys, as follows: No. 1, History of corn 
{Zea Mays); No. 2, Fall preparation; No. 3, Preparation of the seed bed; No. 4, Seed corn; 
No. 5, Planting; No. 6, Cultivation; No. 7, Selection of seed corn; No. 8, Grow legumes in your 
corn; No. 9, Selecting exhibits— score card; No. 10, Diseases and insect pests.— T. II. 
McHatton. 



16 BOTANICAL EDUCATION [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

108. Prain, David, and others. Report of the Committee on the Royal Botanic Society. 
Royal Bot. Soc. London Quarterly Summary and Meteorological Readings 2: 4-8. Oct., 1919. 
— The committee was appointed by Lord Ernie to inquire and report what steps should be 
taken to render the work of the Royal Botanical Society of London as useful as possible from 
the scientific and educational point of view. The committee recommends the establishment 
of 1. A school of economic botany; 2. A research institute with special reference to plant 
physiology; 3. A center for teaching horticulture; 4. Courses in school gardening especially 
for teachers. The report continues with suggestions for buildings and equipment to cost 
about £5,500 and the organization of a staff involving an annual budget of £3,000- £3,500 
(= pre-war, say £2 ,000- £2,250). It is also suggested that the new institute should cooperate 
with local colleges and botany schools by supplying material for teaching and research. [See 
also abst. from London Times, in Science 51 : 58. 1920.] — C. S. Gager. 

109. Randall, J. L. Gardening as a part of city education. Xat. Study Rev. 16:95-97. 
1920. — There is an imperative demand for a new education. The school directed home garden 
is the most economic form of gardening for small cities and the suburbs of larger cities. In 
congested parts of large cities school or vacant lot gardens must be substituted. Teachers 
may receive information from United States School Garden Army, Bureau of Education, 
Washington, D. C. — A. Gundersen. 

110. Shaw, Ellen Eddy. Efficiency aids to garden work. Nat. Study Rev. 16: 89-94. 
1920. — Suggestions to garden teachers in children's work on ways of preparing children for 
their outdoor work, and on methods of planning and planting a garden, where children have 
individual plots. The use of the older boys and girls as junior assistant teachers is recom- 
mended. Hints for registration of children and keeping of garden crop records. — A. G under- 
sell. 

111. Smith, Arthur. A lesson on soil formation and its bacteria. Gard. Chron. Amer. 
24:109-410. 1920. 

112. Smith, R. S. Introductory courses in soils. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 5S-60. 
1920. — The paper states in broad terms a tentative outline of the general purpose to be at- 
tained by an introductory soils course. — F. M. Schertz. 

113. Stevens, F. L. Practical botany. [Rev. of: (1) Cook, M. T. Applied economic 
botany. 261 p., 142 fig. J. B. Lippincott: Philadelphia, 1919 (see Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 491); 
(2) Martin, J. N. Botany for agricultural students. SS5 p., 488 fig. John Wiley and Sons: 
New York, 1919 (see Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2165).] Bot. Gaz. 63: 307-308. 1919.— Cook's work 
is "written in attractive style, and the material is well-selected, and is a commendable effort 
to differentiate secondary-school botany from university botany. The numerous half-tones 
are of unusually good quality." In Martin's work "the presentation is botanical rather than 
agricultural. The line drawings are not as well done or as accurate as they should be, and the 
illustrations in general are in contrast with the excellent presswork and the easy and pleasing 
style of presentation." — //. C. Cowles. 

114. Trelease, Sam F. Laboratory exercises in agricultural botany. College Cooper- 
ative Co., Inc.: College of Agriculture, Los Bafios, P. I. April, 1919. — Contains 109 pages 
covering directions for laboratory study for agricultural students as follows: Part I. Physio- 
logical Plant Anatomy, including general characteristics of the plant, seed, plant cell, root, 
stem, leaf, flower, fruit; Part II. Systematic Botany, including I. Primitive organisms 
(Bacteria, Cyanophyceae, Flagellaia, Myxomycetes, Diatomeae), II. Plants (Algae, Fungi, 
Dryophyla, Spermatophyta) . The guide has been prepared for use with Copeland's "The 
first year of Botany," a multigraphed text in use at the College of Agriculture, Los Banos. — 
C. S. Gager. 



No. 1, August, 1920] CYTOLOGY 17 

115. Waller, A. E. Xenia. School Sci. Math. 19: 150-157. Feb., 1919.— Historical 
and popular account of xenia, from both a genetic and cytological standpoint. Several il- 
lustrations of xenia given, and simple demonstration experiments with maize characters, of 
instructional value, suggested. [Sec also Bot. Ahsts. 5. Entry 496.] — Orland E. White. 

CYTOLOGY 

Gilbert M. Smith, Editor 
George S. Bryan, Assistant Editor 

116. Bobilioff, W. De inwendige bouw der schorselementen ven Hevea brasiliensis. 
(The structure of cell elements in the bark of Hevea brasiliensis.] Arch. Rubbercult. Neder- 
landsch-Indie' 3 : 222-231. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 546. 

117. Carter, Nellie. The cytology of the Cladophoraceae. Ann. Botany 33: 467^78. 
/ pi., 2 fig. 1919. — The chloroplast in Cladophora, Chaetomorpha and Rhizoclonium consists 
of a parietal film lining the cell wall and often more or less reticulated. Pyrenoids are very 
numerous and scattered in both the peripheral and internal parts of the chloroplast. The 
nuclei are confined almost invariably to the chloroplast, not being found as a general rule in 
the colorless cytoplasm. During mitosis the nucleus of Rhizoclonium and Cladophora is char- 
acterized by the formation of a long thin spireme, which gives rise to very numerous chromo- 
somes. After the migration of the chromosomes to the opposite poles of the spindle the daugh- 
ter nuclei are separated by constriction of the spindle in the region of the equator. — G. S. 
Bryan. 

118. Carter, Nellie. On the cytology of two species of Characiopsis. New Phytol. 
18: 177-186. 3 fig. 1919. — Characiopsis saccata n. sp. and Ch. Naegclii (A. Br.) Lemm. are 
treated. The cytological features of the vegetative cells were found to differ in important 
respects in the two species. Zoogonidangia were not found. The cytology of Char actum 
angustum is also described, in which the regular successive cleavage of the protoplast con- 
trasts strongly with the progressive cleavage found in Ch. Sieboldii by Smith. — /. F. Lewis. 

119. Chambers, Robert. Changes in protoplasmic consistency and their relation to cell 
division. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2: 49-68. 1919. — The author has continued his microdissection 
studies with dividing eggs of Arbacia and Asterias. Periodic changes in the consistency of 
the egg cytoplasm after fertilization and during cleavage are described. It is shown that 
the development of the amphiaster is associated with the formation of two semisolid masses 
within the more fluid egg substance. After the cleavage furrow has completed the separa- 
tion of the two blastomeres, the semisolid masses revert to a more fluid state. By various 
treatments the formation of a cleavage furrow may be prevented following which the egg 
reverts to a single, spherical, semifluid mass with two nuclei. An egg mutilated in its semi- 
solid state may revert to a more fluid state in which case the furrow becomes obliterated, the 
nuclei tend to more to positions which may assure symmetry in aster formation and a new 
cleavage furrow is developed, or the cleavage furrow may persist until cleavage is completed, 
cutting off non-nucleated segments. — O. F. Curtis. 

120. Coulter, M. C. A new conception of sex. [Rev. of: Jones, W. N. On the nature 
of fertilization and sex. New Phytol. 17: 167-188. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 637.)] 
Bot. Gaz. 68:68-69. 1919. 

121. Gatenbt, J. Bronte. Identification of intracellular structures. Jour. Roy. Mi- 
crosc. Soc. London 2 : 93-119. 14 fig. 1919. — The author tries to show certain results in prac- 
tical histo-chemistry from the cytologist's point of view. Every animal cell is composed of 
the following fairly sharply marked bodies; nucleus, cytoplasm and centrosome. The cyto- 
plasm is composed of (1) protoplasmic or living inclusions such as mitrochondria, Golgi appar- 
atus and possibly other less numerous enigmatic protoplasmic granules; (2) deutoplasmic 

BOTANICAL, ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. t 



18 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

inclusions (dead) containing yolk, fat or oil, glycogen or starch, and pigment when not united 
with mitochondria; (3) ground protoplasm or cytoplasm (living). This classification is par- 
ticularly true of embryonic or indifferent cells and other cells containing many secondary 
formations derived from various sources in the differentiation of the cell. He also gives the 
nomenclature of cell division, saying that every cell undergoes the process of karyokinesis 
which involves the division of the chromatin; dictyokinesis which involves the division of 
the Golgi apparatus; chondrokinesis, the division of the mitochondria. All three processes 
are preceded by the division of the centrosome, which is possibly stimulated to divide by the 
nucleus and is therefore called "centrokinesis." He describes at length the various inclusions 
of the cells emphasizing their morphological distinctions, their chemical constitution, and 
also tabulates the chemical and staining tests for these cytoplasmic and deutoplasmic inclu- 
sions. Formal metallic methods for detecting cell inclusions have a future before them. 
The chromeosmium tetroxide fixatives at present give the best results, but great improvement 
in the manufacture of microscopic lenses is necessary. — Julia Moesel Haber. 

122. Levine, Michael. Life history and sexuality of Basidiornycetes. [Rev. of: Ben- 
satjde, Mathilde. Recherches sur le cycle evolutif et la sexualite chez les Basidiornycetes. 
156 p., 13 pi., 30 fig. Nemours, 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 347.)] Bot. Gaz. 68: 67-68. 
1919. 

123. Mirande, Marcel. Sur la formation cytologique de i'amidon et de l'huile dans 
l'oogone des Chara. [Formation of starch and oil in the egg of Chara.] Compt. rend. Acad. 
Sci. Paris 168: 528-529. 1919. — The cytoplasm of the young egg of Chara is crowded with 
mitochondria. Numerous clear vesicles appear, which enlarge greatly, forcing the mito- 
chondria into dark staining lines around the clear areas. Starch grains appear in the vesicles 
and the result in the mature egg is a ''mitochondrial pseudo-parenchyma" in which the starch 
grains are embedded. The mitochondria are the primordia of amyloplasts. — Oil appears 
in the young egg as minute droplets, which increase in size as the egg matures. In the older 
stages the drops occur in the meshes of the "mitochondrial pseudo-parenchyma." They are 
not the products of special mitochondria, and may be secreted by the amylogenes themselves. 
— F. B. Wann. 

124. Molisch, Hans. Das Plasmamosaik in den Raphidenzellen der Orchideen Hae- 
maria und Anoectochilus. [Plasma mosaic in raphid cells of the orchids Haemaria and Anoecto- 
chilus.] Sitzungsber. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien (Math.-Nat. Kl.) 126: 231-242. PI. 1. 1917. 

125. Putterill, Victor Armsby. Notes on the morphology and life history of Uromyces 
Aloes Cke. South African Jour. Sci. 15:656-662. PL 22-23, fig. 1-6. 1919— See Bot, Absts. 
4, Entry 1153. 

126. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. Miscellaneous 
topics. New Phytol. 18: 129-176. Fig. 64-78. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 720. 

127. Stalfelt, M. G. Uber die Schwankungen in der Zellteilungsfrequens bei den Wur- 
zeln von Pisum sativum. [Variations in the frequency of cell division in the roots of Pisum 
sativum.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholml 13 ■ 61-70. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 945. 

FOREST BOTANY AND FORESTRY 

Raphael Zon, Editor 
J. V. Hofmann, Assistant Editor 

128. Agan, Joseph E. Brazilian fibers. Bull. Pan-American Union 50: 394-404. 4 pi- 
1920. — Seven fibers of importance are discussed briefly. These are "Piassava," from the 
bark of the palms Attalca funifera Mart, and Leopoldina piassaba Wall. This fiber is now 
used in the United States for the manufacture of snow sweepers for street cars. "Piteira 



>> 



No. 1, August, 1920] FORESTRY 19 

is obtained from the leaves of Fourcroya gigantea Vent. "Aramine" '>r "Guaxima Etoxa," 
from the trunk of Urcna lobata L., is use! in making bags. II < L. furnishes 

another fiber of value for manufacturing bags. Sid a rhombifolia L. and S. cordifolia L. fur- 
nish good fiber, but the wild plants are small with crooked branches. '<' a" (Ana 
aagenaria Schult.) and "Gravata de Gaucho" (Bromelia karat as L.) are also common. The 
possibilities of growing and of using these fiber plants arc discussed.— 0. II. B\ \by. 

129. Andrf.ws, Eliza F. Oddities in tree stems. Amer. Forest. 25: 1476-1478. 7 fig. 
1919. 

130. Anonymous. ''Black bean" or "Moreton Bay chestnut." Australian Forest. Jour. 
2: 14, 19. 1919. — A brief account of the silvical characteristics of Castanospermum australe 
A. Cunn. — C. F. Korstian. 

131. Anonymous. Blackboy and its commercial uses. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 178. 
1919. — A brief note on Xanthorrhoe preissii of Western Australia. This species yields a res- 
inous powder which, when heated, forms lumps known locally as "blackboy gum," from which 
glucose, treacle, scents, alcohol, picric acid and certain tar products, and from these latter 
again two dyes have been obtained. — C. F. Korstian. 

132. Anonymous. A complete wood preserving plant mounted on cars. Sci. Amer. Sup- 
plem. 88: 332-333. 4 fig. 1919. [From the Railway Age.] 

133. Anonymous. Gathering chicle gum for American gum chewers. Sci. Amer. Sup- 
plem. 88: 172. 3 fig. 1919. — Describes the process of obtaining chicle gum from the nase- 
berry (Achras sapola), a tree of Central and tropical South America. — Chas. H. Otis. 

134. Anonymous. Grass tree fibre. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 175. 1919. — A brief 
note on the kingia grass tree which at present is used mainly in manufacturing coarse brooms 
and brushes, but which is believed to possess qualities making it suitable for insulating mater- 
ial for freezing works. — C. F. Korstian. 

135. Anonymous. Hints on storing timber to prevent decay. Sci. Amer. 120: 359-360. 
1919. 

136. Anonymous. Kiln drying oak for vehicles. Sci. Amer. 120: 343. 1919. 

137. Anonymous. Laboratory tests in built-up wood. Sci. Amer. 121: 606. 1919. 

138. Anonymous. "Napoleon willow" dying. Amer. Forest. 24: 1414. 1 fig. 1919. 

139. Anonymous. New uses for balsa wood. Sci. Amer. 121: 559. 1919. 

140. Anonymous. Preparing cork for shipment. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 200-201. S 
fig. 1919. 

141. Anonymous. Steaming of vehicle stock during kiln drying. Sci. Amer. 120: 360. 
1919. 

142. Anonymous. Valuable wandoo. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 213. 1919.— A brief 
note on characteristics of Eucalyptus redunca. — C. F. Korstian. 

143. Anonymous. Western Australian tuart. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 174— 175. 1919. 
— A note on the characteristics of Eucalyptus gomphocophala. C. F. Korstian. 

144. Anonymous. What are naval stores? Sci. Amer. 121: 328. 1919. 



20 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V , 

145. Anonymous. Holztrocknung durch kalte Luft. [The drying of wood by means of 
cold air.] Naturwissenschaften 7: 353. 1919. — A review of an article appearing in the Quar- 
terly Journal of Forestry. — Orion L. Clark. 

146. Anonymous. Un bon exemple a suivre. [A good example to follow.] Bull. Trimest. 
Soc. Forest. Franche-Comt6 et Belfort 13 : 55-56. 1919. — The city council of Epinal on May 3, 
1919, adopted a resolution urging that the fines for forest trespass provided by Article 192 
of the Code forestier be increased and that the penalty of imprisonment be restored, at least 
to the extent of making it optional in the case of habitual offenders. The example set by Epi- 
nal should be widely followed and every effort made to secure legislation which will more ade- 
quately protect the forests, particularly in the vicinity of cities. — S. T. Dana. 

147. Anonymous. Ce que valent les chenes sur pied. [Oak stumpage values.] Bull. 
Trimest. Soc. Forest. Franche-Comt6 et Belfort 13: 53-55. 1919. — Stumpage prices of oak 
timber in eastern France have approximately doubled since 1916, while the prices of many 
other commodities are three or even four times what they were before the war. Taking into 
account the decreased purchasing power of money, oak stumpage, in spite of the apparent 
increase in price, is worth relatively less than it was a few years ago. Owners of timber of 
good quality would therefore do well to hold it for the further increase in price which is sure 
to take place. — S.T. Dana. 

148. Anonymous. La foret de Haguenau (etude d'un forestier francaise. [A study of 
the forest of Haguenau.] Bull. Trimest. Soc. Forest. Franche-Comte" et Belfort 13: 117-146. 
1919. — The historic forest of Haguenau, owned jointly by the State and the city of Haguenau, 
comprises an almost unbroken expanse of 13,699 hectares in northern Alsace between the 
Rhine and the Vosges. It is situated on a practically level plain with a heavy, impermeable 
clay subsoil, generally overlain with a mixture of sand and clay in varying proportions. The 
area as a whole is cold, poorly drained, and in spots marshy. The continuity of the forest, 
which has decreased comparatively little in size since the middle ages, is doubtless due to the 
fact that the soil is in general unsuitable for cultivation. Injuries from frost, snow-break, 
and windfall are not uncommon and are at times severe. There is also more or less damage 
from animals (chiefly deer), insects (chiefly May beetles), various fungi, and, rarely, fire. 
Scotch pine forms 50 per cent of the stand, oak 30 per cent, hornbeam 8 per cent, and beech 
6 per cent. Scotch pine grows rapidly up to 70 or 80 years of age, and ordinarily reaches ma- 
turity at about 120 years, with a height of from 28 to 30 metres and a diameter of 60 centi- 
meters. It accommodates itself to all except the most marshy sites; is ordinarily rather poorly 
formed, but produces wood of excellent quality; and forms rather open stands which at matur- 
ity seldom have more than 200 trees per hectare. Seed years occur annually after 50 years 
of age with particuarly heavy crops every 3 or 4 years. Oak, which formerly occupied a much 
more important place in the forest, thrives best in the alluvial soils along stream bottoms 
and produces a fine-grained wood which is much sought after, particularly for ship-building. 
Although it often attains a much greater age, it ordinarily matures at from 150 to 180 years 
with a height of from 25 to 30 meters and a diameter of 70 centimeters to 1 meter. Seed crops, 
which are much less frequent than formerly, occur at intervals of approximately 7 years, with 
full crops not oftener than once in 50 years. Hornbeam is of little value except as a filler 
and is often more or less of a weed tree. Beech was formerly much more abundant than at 
present, but has been increasing in importance again since 1870 because of its frequent use 
by the Germans for underplanting with pine and oak. Herbaceous vegetation is generally 
abundant, some times to the extent of interfering with reproduction, and local residents de- 
rive a considerable revenue from the abundant crops of whortleberry. The forest is more 
or less burdened with rights of use, most of which date back to time immemorial, and consid- 
erable damage has been done to the soil by the constant removal of the hardwood leaf litter. 
Transportation facilities and markets are good. — Prior to the seventeenth century, the forest 
of Haguenau appears to have been regarded as chiefly valuable for pasturage. The first real 
attempts at forest regulation were made in 1695, and it was not until 1845 that a complete 



No. 1, August, 1920] FORESTRY 21 

and systematic plan of forest management was put into effect. This plan was followed until 
after the Franco-Prussian war, when, in 1874, it was revised by the German foresters. The 
latter completely reorganized the division of the forest into blocks, compartments, and sub- 
compartments; determined on the management of the entire area as high forest (nearly 7 
per cent had been handled by the French as coppice under standards); fixed the rotation for 
Scotch pine at 70 to 120 years, and for oak at 1G0 years; and arranged the cutting series so 
as to progress against the direction of the prevailing winds. Natural reproduction by the 
shelterwood system, which was almost uniformly used by the French, was at first employed 
by the Germans as well, but was gradually abandoned in favor of artificial reproduction. Dur- 
ing the last years of German management Scotch pine was reproduced almost entirely by di- 
rect seeding in strips, supplemented when necessary by planting; while oak was reproduced 
chiefly by the planting of 3-year-old transplants, and occasionally by direct seeding in strips. 
Thinnings were practised every 7 to 10 years, frequent and moderate thinnings being preferred 
to less frequent and heavier ones. In the judgment of the French foresters the Germans 
tended to favor too dense a stocking, both at the establishment of the stands and later. 
Underplanting of beech, chiefly to improve soil conditions, was common, wild seedlings gen- 
erally being used for the purpose. A few of the best trees (from 15 to 25 per hectare) were 
nearly always reserved at the final cutting for the production of large-sized material. The 
practice of selling stumpage, which had been followed by the French, was superseded under 
German management by logging by the forest administration. The net revenue from the 
forest increased from 44 francs per hectare in the period from 1889 to 1900 to 57 francs in 
1912-1914 and to 120 francs in 1915-1918. The recent war led to the turpentining by the Ger- 
mans of the Scotch pine. The total cut remained about the same but the proportion of pine 
increased while that of oak decreased. Thinnings were neglected, stock accumulated in the 
nurseries, and the regeneration of cut-over areas did not keep pace with the cuttings. Od 
the whole, however, the war did not seriously interfere with the management of the fores* 
which is still in good condition. — S. T. Dana. 

149. Anonymous. Historique d'une coupe. [History of a cutting area.] Bull. Trimest. 
Soc. Forest. Franche-Comte et Belfort 13: 51-53. 1919. — In 1844 steps were taken to convert a 
cutting area of 7.23 hectares, chiefly oak with a little beech, in the communal forest of Corra- 
villers on the borders of the Vosges, into coppice under standards. Since 1S44 there have 
been three cuttings of standards at regular intervals of 25 years. The records show that the 
yields in fuel and bark secured from these successive cuttings have remained approximately 
constant. The transformation of the stand from pure coppice into coppice under standards 
has therefore been accomplished without loss in current yield, and the timber contained in 
the boles of the standards represents clear gain. As a result of the transformation the money 
value of the yield has increased from 460 to 680 francs per hectare. Still better results would 
have been obtained in a more moderate climate and a more fertile soil than that of the Vosges. 
— S. T. Dana. 

150. Anonymous. Notre domaine forestier et la guerre. (Extrait du Bulletin d'infor- 
mations du G. Q. G.) [Our forest domain and the war.] Bull. Trimest. Soc. Forest. Franche- 
Comte" et Belfort 13: 43-46. 1919.— The forest area of 600,000 hectares included in that part 
of France lying in the war zone suffered severely both as a result of battle and of its extensive 
exploitation by the French themselves and more particuarly by the Germans. The latter 
not only used wood lavishly in the zone of operations but shipped considerable quantities 
back to Germany in order to save their own resources and to cripple France, which in 1913 
imported 177,000,000 francs' worth of wood, for the post-war competition. Direct damages 
to the forests in the war zone are estimated roughly to amount to 1,400,000,000 francs, and 
indirect damages to 260,000,000 francs; while the forests in other parts of France also suffered 
serious damage because of the tremendous consumption necessitated by the war and by lack of 
tonnage. While the forests are recovering, France should meet its needs for wood, which 
are still great, by utilizing part of the enormous reserves offered by its colonies. The 
German possessions in the Kamerun, one of the most richly forested countries in Africa, will 
offer partial compensation for the devastation of the French forests caused by the war. — 
S. T. Dana. 



22 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

151. Anonymous. Wattle and wattle growing. Australian Forest. Jour. 3: 45-46. 1920. 
— A note on the growing of various species of acacia and the products of the destructive dis- 
tillation of black wattle wood. — C. F. Korstian. 

152. Arias, Bernardo. Un sustituto del corcho. [A substitute for cork.] Revist. 
Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 493-497. 3 fig. 1919. — In this article attention is called to the tree 
Ochroma lagopus Sw. as a native tree valuable for planting because of the lightness of its 
wood, its rapid growth, medicinal properties and the wool or fiber in its fruits. — F. M. Blodgett. 

153. Badotjx, H. Die Waldreservationen in der Schweiz. [Forest reserves in Switzer- 
land.] Schweiz. Zeitsch. Forstwesen 71: 2-4. 1920. — The policy for acquiring national for- 
ests was approved in 1906, and in 1910 three forest reserves were approved involving a total 
area of about 50 hectares. These areas were in effect leased by the government for periods 
of 25 and 60 years. The policy of the continuation of the forests was left to be determined 
when the period of lease expires. Some areas were paid up for the entire term, and others are 
paid by annual installments. — J. V. Hofmann. 

s 

154. Bailey, W. A. Artificial regeneration in sal forests. Indian Forester 45: 519-521. 
1919. — Coppice overtops planted stock after cuttings in sal forests. To prevent this planting 
is now made about five years in advance of the opening of the stand giving the planted stock 
an opportunity to develop and become dominant at the start. — E. N. Munns. 

155. Barbey, A. Les forests Suisse pendant la guerre. [The Sv/iss forests during the 
war.] Bull. Trimest. Soc. Forest. Franche-Comte et Belfort 13: 46-51. 1919. — Administra- 
tion of the 982,000 hectares of forest lands in Switzerland, one-fourth of the total area of the 
country, is decentralized. Cantonal forests comprise 4 per cent of the forest area, communal 
forests 67 per cent, and private forests 29 per cent. There are no national forests, and the 
national forest service employs only 17 professional foresters. It contributes, however, to 
the salaries of the cantonal forest officers; supervises the use made of subsidies granted to the 
cantons; administers the federal forest law; provides technical instruction at the forest school 
at Zurich; and directs the forest experiment station. — At the outbreak of the war construction 
was automatically arrested and cutting materially decreased. After ten or twelve months, 
however, the foreign demand for timber and the native demand for wood fuel (due to the 
scarcity of coal), resulted in a steadily increasing cut. In 1916 wood exports, which before the 
war had been from 40,000,000 to 50,000,000 francs a year less than wood imports, exceeded the 
latter by 68,000,000 francs. The increased cut was accompanied by increased prices, fuel 
doubling and timber trebling in value in three years or less. Little or no overcutting took 
place in the public forests, but was more or less marked in the private forests, where advant- 
age was taken of the extraordinary demand to improve the stands by the removal of many 
old reserves which before the war could not be marketed profitably. Strict supervision was 
exercised over all cuttings, a federal decree in 1917 requiring a permit for all cuttings of 20 
cubic meters or more and fixing a fine of from 10 to 40 francs per cubic meter for all cuttings 
made without a permit. Moreover, measures were taken to maintain and if possible to in- 
crease the future productivity of the forest. For instance, in the Canton of Vaud, the number 
of inspectors was increased so that the average area under the supervision of each was reduced 
from 7,300 to 4,000 hectares. This example should be followed by other cantons as a means 
of increasing production and of rendering Switzerland independent of foreign supplies. An 
increase of only 1.1 cubic meters per hectare in the annual growth of the 600,000 hectares of 
communal forests would be sufficient to wipe out the present deficit of 700,000 cubic meters, 
but this can hardly be expected as long as the average area under the supervision of a technical 
forester remains as high as 8,570 hectares. — S. T. Dana. 

156. Beeson, C. F. C. Food plants of Indian forest insects. Part IV. Indian Forester 
45: 488-495. 1919. — A continuation of previous work. Forty-four species of three families 
are listed with the plants attacked by each. — E. N. Munns. 



No. 1. August, 1920] FORESTRY 23 

157. Berry, James B. Wood famine imminent. Georgia State Coll. Agric. Bull. 187. 
4 P-, 4 fig- 1920. — This bulletin notes thai the ucme of wood production was reached in Geor- 
gia in 1909, with the cutting of a billion board feet. Since then 1 here has been a gradual full- 
ing off in production. — T. II. McHatton. 

158. Biolley, H. Betrachtungen iiber die Wirtschafts-Einrichtung der Waldungen in 
der Schweiz. (Bemerkungen zu den Studien des Herrn. Dr. Ph. Flury.) [Observations con- 
cerning improvement of forest management in Switzerland. Remarks on Dr. Ph. Flury's 
studies translated from' the Journal of Forestry of Perret, Couvet.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forst- 
wesen 71: 37—19. 1920. — Forestry is divided into two groups, one based on practical experi- 
ence and the other on biologienl principles. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental biologi- 
cal studies to be used as a basis for all forest practice. The practical concerns itself too much 
witli the present production, and one pan of a forest may be left unproductive due to over 
maturity while another is exploited during its growing period. Among the first essentials 
for improvement are definite forest boundaries, compartments; definite volume and growth 
tables and cutting cycles based on accurate local growth figures. The relation of density of 
stand and increment must be correlated with cutting periods in order to secure continuous 
production. The principal points recommended for the improvement of the forest are: 
every acre must reach its maximum production; production as influenced by stand, site, spe- 
cies, etc., must be determined locally; species to be used and care required; improvement for 
regulation only should be reduced to a minimum. All changes in forest management should 
be based on thorough scientific research. — J. V. Hofmann. 

159. Bontrager, W. E. What shade and ornamental trees shall we plant? Monthly 
Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 35-41. 5 pi. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1798. 

160. Bouvet, Schaeffer, and others. Congres de 1919. [Congress of 1919.] Bull. 
Trimest. Soc. Forest. Franche-Comte et Belfort 13: 72-109. 1919.— The first meeting of the 
Society since the outbreak of the war was held at Strassburg, August 3 to 6, 1919. In connec- 
tion with the rejoicing over the recovery of the "lost provinces," attention was called to the 
flattering comments regarding French methods of forest management in Alsace-Lorraine which 
were made by German foresters after the war of 1870. Field trips were made to the forests 
of Haguenau, Hoh-Koenigsburg, Sainte-Odile, Hohwold, Haslach and Nideck, brief descrip- 
tions of the character and management of which are given. — S. T. Dana. 

161. Brown, W. H., and A. F. Fjscher. Philippine forest products as sources of paper 
pulp. Forest. Bur. Philippine Islands Bull. 16: IS p. PI. 1. 1918. (1919). — A general considera- 
tion of the bamboos, coarse grasses such as Imperata exaltala and Saccharum spontaneum, 
various fiber plants, and some trees as potential sources of paper pulp. — E. D. Merrill. 

162. Brown, W. H., and A. F. Fischer. Philippine mangrove swamps. Forest. Bur. 
Philippine Islands Bull. 17: 1-132. tf pi. 1918. — A general consideration of the mangrove 
swamps, their constituent species, and economic products. Keys and descriptions are given 
to all species, as well as local names, etc. The illustrations, chiefly photographic, are 
excellent. In addition to general mangrove scenes each individual species is illustrated. The 
economic discussion includes data on stand, cultivation, firewood, tanbark and dyes, with a 
discussion of the nipa palm and its uses. — E. D. Merrill. 

163. Brown, W. H., and A. F. Fischer. Philippine bamboos. Forest. Bur. Philippine 
Islands Bull. 15. 32 p. PL 1-33. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1015. 

164. Brunnhofer, A. Berufsfragen. [Questions of professional forestry.] Schweiz. 
Zeitschr. Forstwesen 71 : 4-6. 1920. — A discussion of the relation of technical and commer- 
cial forestry. A separation of the two phases is condemned on the basis that the technical 
forester must be familiar with the commercial phases in order to practice his profession in- 
telligently, and the commercial man must take technical forestry into consideration in utili- 



24 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

zation and harvesting, otherwise the scientific phase, which aims at continuous production, 
will be defeated. For these reasons a forester in either field must have a good knowledge of 
the other field, and the best interests of forestry will be served by keeping the two phases 
combined and making up the deficiency of men by reducing the areas under each forester 
and furnishing him with an assistant. — J. V. Hofmann. 

165. Burkill, I. H. The composition of a piece of well-drained Singapore secondary 
jungle thirty years old. Gardens' Bull. Straits Settlements 2: 145-157. 1919. — See Bot. 
Absts. 4, Entry 2S0. 

166. Burrow, Gordon. Reproduction of cypress pine. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 91- 
92. 1919. — A note on the factors governing the reproduction of this species. The author 
is convinced that a good seeding season and a good growing season are co-essentials. A good 
seed crop is dependent upon sufficient precipitation to set and nourish the young cones and 
bring them to maturity. Drought, rabbits, and fire are serious enemies of young reproduc- 
tion. — C. F. Korstian. 

167. Champion, H. G. Observations on some effects of fires in the chir (Pinus longifolia) 
forests of the West Almora Division. Indian Forester 45: 353-364. 1 pi. 1919. — Examina- 
tions of burned areas after a fire show damage cannot be estimated until several months 
later. Insects for some unknown reason did not appear in large numbers after fire in mature 
stands though death continues afterward, which may be due to a destructive fungus. Damage 
by fire may be as much due to heat-killing as flame itself. In young trees damage bears an 
inverse ratio to height, the smaller the tree the greater the loss. On reproduction, fire ap- 
pears to have a beneficial effect, probably due to reduced competition, food or soil water. 
Fire in mixed stands operates to thin out the chir and increase oaks and other trees. — E. N. 
Munns. 

168. Chapman, H. H. A program for private forestry. Amer. Forest. 25: 1405-1406. 
1919. 

169. Claudy, C. H. Economic tree murder. How we are denuding our 'orests to supply 
Europe while she is conserving her own timber. Sci. Amer. 121: 132. 145. 1919. 

170. Cook, O. F. Olneya beans. Jour. Heredity 10: 321-331. Fig. 18-17. 1919.— See 
Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 549. 

171. Cremata, Merlino. Algo sobre nuestros bosques. [Forest preservation. 1 Revist. 
Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 610-611. 1919. An article of forest conditions in Cuba and on forest 
preservation. — F. M. Blodgett. 

172. Crevost, C, and C. Lemarie. Plantes et produits filamenteux et textiles de lTn- 
dochine. [Fiber- and textile-producing plants of Indo-China.] Bull. Econ. Indochine 22: 
813-837. PL 2. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1122. 

173. Dana, S. T. National forests and the water supply. Amer. Forest. 25: 1507-1522. 
S3 fig. 1919. 

174. Danielsson, Uno. Naturskydd i Sodra Kalmar Ian [Protection of natural beauty 
in southern Kalmar (Sweden).] Skogen 6: 17-22. 5 fig. 1919. 

175. Darnell-Smith, G. P. Dry rot in timber. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 314-316. 
1919. — A brief discussion of the characters of some dry rot fungi and measures for their con- 
trol. Creosote and tar are effective, but their odor and color restrict their use. Boric acid 
and magnesium fluosilicate are strongly recommended. Wood-preserving oil, prepared from 
kerosene shale, is effective if the ventilation is good. — C. F. Korstian. 



No. 1, August, 1920] 



FORESTRY 



25 



170. Dakvey, Mason. Forest tree planting in Nelson District. New Zealand Jour. 
Agric. 19: 297-299. 1919. — It is believed that Pinus m ignis and several species of Euca- 
lyptus may be planted on land costing about $50 an acre as a very profitable long term 
investment. — N. J. Giddings. 

177. Dawkins, C. G. E. Yemane (Gmelina arborea) in Upper Burma. Indian Forester 
45:505-519. 1919. — The results of trials to introduce the yemane' into the forests of Burma are 
given. Three methods have been tried ; broadcast sowing, dibbling and field planting. Notes 
on the growth of plantations made are given. — E. N. Munns. 

178. De Jong, A. W. K. Tapproeven bij Hevea brasillensis. [Tapping experiments on 
Hevea brasiliensis.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie 3: 277-278. 1919. — Tapping a 
quarter, a third or half the circumference of the tree with one left hand cut gave the follow- 
ing results: 



For the first area tapped . . . 
For the second area tapped 
For the third area tapped . 
For the three areas tapped. 



PROPORTION OF THE RCBBER YIELDS FOR 



i of the C. 


i of the C. 


J of the C. 


100 


117 


140 


100 


116 


135.5 


100 


109.5 


100 


100 


114 


122 




— W 


. E. Cake. 



179. Demorlaine, J. La necesitate d'un service forestier d'armee sous l'ancien regime. 
[The need for an army forest service.] Rev. Eaux et Fordts 57: 229-230. 1919.— Dtjhamel du 
Montceau, in 1764, in his "Exploitation des Bois," pointed out the need of attaching forest 
officers to the engineers crops of the army in order to prevent the serious damage done to the 
forests when the timber and other forest products needed by the army were secured by ordi- 
nary soldiers without technical supervision. The need of an army forest service of this sort 
has been strikingly demonstrated by the great war. Such a service should be autonomous, 
with the same standing as the Engineer or Quartermaster Corps, and should direct the forma- 
tion, management, instruction, and organization of companies of mobilized foresters. — S. T. 
Dana. 

180. Descombes, Paul. Installation d'experiences prolongees sur le ruissellement. 
[Protracted experiments upon stream-flow.] Mem. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Bordeaux VII, 2: 
17-35. 2 fig. 1918 —The author gives a brief r6sum6 of methods adopted by L'Association 
Centrale pour l'Amenagement des Montagnes in studying the relations between precipitation 
and stream-flow in the drainage basin of the Arises. An apparatus for automatically gauging 
and recording changes in stream level is described. Data are presented to indicate a corre- 
lation between changes in the flow of the Ariege (1896-1910) and the sylvo-pastoral conditions 
in its drainage basin. — I. W. Bailey. 

181. Descombes, Paul. Le reboisement et le developpement economique de la France. 
; Reforestation and the economic development of France. M6m. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Bor- 
deaux VII, 2: 103-217. 2 fig. 1918.— Deforestation and over-grazing in the uplands of France 
prevent an extensive substitution of waterpower for coal and are considered to be responsible 
for the depopulation and degradation of these regions. Reforestation and other remedial 
projects for improving the range have been combated by the mountaineers, who fear curtail- 
ment of their herds and flocks. L'Association Centrale pour 1 Amenagement des Montagnes 
has conducted a series of extensive experiments to prove that it is possible to prevent over- 
grazing and to reforest the mountains without reducing the live stock of the mountaineers. 
This is done by excluding from the alpine pastures migratory herds and flocks from the low- 
lands. In considering measures for reforestation of both uplands and lowlands the author 



26 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V. 

devotes considerable attention to a discussion of the status of French forests and the reforest- 
ation movement during the nineteenth century, and quotes various legislative enactments 
at length. .The paper contains much statistical information. — J. W. Bailey. 

182. De Vries. O. Over de bruikbaarheid van instrumenten als metrolac en latexometer 
voor het bepalen van het rubbergehalte van de latex. [On the use of hydrometers (metrolac 
and latexometer) to determine the rubber content of latex.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch- 
Indie 3: 207-221. 1919. — Very large differences may occur between the real rubber content of 
Hevea latex as determined by actual coagulation and the figures obtained from the hydro- 
metric specific gravity readings. The metrolac and latexometer are constructed for a special 
case, perhaps an original latex of 37| per cent rubber content and 0.9775 specific gravity or 
some other combination near there, when the specific gravity of the original serum varies 
from 1.022. When such a latex is diluted with water the reading of the instrument is correct, 
but for latices of other composition the rubber content cannot be determined by these instru- 
ments. In general on the estates in Java the results obtained by hydrometric readings are 
too low, usually giving values between 70 and 80 per cent of the real content. — W. E. Cake. 

183. De Vries, O. Verband tusschen het soortelijk gewicht van latex en serum en het 
tubbergehalte van de latex. [The relation between the specific gravity of latex and serum and 
the rubber content of latex.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie 3: 183-206. 1919.— The 
relation between the specific gravity of Hevea latex and its rubber content was determined 
in the following five cases: (1) continued tapping after a period of rest, (2) light or heavy 
tapping systems, (3) pollarding, which also acts as a "heavier stress," (4) periods of rest ami 
shallow tapping, and (5) individual trees. In all cases the results are the same, showing that 
the specific gravity is inversely proportional to the rubber content. The actual specific 
gravity of the latex is determined by the proportion o the rubber and serum (i.e., the rubber 
content of the latex) and only to a small extent by the specific gravity of the serum which re- 
mains nearly constant. — W. E. Cake. 

184. De Vries, O., and W. Spoon. Variabiliieit van p'antage-rubber. [Variability in 
plantation-rubber.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie 3: 246-276. 1919. — Data from the 
Central rubber station comparing the tensile strength, slope, rate of cure, and viscosity of 

moked sheet and crepe rubber for the years 1917 and 1918. The principal causes for devia- 
tion and variability in properties are pointed out. — W. E. Cake. 

185. Essig, E. O. New hosts of oak-root fungus in Humboldt County. Monthly Bull. 
Comm. Hortic. California 8: 79-80. 1919.— See Bot, Absts. 4, Entry 1170. 

186. F[oster], J. H. [Rev. of: Rankin, W. Howard. Manual of tree diseases. 398 p. 
Macmillan Co.: New York, 1918.] Jour. Forest. 17: 321. 1919. 

187. Geete, Erik. Ur timmersaxens historia. [From the history of the timber "grab 
hook."] Skogen 6: 23-25. 3 fig. 1919. 

1S8. Gellatly, F. M. Investigatory work needed: relation of commonwealth to states. 
Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 137-139. 1919 — The more important benefits to be derived from 
a forest products laboratory are discussed. Urgent need is voiced for research along the 
following lines: (1) tests of pulping and paper-making qualities of indigenous woods and 
materials, (2) distillation tests to determine the tar oil, gas, acid and other properties of 
commercial value in indigenous woods, (3) investigation of the chemical and commercial 
properties of gums, kinos, resins, and saps. — C. F. Korstian. 

189. Grinndal, Th. Tidig eller sen skogssadd? [Early or late forest sowing?] Skogen 
6: 124-127. 1919. 

190. Gupta, B. L. New Indian species of forest importance. Indian Forester 45: 388- 
392. 1919. — A continuation of previous work (Ibid. 43: 132. 1917). The present list includes 
48 species recently described from India, bringing the total forest species up to 393. — E. N. 
Munns. 



No. 1, August, 1920] FORESTRY 27 

191. Haines, H. H. Indian species of Carissa. Indian Forester 45: :;7."> 388. PI 17 
20, fig. 1-7. 1919. 

192. Hall, Cuthbert. On a new species or form of Eucalyptus. Proc. Linnean Soc 
New South Wales 43: 747-749. Pl.75. 1918. 

193. Heck, G. E. Splintering of airplane woods. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 83: 68 69 L fig 
1919. 

194. Heim, A. L. Airplane propeller manufacture. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 162. 1919. 
— Considers problems of manufacture which have been or need to be studied. — Chas. II . < 

195. Hoffman. 1st die Vergesellschaftung im Forstbetriebe moglich? [Is socialization 
of forest industry practicable?) Forstwiss. Centralbl. 41: 210-226. 1919.— Most socialists 
agree that forest industries of Germany should be socialized, in order to avoid danger of mon- 
opoly, to insure continuity of employment and of supplies of forest products, and to insure 
maximum sustained production at lowest cost. Methods suggested are State ownership, 
either by purchase or confiscation, syndicalization, or division of large holdings. State owner- 
ship is unnecessary because the State already owns a sufficient proportion of the forests to 
prevent monopoly, and undesirable because of the probable decrease in efficiency due to bu- 
reaucratic inertia and political influences. Moreover, it is financially impossible. Syndicali- 
zation is not desirable because the nature of the business is not adapted to this form of manage- 
ment. Division of holdings is contrary to the requirements of efficient forest production, and 
unnecessary anyway because there are few very large holdings. The best way for a demo- 
cratic state to control forest production is by use of its powers of taxation. The forest law 
should require that all forest tracts of more than 100 hectares be managed according to a 
working plan, under technical supervision. Beyond this, the owner should have entire 
freedom of action. Owners of smaller tracts should form cooperative bodies or looser asso- 
ciations, in order to be able to take steps toward more efficient management. The State 
should supervise the activities of these associations. — W. N. Sparhawk. 

196. Horne, W. T. Oak-fungous, oak-root fungus disease, fungus root-rot, toadstool 
root-rot or mushroom root-rot. Monthly Bull. Comm. Hortic. California 8: 64-63. Fig. 36- 
89. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1176. 

197. Hubualt, E. L'apres guerrs dans les iles britanniques : projets de reconstitution 
forestiere. [Forest reconstruction in Great Britain.] [Rev. of: Final Report of Forestry Sub- 
committee, Reconstruction Committee, Ministry of Reconstruction. 105 p. 1918.] Rev. 
Eaux et For£ts 57 : 213-228. 1 fig. 1919. — The critical situation in which Great Britain found 
itself during the war as a result of totally inadequate native wood supplies has led to the for- 
mulation by a specially appointed committee of a comprehensive forestation program, in- 
tended to decrease materially Great Britain's present dependence on other countries and to 
provide a reserve capable, in case of war, of meeting for three years all its needs for wood at 
a rate of cutting five times as great as the normal annual consumption. The program contem- 
plates the establishment in 80 years of 717,000 hectares of coniferous plantations, chiefly 
Scotch pine, European larch, Douglas fir, Sitka Spruce, Norway Spruce, and western red 
cedar. Two-thirds of this area, or 478,000 hectares, will be forested during the first 40 years, 
and 101,000 hectares during the first ten years. Of this latter area, the state will itself acquire, 
either by purchase or lease, and plant 60,000 hectares; it will associate itself with communi- 
ties and individuals in the cooperative planting and management of 10,000 hectares; and 
through the granting of subsidies of one kind or another it will encourage the forestation of 
10,000 hectares by communities and individuals. The remaining 21,000 hectares are to be 
secured through the voluntary or forced reforestation by their owners of areas cut clear during 
the war. In addition the reforestation during this period of 4,000 hectares of hardwoods 
(and eventually of 8,000 hectares) is contemplated. The committee proposes certain reduc- 
tions in forest taxes and in freight rates for forest products, the systematic training of both 



28 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

higher and lower forest officers, and the establishment of adequately equipped forest experi- 
ment stations. The carrying out of this program, the cost of which during the first 10 years 
is estimated at 84,162,000 francs, is to be entrusted to an independent forest commission con- 
sisting of three salaried and three non-salaried members, and having attached to it three sub- 
commissioners, ten or eleven divisional officers, and fifty or fifty-five forest officers. From 
the French point of view the most characteristic feature of the program is the fact that par- 
ticular care is taken to prevent the state, in spite of the important part played by it, from 
encroaching on the rights of private owners, and to encourage, rather than to force, coopera- 
tion on the part of the latter. — S. T. Dana. 

198. Illick, J. S. When trees grow. Canadian Forest. Jour. 15: 351-354. 1919. — A 
series of studies carried out for several years involving daily measurements on 200 trees dur- 
ing the growing season lead to conclusions that: (a) Trees grow almost twice as fast during the 
night as during the day; (b) The growing season for white pine and Norway spruce, in Penn- 
sylvania at least, is ended by July 1st; (c) Such knowledge is of high utility in choosing season 
for planting trees. — H. C. Belyea. 

199. Iwaki, Takanori. Microscopical distinctions of some Japanese coniferous woods. 
[Article in Japanese.] Bot. Mag. Tokyo 32: 187-198, 219-237. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 4, 
Entry 1299. 

200. Jauffrat, Aime. La determination des bois de deux Dalbergia de Madagascar, 
d'apres les caracteres de leurs matieres colorantes. [Identification of wood of Dalbergia by 
staining reactions.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 693-694. 1919. — See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 565. 

201. Jolly, N. W. The importance of the wood pulp industry to Australian forests. 
Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 9. 1919. — The possibility of Australia manufacturing wood pulp 
from its own forests is discussed. The author advocates the utilization of hardwood and 
Pinus insignis saplings and poles for wood pulp as a means of utilizing waste or of rendering 
thinnings profitable. — C. F. Korstian. 

202. Jones, J. Shea butter tree. Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West 
Indies. Report on the Agricultural Department, Dominica, 1918-19: 3. 1919. — Nuts from 
Dominica examined at the Imperial Institute, London, were found to contain 44 per cent, of 
fat, a somewhat lower percentage than that contained in West African nuts. — J. S. Dash. 

203. Khan, A. Hafiz. Red wood of Himalayan spruce (Picea morinda). Indian Forester 
45: 496-498. 1 pi. 1919. — The water absorptive capacity of the red wood which occurs in 
the heart of Picea morinda is less than that of the white wood, while it is at the same time 
heavier, volume for volume, than white wood. Both colored woods are lighter than water. 
— E. N. Munns. 

204. Koehler, A. Selecting wood for airplanes. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 148-149. 
5 fig. 1919. 

205. Lantes, Adelaide. El alamo. [The pipal tree.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 
612-613. 3 fig. 1919. 

200. La Totjche, T. H. D. The submerged forest at Bombay. Rec. Geol. Surv. India 
49: 214-219. PI. 17-19. 1919.— During excavations in Bombay harbor in 1878 a submerged 
forest with many stumps in situ was found over an area of 30 acres. The trees were embedded 
in stiff blue clay 6 to 20 feet thick, resting on decomposed basaltic rock, and covered with 
4 to 5 feet of harbor silt. The deepest stumps were rooted 33 feet below the present mean 
high tide. Most of the wood was identified as Acacia catechu, but two apparently drift logs 
were teak {Tectona grandis). In 1910 excavations on an adjacent area disclosed more stumps, 



No. 1, August, 1920] FORESTRY 29 

some rooted 40 feet below high tide. The conclusion is that there has been gradual depn s- 
sion of a forested roeky coastal plain, forming quiet lagoons in which f lie trees became embed- 
ded in the clay; then a tilting movement brought in the open sea, and Teredo bored the trunk*, 
causing them to break off at the clay surface. — Winfield Dudgeon. 

207. Lindbeiig, Ferd. Da skogen snoar in. [When the forest is snowed in.] Skogen 
6:128-132. 4 fig. 1919. 

208. Maas, J. G. J. A. Gewijzigde methode voor veldproeven met Hevea. [Other meth- 
ods for field experimentation with Hevea.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie 3: 233-237. 
1919. — In this article the author sets forth a plan for the elimination of error due to the per- 
sonal factor of the tapper in field experiments with Hevea. His plan is to have the tapping 
rows and collecting rows perpendicular to each other, so that each tapper taps a part of the 
trees of each collecting task. — W. E. Cake. 

209. Maas, J. G. J. A. Nog eenige kiemproeven met Hevea-zaden. [Some more ger- 
mination trials with Hevea seed.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie' 3 : 237-243. 1919. — 
In preserving Hevea seed the packing material must be moist and not air tight. When Hevea 
seeds are to be preserved for longer than one month the packing material should be moistened 
every 3 or 4 weeks. At a temperature of 4 to 8°C. the seeds will stand a drier and more air- 
tight package better than at ordinary temperatures. Air-tight packages however cause 
them to lose their germinating power quickly. Merely ensilaging Hevea seed in the ground 
seems to be good for preserving the seeds on an estate for a short period like a month. Treat- 
ment with water at about 50°C. resulted in increased germination energy, and a slightly im- 
proved germination. Sprinkling with warm water at 45°C. increased the rapidity of germina- 
tion a little but had practically no effect on the germination per cent. — W. E. Cake. 

210. Mackay, H. Conifers in Victoria. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 265-267. 1919.— 
Summary of a paper on "Coniferous plantations in Southeastern Australia," read before the 
first Inter-State Conference on Forestry, embodying the experience of that State in the es- 
tablishment of exotic conifers over a period of 34 years. Thirteen conifers indigenous to North 
America are found in the list. — C. F. Korstian. 

211. Mackay, H. Treatment of indigenous hardwoods. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 
19-20. 1919.— Extract from a paper read before the first Interstate Conference on Forestry 
at Sydney, November, 1911, in which the silvicultural management of eucalyptus forests is 
briefly discussed. Wherever the standing crop is fairly uniform in age and size, a clear cut- 
ting in sections, leaving, in addition to seed trees, only trees fit for piles and girders, is advo- 
cated. — C. F. Korstian. 

212. Madelin, J. Les cedres du Liban. [The cedars of Lebanon.] Rev. Eaux et Forets 
57 : 275-276. 1919.— The cedars of Lebanon, formerly regarded by the natives as divine beings 
in tree form, flourish only at El-Herze' at an altitude of over 2200 meters. Some of them are 
over a hundred feet high and the largest is 3 feet in diameter. The few trees which still sur- 
vive have suffered severely at the hands of tourists and should be protected from further 
damage. — S. T. Dana. 

213. Main, J. M. Eden and its timber resources. Australian Forest. Jour. 3: 48-49. 
1920.— A note on the forest resources adjacent to the town of Eden on the South Coast of 
Australia with a list of the principal timber species of eucalyptus and their uses. — C. / . 
Korstian. 

214. Martin, Percy F. Great forests of South America. Canadian Forest. Jour. 15: 
264-266. 1919.— Four types of timber are recognized : small scrubby forests of dry temperate 
or sub-tropical regions; good forests of Antarctic beech and a few conifers of temperate re- 
gions in the Andes; the fresh and salt-water swamps of mangroves and species with soft 
woods; the tropical rain forest of a great variety of hardwoods. — E. N. Munns. 



30 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

215. Massias, J. Les forets de Grece. [The forests of Greece.] Rev. Eaux et Forets 
57: 237-247. 1919. — Prior to 1913 the forest area of Greece, excluding areas once forested but 
now devastated, amounted to some 800,000 hectares, or about 12 per cent of the total area 
of the country. Including the new provinces added by the war, the total forest area is about 
13 per cent. Approximately 50 per cent belongs to the State, 20 per cent to convents and com- 
munes, and 30 per cent to private owners. Aleppo pine constitutes 35 per cent of the stands, 
Cephalonian fir 25 per cent, and various oaks 20 per cent. The value of the forest products 
harvested annually, including timber, fuel, charcoal, resin, forage, and other minor products, 
amounts to about 3,300,000 francs, of which nearly one-half is fuel. — All forests, both public 
and private, are theoretically subject to a forest regime in the department of Agriculture, 
but lack of personnel makes this control ineffective. Even in the State forests there are no 
real plans of management. These, as well as certain private forests, are heavily burdened 
with various rights of use which have resulted in serious damage, particularly through the un- 
restricted grazing of sheep and goats. The forests themselves are not subject to a land tax, 
but forest products (with certain exceptions, the most important of which is fuel harvested 
by the peasants for their own use) are taxed at varying rates according to the nature of the 
product and the character of the ownership. Recent laws aim to secure better fire protection, 
the reforestation of denuded lands, the codification and revision of existing rights of user, and 
improved management of all forest lands, both public and private. There are two schools 
for the training of guards and rangers and one (at Athens) for the training of higher forest 
officers. — S. T. Dana. 

216. Mattoon, Wilbur R. Making woodlands profitable in the Southern States. U. S. 
Dept. Agric. Farmers Bull. 1071. 88 p. 55 fig. 1920. 

217. Mattoon, Wilbur R. Treating fence posts on farm. Louisiana State Univ. Div. 
Agric. Exp. Circ. 37. 20 p. 11 fig. 1920. — Fence posts treated with creosote and set in the 
ground at Calhoun, Louisiana, in 1908 were examined after 10 years. Of the black gum 
posts, 97 per cent were sound; cypress, 96 per cent; tupelo gum, S8 per cent; sweet gum, 87 
per cent ; sap pine, 73 per cent ; baj% 68 per cent. Methods of treating posts are also discussed. 
— C. W. Edgerton. 

218. Miller, Robert B. The wood of Machaerium Whitfordii. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
47: 73-79. 8 fig. 1920. — A study is made of the wood of Machaerium Whitfordii Macbride, 
which came from Colombia. Color, density and other gross characters are given; it is related 
to the true rosewoods and is of commercial importance. It is diffuse porous, usually has uni- 
seriate rays, storied arrangement of elements, small half-bordered pits between vessels and 
ray cells, and sieve-like perforations of pit membrane. Wood parenchyma is diffuse, para- 
tracheal, and on the face of the summer wood. — P. A. Mum. 

219. Morrison, W. G. Natural afforestation in a New Zealand mountain area. Austral- 
inn Forest. Jour. 2: 380-384. 1919. — The first installment of a discussion treating the merits 
of natural regeneration by seed with particular reference to the indigenous forests of the 
Hanmer area. It is contended that natural regeneration ought to be accomplished at less 
than one-tenth the cost of relativelv cheap planting methods. [See also next following Entry, 
220.]— C. F. Korstian. 

220. Morrison, W. G. Natural afforestation in a New Zealand mountain area. Austral- 
ian Forest. Jour. 3: 23-25. 55-58. 1920. — A continuation and final installment of an article, 
the first part of which has been abstracted. The spontaneous reproduction of exotic shelter 
plantations on the Hanmer Plains is described. Pinus radiata, P. pinaster, Betula alba, 
Quercus pedunculata and Larix europea were found reproducing themselves from seed at 
rates varying from several hundred to tens of thousands per acre depending on the species, 
the distance from seed trees and site conditions. The mean annual rainfall for the years 1905 
to 1918 is approximately 48 inches, which is well above the safety limit for successful planta- 



No. 1, August, 1920] FORESTRY 31 

tions. The author cites evidence to show thai natural afforestation of the high countt 
feasible but suggests that on the more accessible waste areas it be augmented by artificial 
afforestation as now practiced. [See also next preceding Entry, 219.] — C. F. Km 

221. Nordstedt, C. T. O. [Swedish rev. of: Hbkibeet-Nimson, N. Experimented 
Studien uber Variabilitat, Spaltung, Artbildung und Evolution in der Gattung Salix. [Experi- 
mental studies on variability, segregation, speciation and evolution in the genus Salix. ] Lunda 
Universitets Arsskr. N. F. (Avd. 2.) 14'- >s : 1-145. 65 fig. 1918.] Bot. Notiser 1919: 31 
1919. 

222. Pearson, R. S. Note on the mechanical strength and seasoning properties of Shorea 
robusta timber. Indian For. Rec. 7: 120-145. 1919.— The results of tests on sal for trans- 
verse strain, compression, shearing and hardness are given in detail on timber felled at differ- 
ent times of the year, from different localities, and from trees of different origin. Data is 
also presented on the rate of seasoning of woods obtained under the same conditions as those 
described above. — E. N. Munns. 

223. Pf.tch, T. The effect of time intervals in rubber tapping. Dept. Agric. Ceylon 
Bull. 42. 8 p. 1919. 

224. Pierre, L. Note sur l'lsonandra Krantziana (arbre a Gutta-Percha de la Cochin- 
chine et du Cambodge). [Note on Isonandra Krantziana, a gutta percha tree of Cochinchinaand 
Cambodia.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 33-40. 1920. — A report on the economic possi- 
bilities of the above species, this one probably being the form described by Pierre as Dichopsis 
Krantziana. — E. D. Merrill. 

225. Raux, Marcel. Une devise de politique forestiere. [A motto of forest policy.] 
Rev. Eaux et Forets 57: 248-254. 261-274. 1919.— A comprehensive forest policy should in- 
clude both a far-sighted administrative program and legislation necessary to make this pro- 
gram effective. The essence of such a policy can be expressed by the simple motto, "To 
create and to conserve." The State should take the lead in creating, not by the purchase of 
private lands already forested, but by the acquisition and reforestation, chiefly with native 
conifers, of lands now uncultivated or abandoned. These plantations, scattered throughout 
the country, would not only prove profitable financially, but would prove more effective in 
stimulating similar work on the part of other owners than any amount of literary propaganda. 
Reforestation by communities should be further encouraged by State loans, and the resulting 
plantations should be subject to the forest regime. Private owners and forestry societies 
should be given free advice and other assistance by the State, and plantations established by 
them should be granted liberal exemptions from taxation until they reach a certain height. — 
The conservation of privately owned forests, which constitute more than two-thirds of the 
forest area of France, is a matter of very real public concern and should therefore be under- 
taken by the State. Supervision of cuttings in such forests should be exercised by the State, 
without charge to the owner; while clear cuttings in protection forests should be prohibited, 
and in other forests should be followed by reforestation. As to clearings, legislation should be 
enacted providing that the forest area of France must not be diminished ; prohibiting the clear- 
ing of all stands in the zone of protection forests; and requiring a permit from the Minister 
of Agriculture for the clearing of all stands outside of this zone. These measures would re- 
quire an increased forest personnel, which could be secured in part by relieving forest officers 
of their duties as fish wardens. Supervision of private cuttings should also be facilitated by 
commissioning private forest guards as forest officers. Finally, conservation should be pro- 
moted by giving forest owners, both public and private, more adequate protection against 
trespass by increased penalties. — S. T. Dana. 

226. Reynard, J. Les arbres de la paix. [Trees of peace.] Bull. Trimest. Soc. Forest 
Franche-Comte et Belfort 13 : 111-112. 1919.— Trees should be widely planted as the simplest 
and most practical means of commemorating the peace treaty of Versailles. Better than 
anything else they serve to bind father to son, dead to living, generation to generation. — 
S. T. Dana. 



32 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

227. Romell, Lars-Gunnar. Sammanvaxning och naturympning. [Growing together 
and natural grafting.] Skogen 6: 133-141. 4 fig. 1919. 

228. Rumbold, Caroline. The injection of chemicals into chestnut trees. Amer. 
Jour. Bot. 7: 1-20. 7 fig. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 964. 

229. Scheidter, Franz. Das Tannensterben im Frankenwalde. [Death of firs in the 
Frankenwald.] Naturw. Zeitschr. Forst- u. Landw. 17: 69-90. 1919.— The dying of firs in 
the State-owned Frankenwald, and also to a lesser extent in other middle-European forests, 
which has become gradually and only in recent years of alarming extent, is described in great 
detail. After dissertating upon various theories which have been advanced by other investi- 
gators, especially Neger, the writer states it as his own opinion that insects and fungi (the 
Hallimasch most commonly), are only secondary causes, and that the fundamental difficulty 
arises from the improper silvicultural system followed in the State forests. In these the effort 
seems always to have been to grow fir, and spruce-fir mixtures, in even-aged stands, whereas 
privately-owned forests, under similar conditions, are usually handled as all-aged or selection 
forests, a plan which is better adapted to fir. The opinion is advanced, and is backed by much 
evidence, that the rapid loss of fir in the Frankenwald is due primarily to crowding when the 
even-aged stands attain a certain age or density, being particularly marked where fir must 
compete with the broader-crowned spruce. In any event, in such stands, the lower limbs are 
lost very rapidly, and in the opinion of the writer, the small crown remaining at the top of the 
tree is then unable to draw to itself sufficient moisture for existence. The older needles die, 
then the growing tip succumbs, and death of the entire tree soon follows. Often, before death 
occurs, there is a vigorous production of "water-sprouts" on the lower portion of the stem. 
The evil is augmented by drought years, and by snow-damage and windfall which, by opening 
the canopy, apparently encourage the production of these "water-sprouts" and also cause 
drying of the soil, the growth of grass, etc. A horde of insects, and some of the most de- 
structive fungi, attack the weakened trees, and of course hasten death and contribute to the 
aggregate losses. The suggested remedy is a system of management which will give the fir 
more ample space for its late development and maturing. This the selection system would 
appear to do. — C. G. Bates. 

230. Schotte, Gunnar. Meddelanden fran Svenska Skogsvardsforeningen. — Protokollj 
fort vid Svenska Skogsvardsforeningens arsmote i Stockholm den 14 mars, 1919. [Proceedings 
at the annual meeting of the Swedish forestry association, Stockholm, March 14, 1919.] Skogen 
6:217-224. 1919. 

231. Secrest, Edmund. Salient features of a forestry policy for Ohio. Monthly Bull. 
Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 15-19. 1920. — The depletion of forests cannot be permitted longer 
to escape public attention. Private ownership has failed to provide for renewal of forests 
after cutting. The effect of such a policy is very marked in small communities where certain 
phases of the lumbering industry have been the chief source of income. A state forestry policy 
is proposed whereby non-agricultural or idle lands may be purchased for reforestation pur- 
poses. Ohio has 500,000 acres of such land which should come under public ownership, or 
state or municipal custody. To encourage private owners to reforest waste lands the state 
should establish nurseries where planting stock could be obtained at the cost of production. 
— R. C. Thomas. 

232. Show, S. B. Climate and forest fires in northern California. Jour. Forestry 17: 
965-979. 1919. — Relationships existing between fire and climate have long been recognized 
by foresters but not before studied intensively. The moisture content of the forest litter is 
a prime consideration as to both ignition and rate of spread of fire. Litter dries out exceed- 
ingly fast under summer conditions and when it contains 8 per cent or less moisture, burns 
readily. Over this amount fire will not spread. Litter moisture is affected by climatic con- 
ditions, being driest on south slopes and the most moist on north slopes and at high elevations. 
Litter behaves like soil as regards hydroscopic moisture, taking up as much as 6 per cent of 



No. 1, August. 1920] FORESTRY '.\.\ 

its own weight. — The rate of spread of iir ist measured by perimeter rather < ban by area 

or distance, and is governed largely by wind velocity. This speed varies as i be square <>f I he 
wind velocity. — E. N. Munns. 

233. Skull, C. A. Curing timber. |Rev. of: Stone, Herbert. The ascent of the sap 
and the drying of timber. Quart. Jour. Forest. 12 : 261-266. 191S.] Bot. Gaz. 68: 310. 1919. 

The author's suggestion may be sound on the practical side, but his "assumptions as to the 
movement of sap in trees will not meet with favor among plant physiologists. It is hard to 
imagine a conception more at variance with experimental results of physiological Btudii 

234. Sim, T. R. South African rubber. I. South African Jour. Indust. 2: 1127-1137. 
5 pi. 1919. 

235. Sim, T. R. South African rubber. II. South African Jour. Indust. 3: 24-34. 1920. 

236. Society of American Foresters, Committee for the Application of Forestry. 
Forest devastation: a national danger and a plan to meet it. Jour. Forest. 17:911-945. 1919.— 
A detailed and comprehensive program of action is outlined. Blame is placed on the lumber 
industry and economic development for the state of affairs at present. To correct the evils 
which now exist, plans for constructive legislation are offered including the purchase and con- 
trol of forest lands and production, the establishment of forest insurance agencies and forest 
loan banks, and state cooperation in securing tax and fire-prevention reforms. A minority 
report of the committee is also presented. — E. N. Munns. 

237. Startk, H. W. Reservation of standards in strips and checks in exploitation. In- 
dian Forester 45: 414-416. 1 fig. 1919.— A system of parallel strips in cutting in coppice with 
standards has been worked out to prevent the tendency towards overcutting, and frauds by 
operators. — E. N. Munns. 

238. Stevens, J. L. Blackboy and its commercial uses. Australian Forest Jour. 2: 
201-202. 1919. — The outside portions of the blackboy or grass tree are reported to yield very 
fine drying oils and turpentine substitutes suitable for the manufacture of paints and var- 
nishes. The acidic liquors obtained in the distillation process contain large quantities of 
acetic acid, methyl alcohol and tannin extract, while the gas is of high calorific value and 
purity, being free from sulphur and nitrogen compounds. — C. F. Korstian. 

239. Taylor, A. A. California's redwood park. Amer. Forestrv 25: 1446-1450. h fig. 
1919. 

240. Tiemann, H. D. Kiln-drying specifications for airplane lumber. Sci. Amer. Sup- 
plem. 88:104. S fig. 1919. 

241. Tragardh, Ivar. Nagra allmanna men bittills foga uppmarksammade barkborrar 
och deras gangsystem. [Some common but hitherto little known bark beetles and their galler- 
ies.] Skogen 6: 237-246. PL 1-7. 1919. 

242. Vernet, G. Precautions a prendre dans l'enfumage du caoutchouc (Incendies- 
stickage). [Precautions to be taken in smoking rubber.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. ^::igon 1: 
362-36 1 . 1919. 

243. von Faxkhauser, F. Zur Kenntnis der Larche. [A larch study.] Schweiz. Zeit- 
schr. Forstwesen 70: 188-191. .9 fig. 1919. — The natural range of the species is taken as the 
area over which natural reproduction occurs, although good growth may be secured in other 
regions by artificial reproduction. Soil moisture is emphasized as the principal factor that 
limits the distribution of larch. Other writers have attributed depth and character of soil 
as important limiting factors, but the occurrence of larch on all types of soil and its distrib- 
tion, limited only bjr elevation and exposure, are taken as conclusive evidence that soil texture 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



34 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

and depth are important only in so far as these qualities affect soil moisture. Variations of 
the root systems and the development of deep tap roots are influenced more by depth of water 
table than by character of soil. Transpiration is also an important factor. Dr. F. von 
Honel's experiments, which he conducted in 1S79 with 21 species, showed that the amount of 
water transpired to produce 100 grams dry weight of leaves in various species was as follows: 
Larch, 115 L., Ash, 98 L., Beech, 86 L., Birch, 85 L., Spruce, 21 L., Pine, 10 L. The service- 
berry was the only species that transpired more than the larch. Kirchner describes the 
anatomy of the larch needle as being especially adapted for aeration by the arrangement of 
the cells length-wise in the needles, and the cell walls joined only at the corners. Air spaces 
about the size of the cells occur between each two layers of cells. The thin cuticle of the 
needle is also a factor. Excessive transpiration indicates the necessity of an abundant sup- 
ply of water. The shedding of leaves in the winter is a habit necessitated by the excessive 
transpiration. In periods of severe drought the needles turn yellow, and part of them may 
fall to conserve moisture. The tree, however, recovers readily and new leaves develop, 
whereas other conifers die. Specific cases were noted during the severe drought of 1911. 
The dense parabolic crowns formed on good moist soil and the open neiloid crowns formed on 
drier sites are so different that a division of species based on this character has been advo- 
cated. Competition of larch with other species is largely controlled by the supply of avail- 
able water. The fir and the spruce spread their lateral roots near the surface and, to a large 
extent, prevent surface water from reaching the deeper soil in which the larch roots usually 
occur. Where the larch successfully competes with other species it is due to sub-irrigation 
of the area with water from other areas. — J. V. Hojmann. 

244. von Kunz, I. Zwanzigjahrige forstliche Betatigung eines Laien. [Twenty years' 
forestry experience of a layman.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstwesen 70: 195-200. 1919. — The 
author is a chemist whose interest in forestry prompted him to purchase a forest meadow of 
two hectares and plant it to tree seedlings. Spruce, fir, pine, larch, beech, oak, hornbeam 
and elm were used. The plantation was very successful, and at the age of twenty years the 
conifers formed a complete ground cover where they were spaced 1.25 m. by 1.25 m. The pines 
had begun to clear, but the spruce branches were still all green. — J. V. Hojmann. 

245. von Seelen, D. Der Wald als Bruder des Feldes. [The interdependence of forest 
and farm.] Zeitschr. Forst- u. Jagdw. 51: 308-315. 1919. — A plea for more thorough use of 
German forest resources. A policy is outlined to accomplish this end. The war, and its 
results, has made, it necessary for Germany to adopt a broader policy of forest management. 
The former rather restrictive policy resulted in much waste of such natural resources as for- 
age and nut crops within the forests, owing to the fact that grazing animals were apt to cause 
damage to reproduction. The author argues, however, that through proper regulation such 
damage can be minimized. Free use and administrative use policies are also outlined. Ar- 
ticle, on whole, is an answer to an opponent to this broader concept of a forest policy. — 
Hermann Krauch. 

246. Wahloren, A. Skogen och manniskan i forhistorisk tid. [The forest and man in 
prehistoric times.] Skogen 6: 1-8, 65-68, 229-236. 1919. 

247. Walker, R. S. The Paulownia tomentosa tree. Amer. Forest. 25: 1485-1486. S 
fig. 1919. 

248. Watt, A. S. On the causes of failure of natural regeneration in British oakwoods. 
Jour. Ecol. 7: 173-203. 1919. 

249. Weir, James E., and Ernest E. Hubert. The influence of thinning on western 
hemlock and grand fir infected with Echinodontium tinctorium. Jour. Forest. 17: 21-35. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 574. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 35 

250. Welo, L. A. Emergency seasoning of Sitka spruce. Sci. Amor. Supplem. 87: -10 1- 
405. 2 fig. 1919. 

251. Wood, B. R. Note on proposed system for regeneration of sal forests. Indian For- 
ester 45: 403-413. 1919. — Changes in the management of sal forests are not believed essential 
and strip cutting is not feasible. Suggestions are made to study the growth and the relation 
of forest and fire to the regeneration of sal. — E. N. Munns. 

252. Zimmer, Walter J. Regeneration of forests. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 75-76. 
1919. — A brief discussion of the suitability of the coppice method of regeneration to the 
eucalyptus forests of Australia, which sucker very freely. — C. F. Korstian. 

GENETICS 

George H. Shull, Editor 
James P. Kelly, Assistant Editor 

253. Abiding J. Pferdezucht und Pferderassen im osmanischen Reich. [Horse breed- 
ing and horse breeds in the Osmanian country.] Flugschr. Deutsch. Ges. Ziichtungsk. 1918: 
31. 47 fig. 1918. 

254. Akerman, A. Vaxternas kolddod och frosthardighet. Fdredrag vid Sveriges Ut- 
sadesforenings extra mote under Landtbruksveckan 1919. [Winter killing and frost-resistance 
of plants. A paper read at a special meeting of the Swedish Seed-Grain Association during the 
"Farmers Week," 1919.] Sveriges Utsadesforenings Tidskrift 29: 61-85. 4 fig. 1919.— De- 
tailed exposition of different theories to explain killing of plants by cooling. According to 
experiments of Lidfors and others on the importance of sugar in protecting plants against cold, 
it is supposable that hereditary differences in frost-resistance in different kinds of plants might 
possibly depend on hereditary differences in sugar content. Author also has been able to 
show that for wheat a parallelism seems to exist between sugar content and hardiness against 
cold, in such way that plants which are more resistant to frost contain more sugar than plants 
less resistant to frost. — In the following table four kinds of wheat are arranged in order of 
their resistance against cold, beginning with the least resistant: 



VARIETY 


DRY SUBSTANCE IN PER 
CENT OF FRESH WEIGHT 


SUGAR IN PER CENT OF 
FRESH WEIGHT 


Smaavete II 


23.2 
23.8 
24.7 
26.0 


13.3 


Solvete 


14.8 


Thulevete 


17.1 


Lantvete 


19.6 









The quantity of sugar varies much during different periods; but the sugar-curves are 
rather nearly parallel for the different sorts of wheat. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgrcn. 

255. Allexdorf and Ehrenberg. Die Aufgaben des Sonderausschusses fur Zucker- 
riibenbau. [Special problems of sugar-beet breeding.] Mitt. Deutsch. Landw. Ges. 1919: 
531-534. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 259. 

256. Amend F. Uhtersuchungen iiber flamischen Roggen unter besonderer Beriick- 
sichtigung des veredelten flamischen Landroggens und seiner Zuchtung. [Investigations on 
Flemish rye with special reference to improved varieties and their breeding.] Landw. Jahrbuch. 
52 : 614-669. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 260. 



36 GENETICS [Bot. Absts.. Vol. V, 

257. Anonymous. The improvement of agricultural crops by selection and hybridization. 
Scot. Jour. Agric. 2: 10-20. 1919. — Substance of address delivered to Glasgow and West Scot- 
land Agricultural Discussion Society by T. Anderson, Director of the Board's Seed Testing 
Station. Mass selection, pure line selection, hybridization, and Mendelism in relation to 
crop improvement are discussed. Emphasis is placed on value of pure seed stocks to the 
farmer. — R. J. Garbcr. 

258. Anonymous. Report of the work of the plant breeding division for 1919. Jour. Dept. 
Agric. Ireland 20: 102-107. 1920. 

259. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Allendorf and Ehrenberq. Die Aufgaben des 
Sonderausschusses fur Zuckerriibenbau. (Special problems of sugar-beet breeding.) Mitt. 
Deutsch. Landw. Ges. 1919: 531-534. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 112. Dec, 1919. 

260. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Amend, F. Untersuchungen iiber flamischen Rog- 
gen unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung des veredelten flamischen Landroggens und seiner 
Ziichtung. (Investigations on Flemish rye with special reference to improved varieties and 
their breeding.) Landw. Jahrbuch. 52: 614-669. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 112. 
Dec, 1919. 

261. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Barker, E. Heredity studies in the morning- 
glory (Ipomoea purpurea). New York Cornell Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 392. 39 p., 3 pi. 1917. 
(See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 1164.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 113. Dec, 1919. 

262. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Baur, Erwtn. Uber Selbststerilitat und iiber 
Kreuzungsversuche einer selbslfertilen und einer selbststerilen Art in der Gattung Antirrhinum. 
(On self-sterility and crossing experiments with a self-fertile and self -sterile species in the genus 
Antirrhinum.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 48-52. May, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 
3, Entry 2082.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 114. Dec, 1919. 

263. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Becking, L. G. M. Baas. Over Limietverhoudin- 
gen in Mendelsche populaties. (Limiting proportions in Mendelian populations.) Genetica 1: 
443-456. 4 fig. Sept. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2086.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 
113. Dec, 1919. 

264. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Emerson, R. A. A fifth pair of factors, Aa, for aleu- 
rone color in maize, and its relation to the Cc and Rr pairs. Cornell Un iv. Agric. Exp. 
Sta. Mem. 16: 231-289. Fig. 71. Nov., 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 877.)] Zeitschr. 
Pflanzenzucht. 7: 115. Dec, 1919. 

265. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Fraser, Allan Cameron. The inheritance of the 
weak awn in certain Avena crosses and its relation to other characters of the oat grain. Cornell 
Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 23: 635-676. June, 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 116-117. 
Dec, 1919.— See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 292. 

266. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Freeman, G. F. Linked quantitative characters 
in wheat crosses. Amer. Nat. 51: 683-689. 1917.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 116. Dec, 
1919. 

267. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Frolich, G. Die Umzuchtung von Wintergetreide 
in Sommergetreide. (The breeding of winter cereals into spring cereals.) Friedrichswerther 
Monatsber. 9: 27-30. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 118. Dec, 1919.— See also Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 284. 

268. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Frolich, G. Die Beeinflussung der Kornschwere 
durch Auslese bei der Ziichtung der Ackerbohne. (The influencing of grain-weight by selec- 
tion in the breeding of field beans.) Friedrichswerther Monatsber. 9: 7-8, 17-20. 1919.] 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 117-118. Dec, 1919. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 37 

269. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Frt/wirth, C. Die gegenwartige Organisation der 
Pflanzenziichtung in Deutschland und in Osterreich-Ungarn. (The present organization of 
plant breeding in Germany and Austria.) Nachricht. Deutsch. Landw. Ges. Osterreich. 1919: 
35-39. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 118. Dec, 1919. 

270. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Fruwirth, C, Dr. Tn. Roemeb, Dr. E. vox 
Tschbrmak. Handbuch der landwirtschaftlichon Pflanzenziichtung. 4. Die Ziichtung der 
vier Hauptgetreidearten und der Zuckerriibe. (Handbook of agricultural plant breeding. 4. 
Breeding of the four chief cereals and the sugar beet). 8vo. } xv+504 p., b& fig. Paul Parey: 
Berlin, 1918.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht, 7: 145. Dec, 1919. 

271. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Gassner, S. Beitrage zur physiologischen Charak- 
teristik sommer- und winteranueller Gewachse, insbesondere der Getreidepflanzen. (Contri- 
bution to the physiological characteristics of summer and winter annuals with special reference 
to the cereals.) Zeitschr. Bot. 10: 417-480. 7 pi., 2 fig. 1918.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 
118-120. Dec, 1919. 

272. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Hansen, W. Einiges iiber Riibenzucht. (Some- 
thing about beet-breeding.) Landw. Zeitung 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 120. Dec, 
1919. 

273. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Jones, D. F. Natural cross -pollination in the 
tomato. Science 43 : 509-510. 1916.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 120. Dec, 1919. 

274. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Jones, D. F. Linkage in Lycopersicum. Amer. 
Nat. 51 : 608-621. 1917.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht, 7: 120-121. Dec, 1919. 

275. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Jones, D. F. Dominance of linked factors as a 
means of accounting for heterosis. Genetics 2: 466-479. 1 fig. 1917. See Bot. Absts. 1, En- 
try 1245.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 121. Dec, 1919. 

276. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Jones, D. F. The effect of inbreeding and cross- 
breeding upon development. Connecticut Agric Exp. Sta. Bull. 207. 100 p., 12 pi. New 
Haven, 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 2, Entry 34; 3, Entry 988.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 122. 
Dec, 1919. 

277. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Jones, Donald F. Bearing of heterosis upon double 
fertilization. Bot, Gaz. 65:324-333. April, 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 228.)] Zeitschr. 
Pflanzenziicht. 7: 121-122. Dec, 1919. 

278. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kajanus, Birger. Genetische Papaver-Notizen. 
(Genetical notes on Papaver.) Bot. Notiser 1919: 99-102. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 
2145.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 123. Dec, 1919. 

279. Anonymous. [Gorman rev. of: Kajanus, B. Genetische Studien iiber die Bliiten 
von Papaver somniferum L. (Genetical studies on the flowers of Papaver somniferum L.) 
Arkiv Bot. K. Svensk. Vetenskapsakad. 15: 1-87. 3 pi. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 
2147.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 123-125. Dec, 1919. 

280. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kajanus, Birger. Uber eine konstant gelbbunte 
Pisum-Rasse. (On a constantly yellow-variegated variety of Pisum.) Bot, Notiser 1918: 
83-84. 1918. (See Bot, Absts. 3, Entry 2146.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 125. Dec, 1919. 

281. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kajanus, B., and S. O. Berc;. Pisum -Kreuz- 
ungen. (Pea-crosses.) Arkiv Bot. K. Svensk. Vetenskapsakad. 15:1-18. 1919. (See Bot. 
Absts. 3, Entry 2148.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 125-126. Dec, 1919. 



38 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

282. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kalt, B., and A. Schulz. Uber Riickschlags 
individuen mit Spelzweizeneigenschaften bei Nacktweizen der Emmerreihe des Weizens. 
(Concerning reversionary individuals with characters of the Spelt type in the naked wheat of 
the Emmer series.) Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36: 669-671. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 4, 
Entry 624.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 126. Dec., 1919. 

283. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kiessling, L. Die Leistung der Wintergerste und 
deren ziichterische Beeinfliissung. (The performance of winter barley and its modification by 
breeding.) Illustr. Landw. Zeitg. 1919: 310-311. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 126. 
Dec, 1919. 

284. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Killer, J. Uber die Umziichtung reiner Linien 
von Winterweizen in Sommerweizen. (Concerning the changing over of pure lines of winter 
wheat into spring wheat.) Jour. Landw. 67: 59-62. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 126. 
Dec, 1919.— See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 267. 

285. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Kuster, E. Uber Mosaikpanaschierung und ver- 
gleichbare Erscheinungen. (Mosaic variegation and comparable phenomena.) Ber. Deutsch. 
Bot. Ges. 36: 54-61. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 265.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 126. 
Dec, 1919. 

286. Anonymous. Origin of maize. [Rev, of : Kuwada, Y. Die Chromosomenzahl von 
Zea Mays L. Ein Beitrag zur Hypothese der Individualitat der Chromosomen und zur Frage 
uber die Herkunft von Zea Mays L. (The chromosome number of Zea Mays L. A contribution 
to the hypothesis of the individuality of chromosomes and to the problem of the origin of Zea 
Mays L.) Jour. Coll. Sci. Imperial Univ. Tokyo 39: 1-148. 2 pi., 4 fig. Aug., 1919. (See 
Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 643.)] Gard. Chron. 67: 114. Mar. 6, 1920. 

287. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Lehmann, Ernst. Uber die Selbststerilitat von 
Veronica syriaca. (On the self-sterility of Veronica syriaca.) Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. 
Vererb. 21: 1-47. 1 fig. May, 1919.] (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2159.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzen- 
zucht. 7: 127. Dec, 1919. 

288. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Lindstrom, E. Linkage in maize: aleurone and 
chlorophyll factors. Amer. Nat. 51 : 225-237. 1917.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 127. Dec, 
1919. 

289. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Lindstrom, E. W. Chlorophyll inheritance in 
maize. Cornell Univ. Agric Exp. Sta. Mem. 13: 1-68. 5 colored pi. Aug., 1918. (See Bot. 
Absts. 1, Entry 484.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 127-129. Dec, 1919. 

290. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Love, H. H., and W. T. Craig. Methods used 
and results obtained in cereal investigations at the Cornell Station. Jour. Amer. Soc Agron. 
10: 145-157. 1 pi., 1 fig. April, 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2163.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzen- 
zucht. 7: 129-130. Dec, 1919. 

291. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Love, H. H., and W. T. Craig. The relation be- 
tween color and other characters in certain Avena crosses. Amer. Nat. 52: 369-383. Aug.- 
Sept., 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 914.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 130-131. Dec, 1919. 

292. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Love, H. H., and A. C. Fraser. The inheritance 
of the weak awn in certain Avena crosses. Amer. Nat. 51 : 481^93. 2 fig. 1917. (See Bot. 
Absts. 1, Entry 1263.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 129. Dec, 1919.— See also Bot. Absts. 4, 
Entry 265. 

293. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Love, H. H., and G. P. McRostie. The inherit- 
ance of hulllessness in oat hybrids. Amer. Nat. 53: 5-32. 7 fig. Jan. -Feb., 1919. (See Bot. 
Absts. 1, Entry 1264; 2, Entry 420.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 131-132. Dec, 1919. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS ,'i 

294. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Meunissier, A. Experiences genetiques faites a 
Verrieres. (Genetical experiments made at Verriere.) Bull. Soc Nation. Acclimat. France 
1918:1-31. 1918. (See Bot. Absts.4, Entry 677.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 132-134. Dec, 
1919. 

295. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Nilsson-Ehle, II. Untersuchungen uber Spelt- 
oidmutationen beim Weizen. (Experiments on speltoid mutations in wheat.) Bot. Notiser 
1917:305-329. 1 fig. 1917.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 131. Dec, 1919. 

296. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Oiikustein, O. Uber das Vorkommen echter Knos- 
penvariationen bei pommerschen und anderen Kartoffelsorten. (Occurrence of true bud varia- 
tion in Pommeranian and other varieties of potato. Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1919: 560-061. 
1 pi. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 135. Dec, 1919. 

297. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Rasmuson, Hans. Zur Genetik der Blutenfarben 
von Tropaeolum majus. (On the genetics of the flower colors of Tropaeolum majus.) Bot. 
Notiser 1918: 253-259. Nov.,191S. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2180.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 
7: 135. Dec, 1919. 

29S. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Rasmuson, Hans. Uber eine Petunia-Kreuzung. 
(On a Petunia cross.) Bot. Notiser 1918: 287-294. 1918. (See Bot, Absts. 3, Entry 2181.)] 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 135-136. Dec, 1919. 

299. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Roemer, Th. Uber Lupinenziichtung. (On lupine 
breeding.) Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1919: 174-175. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht, 7: 136. 
Dec, 1919. 

300. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Schmidt, J. Investigations on hops. X. On the 
aroma in plants raised by crossing. Compt, Rend. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 11: 330-332. 1917. 
(See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 1290.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 136. Dec, 1919. 

301. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Schmidt, J. Investigations on hops (Humulus 
lupulus). XI. Can different clones be characterized by the number of marginal teeth in the 
leaves? Compt. Rend. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 14: 1-23. 8 fig. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, En- 
try 2192.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 136-137. Dec, 1919. 

302. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Schmidt, Johs. La valeur de l'individu a titre de 
generateur appreciee suivant la methode du croisement diallele. (Individual potency appraised 
by the method of diallel crossing.) Compt, Rend. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 14: 1-33. 1919.] 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 136. Dec, 1919. 

303. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Schmidt, Johannes. Der Zeugungswert des In- 
dividuums beurteilt nach dem Verfahren kreuzweiser Paarung. (Individual potency, based 
on experiences in cross-matings.) 8vo., Jfi p. Gustav Fischer: Jena. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 
3, Entry 2190.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 145-146. Dec, 1919. 

304. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Siegel, W. Das Recht des Gemuseziichters. (The 
right of the vegetable breeder.) 8vo. Frick: Wien, 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 146. 
Dec, 1919. 

305. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Sirks, M. J. Sterilite, auto-inconceptibilite et 
differentiation sexuelle physiologique. (Sterility, self-incompatibility and physiological differ- 
entiation of the sexes.) Arch. Neerland. (Sci. Ser.) Ill, 1917: 205-234. 1917.] Zeitschr. 
Pflanzenzucht. 7: 137. Dec, 1919. 

306. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Snell, K. Farbenanderung der Kartoffelblute und 
Saatenanerkennung. (Color changes of the potato blossom and the recognition of varieties.) 
Der Kartoffelbau 1919: 1-3. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 137. Dec. 1919. 



40 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

307. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Sommer, K. Uber Kartoffelziichtung und vergleich- 
ende anbauversuche mit Neuziichtungen auf der Domane Eilischau. (Potato breeding and 
comparative cultural tests of new varieties on the Eilischau estate.) Nachr. Deutsch. Landw. 
Ges. Osterr. 1919: 190-193. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 138. Dec, 1919. 

308. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Stahel, G. Eerste verslag over de werkzamheden 
ten behoeve van de selectie van koffie en cacao. (First report on the effectiveness of selection 
in coffee and cacao.) Dept. Landbouw in Suriname (Paramaribo) Bull. 36. 23 p. 1919.] 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 13S-139. Dec, 1919. 

309. Anonymous [R.]. [German rev. of: (1) Stout, A. B. Self- and cross-pollinations in 
Cichorium intybus with reference to sterility. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 6: 333-454. 1916. 
(2) Idem. Fertility in Cichorium intybus : The sporadic occurrence of self-fertile plants among 
the progeny of self -sterile plants. Amer. Jour. Bot. 4: 375-395. 2 fig. 1917. (3) Idem. Fer- 
tility in Cichorium intybus : Self-compatibility and self-incompatibility among the offspring of 
self-fertile lines of descent. Jour. Genetics 7: 71-103. Feb., 191S. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 
243.)] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 139-140. Dec, 1919. 

310. Anonymous. [German rev. of :Tammes, T. Die Flachsblute. (The flower of flax.) 
Recueil Trav. Bot. Nfierland. 15: 185-227. 22 fig. 1918.] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 140. 
Dec, 1919. • 

311. Anonymous. [German rev. of:TjEBBES, K., and H. N. Kooiman. Erfelijkheids- 
onderzoekingen bij boonen. (Genetical experiments with beans.) Genetica 1: 323-346. 1 
colored pi. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1041.)] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 140-141. 
Dec. 1919. 

312. Anonymous. [German rev. of: Urban, J. Hochpolarisierende Rube und ihre 
Nachkommenschaft. (High-polarizing beets and their progeny.) Zeitschr. Zuckerindustr. 
Bhmen 42: 387-391. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 141-142. Dec, 1919. 

313. Anonymous. [German rev. of : Volkart, A. 40. und 41. Jahresbericht. Schweiz- 
erische Samenuntersuchungs- und Versuchsanstalt in Oerlikon-Ziirich. (40th and 41st Ann. 
Rept. Swiss seed control and experiment station in Oerlikon-Ziirich.) Land. Jahrb. Schweiz. 
1919:1-40. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzticht. 7: 142. Dec, 1919. 

314. Anonymous. [German rev. of : von Caron-Eldingen. Physiologische Spaltungen 
ohne Mendelismus. (Physiological segregation without Mendelism.) Deutsch. Landw. Presse 
1919:515-516. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 114-115. Dec, 1919. 

315. Anonymous. [German rev. of: von Ubisch, G. Gerstenkreuzungen. (Barley 
crosses.) Landw. Jahrb. S3: 191-244. 3 pi., 23 fig. 1919.] Zeitschr. Pnanzenziieht. 7: 141. 
Dec, 1919. 

316. Anonymous. Flugblatt der Ungarischen Gesellschaft fur Rassenhygiene und Be- 
volkerungspolitik. [Circular of the Hungarian Society for race hygiene and colonization policy.] 
Mi'inehener Med. Wochenschr. 66: 76-77. 1919. 

317. Anstead, R. D. Improvement of coffee by seed selection and hybridization. Agric 
Jour. India 14: 639-644. 1919. — An address at the Coffee Planters' Conference at Mysore, 
India. July 1918. It is urged that the growers select high-yielding coffee trees for propagation 
in the belief that the present practice of raising nursery stock from "plantation run" seed is 
resulting in the deterioration of the varieties. It is suggested that facilities be provided to 
economic botanists for developing new varieties by hybridization. Author also reports that 
a Mr. Jackson has obtained a vigorous and disease-resistant hybrid which comes true from 
seed. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 893.] — J. H. Kemplon. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 1 1 

318. AitTHUR, J. M. [Rev. of: FoLSOM, Donald. The influence of certain environmental 
conditions, especially water supply, upon form and structure in Ranunculus. Physiol. Res. 2: 
209-276. 24 fig. Dec. 1918. (See Hot, Absts. 1, Entry lis*,; ■_>, Entry307.)] Bot.Gaz.69: 
271. Mar., 1920. 

■319. Bach, Siegfried. Noch ein Bastardierungsversuch Pisum X Faba. [Another hy- 
bridization experiment, Pisum X Faba.) Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 73-74. June 1019. — 
Of ten emasculated flowers of Victoria peas, seven were pollinated with Vicia faba pollen, 
while three were left unpollinated. All ten were bagged. After 48 hours, 3 of the pollinated 
flowers were fixed in Flemming's solution and imbedded in paraffin. Later sections stained 
with Heidenhain's haematoxylin showed only a few very short pollen-tubes and these in no 
case were observed penetrating the stigmatic surface. After 8 days, the remaining seven 
bagged flowers, both pollinated and unpollinated, were found to have developed to the same 
degree, small pods 1-2 cm. long 0.4 to 0.6 cm. wide with shriveled seed-"anlagen," and within 
another 10 days, these dried up and fell off. Results confirm Gartner and von Tschermak. 
Seedless pods are parthenocarpic and formed without pollination. Inability of Vicia faba and 
Pisum to hybridize lies in lack of chemical stimuli to promote pollen-tube growth. — Orland 
E. White. 

320. Bach, Siegfried. Zur naheren Kenntnis der Faktoren der Anthozyanbildung bei 
Pisum. (To a more exact knowledge of the factors for the formation of anthocyan in Pisum.) 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 64-65. June 1919. — Red Fi heterozygote Pisum flowers from red- 
flowered X white-flowered (ABaB) and pink-flowered X white-flowered (AbaB) crosses are 
indistinguishable to the eye from those of the red-flowered homozygote (ABAB). Investi- 
gations of the concentration and other characteristics of anthocyan, demonstrated that an- 
thocyan development, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is the same in all these genetic 
types. Comparisons of pink-flowered homozygous types (AbAb) with the above red-flowered 
types shows an anthocyan concentration difference of 2:1 in favor of the latter. Milton Brad- 
ley color scale showed color extracts from red-flowered types to be similar to "Violet red," 
and pink-flowered extracts to be "Violet red tint no. 1." Concludes that red-flower coloring 
matter differs from that of pink in having greater anthocyan concentration and in being a 
distinct kind of anthocyan. Factor A is more important in furnishing a basis for anthocyan 
formation than factor B, the latter acting as a modifying agent which changes the anthocyan 
of pink-flowers to that of a new type (red) with more violet in it. Names of pea varieties 
used are cited and methods of procedure are given in detail. — Orland E. White. 

321. Batkson, W. Dr. Kammerer's testimony to the inheritance of acquired characters. 
Nature 103 : 344-345. July 3, 1919.— Reply to Prof. MacBride (Nature, May 22), describing 
personal experiences which cast serious doubt upon veracity of Kammerer's claims of inherit- 
ance of acquired characters in salamanders. — Merle C. Coulter. 

232. Baudouin, M. Decouverte d'un procede sur pour reconnaitre le sexe des axis 
humains a tout age. [Discovery of a process for the recognition of sex in the human axis at all 
ages.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 167: 652-663. 1918. 

323. Baumann, E. Zur Frage der Individual- und der Immunitatszuchtung bei der 
Kartoffel. [On individual selection and breeding for immunity in potatoes.] Fuhlings Landw. 
Zeitg. 1918:246. 1918. 

324. Baumann, E. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Rapspflanze und zur Ziichtung des Rapses. 
[Contribution to a knowledge of the rape plant, and to the breeding of the rape.] Zeitschr. Pflan- 
zenziicht. 6: 139. 2 fig. 1918. 

325. Becker, J. Vererbung gewisser Blutenmerkmale bei Papaver Rhoeas. [Inherit- 
ance of certain floral characters in Papaver Rhoeas.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 6: 215-221. 
S fig. 1918. 



42 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

326. Becker, J. Beitrage zur Ziichtung der Kohlgewachse. [Contribution to the breed- 
ing of the Brassicas.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 91-99. Dec, 1919. 

327. Bergh, Ebbe. Studier over ddvstumheten i Malmohus Ian. [Studies on deaf- 
dumbness in the district of Malmohus, Sweden.] 185 X 250 mm., 199 p. Stockholm, 1919. — 
Among deaf-and-dumbs there are a greater number of individuals with brown or black hair 
and brown eyes than among normal persons in Sweden. The author considers that this fact 
is caused by descent from immigrant darker types. He points out that there is scarcely any 
chance to restrain the consanguineal deaf-dumbness by legal directions. — K. V. Ossian 
Dahlgren. 

328. Biggar, H. H. The relation of certain ear characters to yield in corn. Jour. Amer. 
Soc. Agron. 1 1 : 230-234. 1919. — Relationship of four ear characters to yield has been measured 
for five varieties of maize. The ear characters chosen were weight, length, numbers of rows 
and shelling percentage. Data were obtained for a period of several years. It was found 
that ear length was the most consistent index of subsequent yield though the highest correla- 
tion coefficient found in the series was between weight and yield. The author concludes that 
these four ear characters are not closely enough associated with yield to be of value as a basis 
for selection. — J. H. Kempton. 

329. Bixby, W. G. The butternut and the Japan walnut. Amer. Nut Jour. 10: 76-79. 
82, 83, 11 fig. 1919. — Occurrence of rough-shelled walnuts on American-grown trees of the 
two Japanese species, Juglans cordiformis and J. Sieboldiana, is discussed, illustrated and 
convincingly explained as due to natural hybridization between the above species and the 
closely related native American species J. cinerea. Reference is also made to the possibility 
of producing new superior hybrid varieties between these oriental and American species which 
can be grown throughout a greater range of latitude than these walnuts at present occupy. 
— E. B. Babcock. 

330. Blakeslee, Albert F. Sexuality in mucors. Science 51 : 375-382, 403-409. 4 fid- 
April 16 and 23, 1920.— Mucors are divided into two groups as regards sexual reproduction: 
(1) homothallic or hermaphroditic forms, and (2) heterothallic or dioecious forms. The 
latter are by far the most abundant in nature. — Sexes of different dioecious species show an 
imperfect sexual reaction and produce gametes which, however, never fuse. By this "imper- 
fect hybridization" reaction the sex of unmated dioecious races may be determined. In 
dioecious species there are two types of zygospore germination. In one case the spores in a 
germsporangium are all of same sex, but in the other the spores are of both sexes. Environ- 
mental factors have a direct influence on zygospore formation. Many "neutral" races have 
been found which give no sexual reaction inter se or with testers of other species. The appar- 
ent neutrality of such races may be due to lack of the peculiar environmental conditions neces- 
sary for expression of the sex which is actually present. All dioecious species investigated 
are sexually dimorphic. Author discusses gamete differentiation in mucors and its possible 
significance in relation to sex differentiation in higher forms. — W. H. Eyster. 

331. Bliss, A. J. Hybrid bearded Irises. Gard. Chron. 67: 76, 88. Feb. 14, 21, 1920 — 
Older varieties of June-flowering bearded Irises may be referred to two main species, pallida 
and variegata, or combinations of the two. Amoena is a color variety of variegata, due to in- 
hibiting factor for yellow or absence of factors for yellow present in variegata. Neglecla is 
squalens minus yellow. Several hundred crossings of plicata color type do not yield conclu- 
sive evidence of origin. Characteristic beard is carried through generations of transition 
seedlings in which it has disappeared along with plicata color characters, reappearing unaltered 
in succeeding individuals of plicata color type. Plicata crossed with pallida or squalens- 
pallida forms give plicata only. Crossed with pallida or variegata the plicata type disappears 
but when crossed with certain neglectas or sguaZens-carrying plicata the Mendelian ratio of 
one-half plicatas is obtained, suggesting that the plicata type has arisen as a mutation from 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENERICS 43 

pallida by the dropping of a single factor or set of linked factors. Standards and fulls of an 
7ns appear to be controlled, both in form and in color, by independent sets of linked factors. 
— J. Marion Shull. 

332. Bornmuller, J. Notizen zur Flora Unterfrankens nebst einigen Bemerkungen 
uber Bastarde und eine neue Form von Polystichum lonchitis (L) Roth im Alpengebiet. [Ob- 
servations on the flora of Unterfranken, with several remarks on hybrids and a new form of Poly- 
stichum lonchitis (L) Roth in the alpine region. Beih. Biol. Centralbl. 36: 183-199. 1 pi. 
1918.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1704. 

333. Boulenger, G. A. Un cas interessant de dimorphisme sexuel chez un serpent 
africain (Bothrolychus ater Giinther). [An interesting case of sexual dimorphism in an African 
snake.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 6G6-069. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, 1 !ntry 1463. 

334. Brandl, J. Die direkte Anpassung und Vererbung der Pflanzen. [Direct adapta- 
tion and heredity in plants.] Wiener Landw. Zeit. 68: 790. 1918. 

335. Brehm, V. Uber geschlechtsbegrenzte Speziesmerkmale der Siisswasserorganismen 
und deren eventuelle experimentelle Aufklarung durch das Mendelsche Spaltungsgesetz. [On 
the sex-limited species-characters of freshwater organisms and their experimental explanation 
through the Mendelian law of segregation.] Naturw. Wochenschr. 18:4-8. 1919. 

336. Bridges, C. B., and T. H. Morgan. Contributions to the genetics of Drosophila 
melanogaster. II. The second chromosome group of mutant characters. Carnegie Inst. Wash- 
ington Publ. 278. P. 123-204, 7 pi., 17 fig. Washington, D. C. 1919.— 39 mutant races with 
genes in "second chromosome" are described, paralleling treatment of sex-linked characters 
in Carnegie Publ. 237; more than 35 others, discovered since 1916, remain to be described. 
Most important genes, with loci, are: 

affects mainly eye-facets 
affects mainly thorax pattern 
affects mainly venation and legs 
affects mainly body color 
(pr) affects mainly eye color 
65.0 Vestigial (vg) affects mainly wings and halteres 
73.5 Curved (c) affects mainly wing curvature 
96.2 Plexus (px) affects mainly wing venation 
105.1 Speck (sp) affects mainly axil of wing 

Mutants are treated in chronological order of discovery; special attention is given to genetic 
methods employed, and tracing their development. Each mutant is fully described as to 
origin, stock, determination of chromosome and locus, reoccurrences, allelomorphs, modi- 
fiers, literature, and value as a genetic tool. General topics, discussed under mutants to which 
they apply, include: modifying factors, autosomal and balanced lethals, variations in cross- 
ing-over due to age, temperature, and specific genes, causes of inviability and methods of 
"balancing" inviability in experiments, coincidence and its bearing on map-distance, linkage 
method of analysis for multiple-gene cases, etc. — Most of the mutants are recessive, i.e., the 
heterozygote can not be distinguished from normal. Only five are dominant; at least four 
of these are lethal when homozygous, like most dominant mutations in Drosophila. Some 
(e.g., black, blistered, etc.) are partially dominant; i.e., the heterozygote is intermediate be- 
tween homozygote and normal, but usually more like normal. Two of the genes (lethal T 
and lethal Ila) show their presence only by disturbance of expected ratios, since they have 
no visible effect when heterozygous, and kill all flies homozygous for them. Certain genes 
are "specific modifiers," i.e., they produce no effect except in the presence of certain other, 
"main" genes; thus cream II, cream b, and pinkish, all dilute eosin (sex-linked) eye color, 
but produce no visible effect on non-eosin flies; again, one or more second-chromosome genes 
reduce bristle number in dichaete (third chromosome), but not in non-dichaete, flies. Pur- 



0.0 Star 


(£) 


15.4 Streak 


(fc) 


29.0 Dachs 


(d) 


46.5 Black 


(b) 


52.7 Purple 


(pr 



44 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

pie is a "disproportionate modifier" of vermilion, i.e., it modifies vermilion (sex-linked) 
more than it does normal eye color. — One series of multiple (quintuple) allelomorphs is de- 
scribed; vestigial, strap, antlered, nick, all affecting wings. — The method of construction of 
map of second chromosome is described in detail. The "second chromosome" was originally 
defined arbitrarily as "that chromosome which carries the gene for black and such other genes 
as may be found to be linked to black." Loci lying on the same side of black as does curved 
were considered "to the right" or in plus direction from black; those on the opposite side "to 
the left" or in minus direction. First distance mapped, black-purple, based on 4S.931 flies, 
is 6.2 units (6.2 per cent crossing over), a distance small enough to exclude double crossing 
over. Other loci located by combining data from different crosses, corrected, where neces- 
sary, for double crossing-over, and weighted according to numbers and probable accuracy. 
Thus vestigial was located 18.5 units to right of black, curved 27.0. These four loci form cen- 
tral framework of chromosome. Dachs was next located at —17.5 (with reference to black) 
streak at —31.1, star at —46.5. Most important locus at right end is speck, at +58.6 from 
black. All other loci are located with reference to one or more of the foregoing. As star is 
of known loci, farthest to left, it is taken as zero point, and other loci renumbered accordingly. 
Present map of second chromosome, made in this way, with location of all genes treated, is 
given in text; also constructional map, showing method of construction. — Working map, 
subject to continuous changes, shows also value of each mutant. Value depends on constancy 
of character, separability from normal, viability, fertility, accuracy of mapping, and location 
at convenient distance from other important loci. — C. R. Plunkett. 

337. Burt, B. C, and N. Haider. Cawnpore-American cotton: An account of experi- 
ments in its improvement by pure-line selection and of field trials, 1913-1917. Agric. Res. Inst. 
Pusa Bull. 88. 32 p., 10 pi., 1 fig. 1919. 

338. Carle E. Selection pedigree appliquee a la variete local de riz Phung-tien. [Pedi- 
gree selection applied to the local rice variety known as Phung-tien.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. 
Saigon 2 : 26-32. 1920. 

339. Cohen-Stuart, C. P. Erfelijkheidsleer in dienst der bestrijding van dierlijke 
vijanden. [Genetics and the production of animal foods.] Te3 r smannia 1918: 37-48. 191S. 

340. Coppola, Alfredo. L'acrocefalosindattilia. Contributo alio studio delle disendo- 
crinie congenite. [Acrocephalosyndactylism. A contribution to the study of congenital dis- 
endocriny.] Revista di Patol. Nerv. e. Ment. 24: 283-339. 19 fig. Dec. 1919. 

341. Correns, C. Fortsetzung der Versuche zur experimentellen Verschiebung des Ge- 
schlechtsverhaltnisses. [Continuation of the attempt to experimentally shift the sex ratio.] 
Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1918: 1175-1200. 3 fig. 1918. 

342. Crozier, W. J. Sex-correlated coloration in Chiton tuberculatus. Amer. Nat. 54: 
84-S8. Jan. -Feb. , 1920. — Foot, ctenidia and other soft parts of male are pale buff color. Cor- 
responding parts in female are salmon-pink to orange-red, depending principally on state of 
maturity of ovary. Pigment belongs to carotin-like "lipochromes." Evidence shows that 
color difference cannot possibly help in sex recognition and must therefore be looked upon 
as a "metabolic accident." — H. L. Ibsen. 

343. Dahlgren, K. V. Ossian. Heterostylie innerhalb der Gattung Plumbago. [On the 
occurrence of heterostyly in the genus Plumbago.] Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 12: 362-372. 8 fig. 
1918. — Plumbago capaiisis Thunb., P. rosea L. and P. europaea L. are heterostylous plants. 
The anthers in long-styled flowers are not placed so deeply in the tube as the stigma in brevi- 
stylous ones. Stigmas of the two types are very different both in size and form. The differ- 
ence between the pollens of the two sorts of plants is however relatively slight. Among forty 
investigated herbarium specimens of Plumbago europaea 18 were short-styled and 22 long- 
styled, which indicates that the two types may exist in about equal numbers. Heterostyly 
seems to exist also in the genera Ceratostigma and Vogelia. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 45 

344. Danforth, C. II. An hereditary complex in the domestic fowl. Genetics 4: 
596. 5 fig. Nov., 1919. — Brachydactyly, syndactyly, and ptilopody (booting) are believed 
by the author to be the somatic expression of a single gene and data in support of this view 
are presented. — //. D. Goodale. 

345. Davenport, C. B. Influence of the male in the production of human twins. Aj 
Nat. 54: 122-129. Mar.-Apr., 1920. — Both the fathers and the mothers of twins are found 
to come from fraternities in which twins are about four times as frequent as in the population 
at large. If only the data involving uniovular twins be considered, the frequency of twins 
in the parental generation is twelve times that of the population at large, and is as high on 
the father's side as on the mother's. Uniovular twinning is directly hereditary through eit her 
parent as in the armadillo. It is tentatively suggested that biovular twinning is indicative 
of marked reproductive vigor and relative absence of lethal factors on both sides. Since data 
from comparative sources show that only a fraction of the eggs ovulated become fertilized 
and reach late embryonic stages, and since there is good evidence that a high percentage of 
originally twin pregnancies result in only a single viable foetus, the assumption seems justi- 
fied that two-egg ovulations are relatively common in man, but that only a small part of such 
ovulations actually result in twins that are born and recorded as such. — C. II. Danforlh. 

346. Dawson, Andrew Ignatius. Bacterial variations induced by changes in the com- 
position of culture media. Jour. Bact. 4: 133-148. Mar., 1919. — As test organism author used 
a long-cultivated strain of Bacterium colt. Preliminary test showed that maximum growth 
of this organism on meat extract agar was attained in 9 to 11 days. In order to determine 
effect on this organism of change in environment, so far as regards media, chemical analysis 
was made of 9-days growth collected from 8 different media. These media consisted of 2 
per cent agar to which was added various combinations of peptone, meat extract, edestin, 
flour proteins, butter soap, glucose and glycerol. Varying proportions of these substances 
were used, and in most cases no more than two appeared in each medium in addition to the 
agar. One medium consisted of potato juice alone. Considerable variability occurred in 
the proportions of nearly all bacterial constituents as the result of growth on these different 
media. — Production of acid and gas in various carbohydrates was tested in litmus-carbohy- 
drate-serum water after about 200 generations growth on each of the S different media. 
Marked variability occurred; on one medium the organism behaved precisely as a B. coli- 
communior, while on two others it possessed almost the type characteristics of a B. coli-com- 
munis. — Agglutinability of organisms grown on all 8 media were tested with sera obtained by 
injection into rabbits of bacteria grown on 4 of the media. Differences in agglutinability were 
observed easily as great as those frequently utilized to demonstrate the existence of different 
"strains" of the same basic organism. — Morphological changes accompanying growth on dif- 
ferent media appeared to be relatively unimportant. [See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1237.]— 
M. A. Barber. 

347. Dawson, J. A. An experimental study of an amicronucleate Oxytricha. I. Study 
of the normal animal, with an account of cannibalism. Jour. Exp. Zool. 29: 473-513. 2 pi., 
3 fig. Nov. 20, 1919. — Pedigreed cultures of Oxytricha hymenostoina carried 289 generations, 
then from November 17, 1917, to April 30, 1918, in small petri-dish mass cultures, revealed the 
absence of micronucleus during all phases of life-history of cultures. This amicronucleate 
race apparently can live indefinitely under favorable environmental conditions without con- 
jugation, autogamy, endomixis. In state resembling syngamy (a) animals fused in pairs die 
or separate and reproduce with no signs of depression. (/>) cannibalism occurs causing in- 
creased fission rate among progeny of cannibal for short time. [See also next following Entry, 
348.]— Austin R. Middlcton. 

348. Dawson, J. A. An experimental study of an amicronucleate Oxytricha. II. The 
formation of double animals or 'twins.' Jour. Exp. Zool. 30: 129-157. 1 pi., 13 fig. Jan 5, 
1920. — Under conditions similar to those in which syngamy usually occurs is strong tendency 
for formation of double animals, "twins," by plastogamic dorsal fusion. Twins have all 



46 GENETICS [Bot. Absts.. Vol. V, 

morphological structures of two single animals, reproduce by transverse fission. Favorable 
environmental conditions necessary for continued existence of twins, i.e., do not survive in 
competition with single animals. Selection produced striking increase in percentage of twins 
in pedigreed culture from single twin animal. Division rate of twins similar to that of normal 
animals. Miscible condition of twin cytoplasm handed on to twin progeny but is quickly 
lost in single animals derived from twins, kept under identical environmental conditions. 
Under favorable environmental conditions twin strains breed indefinitely. Pairing, canni- 
balism, twin formation, occur among animals in similar physiological condition, these phenom- 
ena therefore interpreted as abortive attempts to undergo syngamy, failure due to amicro- 
nucleate condition. Inability to undergo syngamy has no effect on viability of race. [See 
also next preceding Entry, 347.] — Austin R. Middleton. 

349. De Vries, H. Phylogenetische und gruppenweise Artbildung. [Phylogenetic and 
group-wise species-formation.] Flora 11-12 (Festschr. E. Stahl) : 208-226. 1918.— Under the 
term "gruppenweise Artbildung" de Vries understands the formation of a species within a 
genus. There are also frequent transitions such as the reappearance of the same mutation 
within a species. For example, the occasional appearance of a peloric form of Linaria 
vulgaris. For the study of "group-wise" species formation the genus Oenothera offers excel- 
lent material. The mutations observed in this genus can be divided into general and special. 
The general mutations can be considered as parallel and taxonomic from the standpoint of 
the systematist, and as progressive and retrogressive from the standpoint of the geneticist. 
The parallel mutations appear in different species, as for example, the dwarfs which are pro- 
duced every year by Oe. biennis and Oe. Lamarckiana, and the sulfurea form of Oe. biennis 
and Oe. suaveolens. Parallelism is not limited to species of one genus but goes beyond these 
limitations. For example, the cruciate form of sepals of Epilobium hirsutum cruciatum, and 
very rare mutations of Oe. biennis cruciata. As an example of taxonomic mutation de Vries 
cites the complete lack of petals in the mutant Oe. suaveolens. — The absence of petals is a 
species character of Fuchsia macrantha and F. procumbens. Examples of progressive muta- 
tions are those in which a double number of chromosomes occurs, — gigas forms. Among retro- 
gressive mutations are Oe. nanella, Oe. brcvistylis and Oe. rubrinervis. The half-mutants are 
those which are produced by the fusion of a recessive mutated gamete with a normal gamete, 
as the mutant gigas. In this form we have annually 2 to 3 per cent mutants of the dwarf form. 
The half-mutants, which can be isolated here, give 25 per cent plants of the gigas form, 50 
per cent half-mutants and 25 per cent dwarfs. The first and third forms are constant. The 
half-mutants lead us to the group of special mutations. The first example cited by author is 
Oe. grandiflora. Two-thirds of the plants grown from seed are green and like the parent, 
and one-third consists of yellow-green weak forms which die if left in the open. About one- 
fourth of the seed are sterile. This phenomenon author explains in the following manner: 
Oe. grandiflora is a half-mutant which segregates into 25 per cent ochracea forms, 50 per cent 
half-mutant forms, and 25 per cent homozygous forms, the latter of which cannot be formed 
because the factor for grandiflora is united with a lethal factor. Parallel with this is also the 
appearance of Oe. Lamarckiana mut. rubrinervis, which segregates in Oe. deserens and Oe. rubri- 
nervis. About half of the seeds of Oe. Lamarckiana are empty. This is explained by au'hor 
in that Oe. Lamarckiana produces two kinds of gametes, the typical or laeta, and the velutina. 
Each gamete has a lethal factor which is closely linked with the character factor. Heterozy- 
gous combinations of these factors give good seeds which produce plants and homozygotic 
combinations give the sterile seeds. If one of the two lethal factors becomes "vital" the 
laeta or the velutina mutation appears. Finally he considers heterogamy, i.e., the phenomenon 
in which the direct and the reciprocal crosses are not the same. He assumes that the species 
which are crossed are half-mutations but that part of the pollen is lethal. — M. Demerec. 

350. De Wilde, P. A. Verwantschap en Erfelijkheid bij doofstomheid en retinitis pig- 
mentosa. [Relationship and heredity in deaf-and-dumbness and retinitis pigmentosa.] Dis- 
sertation, Amsterdam. 1919. — See also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 520. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 47 

351. Db Winiwarter. H. Les mitoses de 1 epithelium seminal du chat. [Mitoses of 
the seminal epithelium of the cat.] Arch. Biol. 30: 1 87. / doublt pi. withSAfig. 1919. — 
Thirty-six chromosomes occur in odgonial cells, thirty-five in spermatogonia!, the difference 
depending on the hcterochromosomes. The thirty-four autosomes unite to form seventeen 
bivalents in the primary spermatocyte, the heterochromosome constituting an eighteenth 
element. Secondary spermatocytes have eighteen and seventeen chromosomes respectively, 
and these numbers are maintained in the spermatids and consequently in the spermatozoa, 
since the last division is an equation-division. The heterochromosome is not detectable in 
the spermatogonia but appears gradually in the telophase of the last spermatogonial division. 
It finally becomes visible as an elongated body, often curved or even sharply bent. It never 
appears double as does its homologue in the oocyte. It is readily distinguished from the nu- 
cleolus, which is spherical and visible in spermatogonia as well as in the spermatocytes. — 
Author believes that his earlier counts in oogenesis, in which he and Saintmont recorded 
twelve chromosomes on the first maturation spindle and estimated twenty-four as the somatic 
number, were incorrect. He now thinks that the division figures were abnormal or that in 
fixation the chromosomes agglutinated. — Various authors have described a "monosome" in 
the germ-cells of the female cat but author is convinced that what they have regarded as a 
single body is the two heterochromosomes in juxtaposition. — The observational part of the 
paper is followed by twenty-six pages of discussion of the literature and of general aspects 
of the work. — M. F. Guyer. 

352. Doblas, Jose Herrera. Seleccion de semillas. [Seed selection.] Bol. Assoc. 
Agric. Espafia 11 : 90-95. 1919. 

353. Dodge, Raynal. Aspidium cristatum X marginale and A. simulatum. Amer. 
Fern Jour. 9: 73-SO. 1919.— Extracts from letter written to C. H. Knowlton by Dodge in 
1907 containing a detailed account of his discovery of the Massachusetts fern and the hy- 
brid between the crested and marginal ferns. — F. C. Anderson. 

354. Dresel, Kurt. Inweiferngelten dieMendelschenVererbungsgesetze in der mensch- 
lichen Pathologie? [To what extent do Mendelian laws of heredity hold in human pathology?] 
Virchow's Arch. 224: 256-303. 1917.— In general, the so-called laws of heredity (e.g., the "law 
of filial regression") are not such in the strictest sense, but the Mendelian law does present a 
conception which is fundamental to the study of human heredity. Hereditary disease may 
be due to single dominant or recessive factors or to combinations of factors. Occasional de- 
partures from expected results seeming to show incomplete dominance are due to the chance 
absence from the germplasm of a second factor which is usually present in homozygous form 
and which is essential to the actual manifestation of the condition. Sex-linked inheritance 
is wholly in accord with Mendel's law arid is the expression of a certain degree of affinity be- 
tween the sex factor ("gamete") and the disease-favoring factor. Since the proportion of 
affected individuals and female carriers is believed frequently to be high in sex-linked inherit- 
ance, the occasional presence of two equally potent but independent factors is suggested. 
The essay, which received the "Schulze Preis," is illustrated by forty-seven graphic diagrams 
and several tables classifying human diseases on the basis of their behavior in heredity. There 
is a rather extensive bibilography. — C. H. Danforth. 

355. Dreyer, Th. F. A suggested mechanism for the inheritance of acquired characters. 
South African Jour. Sci. 14: 272-277. 1918. 

356. Drude, O. Erfahrungen bei Kreuzungsversuchen mit Cucurbita Pepo. [Experi- 
ences in crossing experiments with Cucurbita Pepo.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 35: 26-57. 
1 pi. 1918. 

357. Dunn, L. C. The sable varieties of mice. Amer. Nat, 54: 247-261. S fig. May- 
June, 1920. — Sable is a form of yellow mouse showing considerable dark pigment on dorsal 
and lateral aspects. Black and tan is an extreme type of this variety. Darkness of sables 



48 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V. 

and black and tans appears due to genetic causes transferable to non-yellow varieties. Cross- 
between agouti (light) and black and tan (dark) gives' Fi sables and agoutis both intermediate. 
Further hybrid generations showed many light segregates both yellow and non-yellow, and 
fewer dark segregates. No extreme dark segregates found in yellow (black and tan) types, 
and few extreme dark non-yellow segregates. These latter proved not homozygous for dark- 
ening factors. Results indicate presence of genetic factors similar to those producing dif- 
ferences in size of rabbits. This similarity indicates unsuitableness of material for production 
of clear and analyzable results, rather than insoluble nature of problem. Correct interpreta- 
tion of such differences must await combination of optimum of material and method. — C. C. 
Little. 

358. Eaton, S. V. [Rev. of: Dorsey, M. J. Relation of weather to fruitfulness in the 
plum. Jour. Agric. Res. 17: 103-126. PI. 13-15, 1 jig. June 16, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, 
Entry 1478.)] Bot. Gaz. 69: 269. Mar., 1920. 

359. Ebstein, A. Zur Frage des Vorkommens von Kretinen und Albinos in Lehrbach im 
Karz. [On the occurrence of cretins and albinoes in Lehrbach in the Harz.] Die Naturwissen- 
schaften 6: 561-565. 1918. 

360. Eisenberg, P. Untersuchungen iiber die Variabilitat der Bakterien. VII. Uber 
die Variabilitat des Schleimbildungsvermogens und der Gramfestigkeit. [Investigations on 
the variability of bacteria. VII. On the variability of the slime-building capacity and in Gram- 
reaction.] Centralbl. Bakt. Parasitenk. 82: 401. 1918. 

361. Everitt, P. F. Quadrature coefficients for Sheppard's formula (c). Biom. Vol. 1: 
p. 276. Biometrika 12: 283. Nov., 1919. — This table gives constants necessary for rapid cal- 
culation of the area of a curve, from equally spaced ordinates. — John W. Gowen. 

362. Findlay, Wm. M. The size of seed. North Scotland Coll. Agric. Bull. 23. IS p. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1361. 

363. Fischer, E. Die Beziehungen zwischen Sexualitat und Reproduktion im Pfianzen- 
reich. [Relation between sexuality and reproduction in the vegetable kingdom.] Mitteil 
Naturf. Ges. Bern. 1918: 1-4. 1918. 

364. Fries, Rob. E. Strodda iakttagelser over Bergianska Tradgardens gymnospei-mer. 
[Miscellaneous observations on gymnosperms in the Bergian garden.] Acta Horti Bergiani 
[Stockholm] 6: 1-19. 1 pi., 1 fig. 19 — . — The original specimen of Larix americana Michx. f. 
glauca Beissn. is characterized by chlorocarpy. Color of needles is certainly in large part 
blue-green (glauca). Shoots with typical light-green color are to be seen here and there, 
however, which is also shown in a colored plate. The cause of this fact, suggesting chimera- 
phenomena, is not as yet explained. Of Picea Engelmannii (Parr) Engelm., author describes 
a virgala and a prostrala form, both belonging to the glauca type. Teratological formations 
in the strobiles of Larix decidua are described. — Report is given on the winter-resistance of 
different kinds of needle-trees. Different observations concerning the process of flowering 
are given and discussed. Pinus cembra, Picea nigra and Abies arizonica seem during the in- 
dividual life to have a 9 stage preceding the androgynous stage. In Pinus ponder osa var. 
scopuloi'um, Picea omorica and Abies concolor, on the contrary, a o" stage seems to precede the 
stage with both sexes. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

365. Fritsch, K. Floristische Notizen. Uber Rumex Heimerlii Beck uud einige andere 
angebliche Tripelbastarde aus der Gattung Rumex. [Floristic notes on Rumex Heimerlii Beck 
and several other supposed triple hybrids in the genus Rumex.] Osterr. Bot. Zeitg. 67: 249-252. 
1918. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 49 

:>>(). Frolich, G Abstammungs- und Inzuchtsforschungen. Dargestellt an der wicht- 
Igsten Blutlinie des weissen deutschen Edelschweines, Ammerlander Zucht. [Pedigree and 
inbreeding investigations. Represented in the most important bloodlines of improved white 
German swine, Ammerland breed.] Kuhn-Archiv 7: 52-129. 6 pi. 191^. 

367. Frolich, G. Wichtigste Blutlinie des weissen deutschen Edelschweines, Ammer- 
lander Zucht. [Most important blood-lines of improved white German swine, Ammerland 
breed.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse. 46: 24. 12 fig. 1919. 

3bS. Frolich, G. Die Beeinfiussung der Kornschwere durch Auslese bei der Ziichtung 
der Ackerbohne. [The influencing of grain-weight by selection in the breeding of field beans.] 
Friedrichswerther Monatsber. 9: 7-8, 17-20. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 268. 

369. Frolich, G. Die Umziichtung von Wintergetreide in Sommergetreide. [The 
breeding of winter cereals into spring cereals.] Friedrichswerther Monatsber. 9: 27-30. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 267. 

370. Frost, H. B. Mutation in Matthiola. Univ. California Publ. Agric. Sci. 2: Sl-190. 
1919. — Occurrence, characteristics and heredity of certain aberrant types of Matthiola annua 
Sweet are described. These aberrant forms resemble some of the "mutant" types produced 
by Oenothera Lamarckiana. It is highly probable that they are originally produced by mu- 
tation but it is uncertain whether aberrant individuals arise by immediate mutation or by 
segregation. Although the species is typically Mendelian with respect to various characters, 
yet individuals of the mutant types give erratic hereditary ratios suggestive of Oenothera. 
Six out of eight types studied have shown their heritability in progeny tests. Some of the 
types have been produced by many parents and in several pure lines isolated from the original 
commercial variety, "Snowflake." — Mutant types are in general inferior to Snowflake in vigor, 
fertility and various form and size characters. The early type is practically a smaller and 
earlier Snowflake and is probably due to a single dominant mutant factor. In five other 
types no true-breeding individuals have yet been found although it is known that in three of 
the types the mutant factor (or factors) is carried by both eggs and sperms; hence it appears 
that these mutant factors are imperfectly recessive for a lethal effect. Evidence is reported 
for linkage of three mutant factors with the factor pair for singleness and doubleness of flowers 
but selfing ratios suggest duplication of a chromosome (non-disjunction) as in Oenothera 
lata. Further study may help to explain the remarkable genetic behavior of Oenothera and 
Citrus. — E. B. Babcock. 

371. Fruwirth, C. Zum Verhalten der Bastardierung spontaner Variationen mit der 
Ausgangsform. [The hybridization of a spontaneous variation with the original form.] Zeit- 
schr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 66-73. 2 fig. June, 1919. — Author observed a spontaneous variation 
in color of seed coats of a spotted strain of narrow-leaved lupine {Lupinus angustifolius) . 
This variation was a dilution of the color. It has bred true since 1911. Reciprocal hybrids 
were made between this dilute-colored form and the parent strain. In Fi dilute color was 
dominant when maternal parent was dilute and recessive when the paternal parent was 
dilute. Segregation occurred in both hybrids in second and subsequent generations but 
behavior was very irregular. — J. H. Kemplon. 

372. Fruwirth, C. [German rev. of: Fruwirth, C. Handbuch der landwirtschaft- 
lichen Pflanzenzuchtung. II. Die Ziichtung von Mais, Futterriiben und anderen Ruben, Oel- 
pflanzen und Grasern. (Handbook of agricultural plant breeding. II. The breeding of maize, 
fodder beets and other root-crops, oil plants and grasses.) 3rd. cd., 262 p., 50 fig. Paul Parey: 
Berlin, 1918.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 144-145. Dec, 1919. 

373. Fruwirth, C. Die gegenwartige Organisation der Pflanzenzuchtung in Deutsch- 
land und in Osterreich-Ungarn. [The present organization of plant breeding in Germany and 
Austro-Hungary.] Nachricht. Deutsch. Landw. Ges. Osterreich 1919: 35-39. 1919.— See 
Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 269. 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



50 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

374. Fruwirth, C, Dr. Th. Roemer, and Dr. E. von Tschermak. Handbuch der land- 
wirtschaftlichen Pflanzenziichtung. 4. Die Ziichtung der vier Hauptgetreidearten trad der 
Zuckerriibe. [Handbook of agricultural plant breeding. 4. Breeding of the four chief cereals 
and the sugar beet.] 3rd. ed., 8vo., xv + 504 V-, 42 fig- Paul Parey: Berlin, 1918. — See Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 270. 

375. Gassner, S. Beitrage zur physiologischen Charakteristik sornmer- und wlnter- 
annueller Gewachse, insbesondere der Getreidepflanzen. [Contribution to the physiological 
characteristics of summer and winter annuals with special reference to the cereals.] Zeitschr. 
Bot. 10: 417-4S0. 7 pi., 2 fig. 1918— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 271.] 

376. Gassul, R. Wachtrag zu meiner Mittellung iiber "Eine durch Generationen pra- 
valierende symmetrische Fingerkontraktur." [Supplement to my contribution on a symmetrical 
contraction of the fingers prevailing through generations.] Deutsch. Mediz. Wochenschr. 44: 
1196-1197. 1918.— See Also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 578, and next following Entry, 378. 

377. Gassxjl, R. Eine durch Generationen pravallerende symmetrische Fingurkontrak- 
tur. [A symmetrical contraction of the fingers prevailing through generations.] Deutsch. 
Mediz. Wochenschr. 44: 1197-119S. 2 fig. 1918. — In. a family from Mecklenburg-Schwerin 
three successive generations have produced individuals with permanent bilateral hyper- 
extension of the basal phalanges of the fourth and fifth fingers. [See also next preceding 
Entry, 377.]— C. H. Danforth. 

378. Gatenby, J. Bronte. The cytoplasmic inclusions of the germ-cells. VI. On the 
origin and probable constitution of the germ-cell determinant of Apanteles glomeratus, with a 
note on the secondary nuclei. Quart. Jour. Microsc. Sci. 64: 133-153. 1 pi., 10 fig. Jan., 
1920. — Author describes his attempts to determine the composition and origin of the germ- 
cell determinant in the oocytes of the parasitic hymenopteran, Apanteles glomeratus. He 
finds that it arises as a concentrated area at the posterior pole of the young oocytes; that it 
is probably formed of albuminous material rather than of chromatin, fat, yolk, or glycogen; 
and that the secondary nuclei have no connection with it. — R. W. Hegncr. 

379. Gatenby, J. Bronte. [Rev. of: Thomson, J. Arthur. Heredity. 3rd. ed., ix + 
627 p., 47 fig. John Murray: London, 1919.] Sci. Prog. 14: 517. Jan., 1920. 

380. Geisenheyner, L. Uber einigen Panaschierungen. [On some variegations.] Verhandl. 
Bot. Ver. Prov. Brandenburg 59: 51-61. 3 fig. 1918. 

381. Goebel, K. Zur Kenntnis der Zwergfarne. [To a knowledge of the dwarf ferns.] 
Flora 11-12 (Festschr. Stahl) : 268-281. 6 fig. 1918.— Describes dwarf mutants (?) from two 
spp. of Aspidium, one sp. of Drynaria (tropical), and two spp. of Platycerium. Mutation has 
not yet been directly observed in culture. Dwarfs are characterized by smaller and fewer 
cells, smaller or fewer bundles (or both), fewer sori, sporangia, and spores. Describes parallel 
investigation of dwarf mutant from Salvia protensis. — Merle C. Coulter. 

382. Goldsmith, William M. A comparative study of the chromosomes of tiger beetles 
(Cicindelidae). Jour. Morph. 32: 437-487. PL 1-10. 1919.— Five species of Cicindela were 
studied, all of which conform to one type in regard to chromosome number and spermatogene- 
sis. The male has a "double odd chromosome," the female two, making the formulae 20 -f- 
Xx=22o", 20+Xx+Xx = 249 . In other Coleoptera two additional types are known, (1) 
20+X+Y=22d", 20+2X=229 ; and (2) 18-r-X = 19d\ 18+2X=209 . In Cicindela spermato- 
gonia are in syncytial cysts; the spermatocyte growth period includes, in sequence, the usual 
diffuse, leptotene, synaptic (synizesis) and diplotene stages, giving rise to prophase bivalents. 
The Xx complex is a single compound body in first division, going undivided to one pole, giv- 
ing two types of second spermatocytes. X separates from x in anaphase and both divide in 
second division. Spermatogonia each have one nucleolus, oogonia have two, corresponding 
to sex-chromosome relations. Early stages of oocyte growth period correspond in general 
to those of spermatocyte. — Chas. W. Metz. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 51 

483. Guyer, M. F., and E. A. Smith. Studies on cytolysins. I. Some prenatal effects 
of lens antibodies. Jour. Exp. Zool. 26: 65 82. 1918. — The lenses of freshly-killed rabbits 
were reduced to a pulp and diluted wit h normal salt solution, then injected into the peritoneal 
cavity of fowls. Serum obtained from such fowls, when injected into the blood-vascular sys- 
tem of pregnant rabbits, attacked the lenses of some of the uterine young, though without ef- 
fect on the lenses of the mothers. The affected lenses were rendered opaque or liquid. Sim- 
ilar results were obtained in mice. The experiments demonstrate that specific si nut oral 
modifications can be engendered in the young in utero by means of specifically sensitized sera. 
— Bertram G. Smith. 

384. Haecker, V. Vererbungsgeschichtliche Einzelfragen IV. Uber die Vererbung ex- 
tremer Eigenschaftsstufen. [Historical genetical problems IV. On the inheritance of extreme 
character-gradations.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 145-157. 2 fig. Sept., 1919. 
— Various cases already in the literature are brought together in support of the following gen- 
eralization: The extreme grades of a varying character will show agreement with the law of 
segregation, but the intermediate grades will not show such phenomena among themselves. 
The cases cited as evidence include height of peas, Mendel's short and tall vs. Bateson's dwarf 
and semi-dwarf; the relations of Oenothera gigas and nanella vs. those of 0. muricata and nan- 
ella; stature in man (an original pedigree is given of one family involving a size cross) ; crosses 
between the blue and white varieties of flax, and between two species of somewhat different 
blues; much the same situation in Veronica; leaf color in Shull's Lychnis; spotting in mice 
and rats; and finally various examples from butterfly crosses. In attempting to provide some 
theoretical explanation to cover the situation in general, the multiple factor theory is found 
impossible without far-reaching supporting hypotheses. A special factor influencing the 
extreme plus and minus grades is not accepted because this phenomenon is so far-reaching in 
plants and animals, involving color as well as form, that there must be a common final cause 
behind all cases. Neither can the popular theory of linkage be called in to help without the 
special assumption that linkage is effective when strong concentrations of duplicate factors 
are present, and also when these factors are in greatly reduced numbers, but in the inter- 
mediate conditions the factors exhibit their independence. But this explanation is not satis- 
factory, and in the present state of the science the best one can do is to say that, "In con- 
tinuously varying characters the extremes show a greater inclination to inheritable indepen- 
dence than do the intermediate grades." In other words, the germplasm determining the 
extreme grades is much more stable and independently heritable than that determining the 
intermediate grades. The article is concluded with a cursory discussion of the antagonistic 
relation between white and black with special reference to mosaic arrangements and to onto- 
genetic reversals; it is suggested that one condition of the germplasm may completely turn 
over into the other condition with proportional ease. — E. C. MacDowell. 

385. Haecker, V. Die Annahme einer erblichen U ^rtragung kdrperlicher Kriegs- 
schaden. [The supposition of a hereditary transmission of physical war injuries.] Arch. 
Frauenk. u. Eugenik. 4: 1. 1919. 

386. Haecker, V. Uber Regelmassigkeiten im Auftreten erblicher Normaleigenschaf- 
ten, Anomalien und Krankheiten beim Menschen. [On regularity in the occurrence of heredi- 
tary normal characteristics, anomalies and diseases in man.] Mediz. Klinik. 14: 177. 1918. 

387. Hammerlund, H. C. Foradling av gronsaksvaxter vid Weibullsholms Vaxtforad- 
lingsanstalt. [Improvement of green vegetables at the station for plant improvement of Wei- 
bullsholm.] 18 p., 7 fig. W. Weibulls Illustrerade Arsbok (Landskrona) 15 (1920). 1919. — 
Gives an account of the results obtained and methods practised. Self-fertility has been found 
to be very unequal for different sorts of cabbage, and seems also to vary for other kinds of 
green vegetables. In parsnips self-fertility seems however in general to be very effective. — 
K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

388. Hansen, W. EinigesuberRubenzucht. [Something about beet-breeding.] Landw. 
Zeitung 39: 154-156. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 272. 



52 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

389. H[arland], S. C. A note on a peculiar type of rogue in Sea-Island cotton. Agric. 
News [Barbados] 19: 29. 1920. — A distinct type characterized by great reduction in size of all 
the organs and nearly complete sterility, constitutes about 0.05 per cent of plants in fields of 
Sea Island cotton in St. Vincent. No viable pollen is produced and seeds are very rarely de- 
veloped. Plants grown from two seeds borne on a "rogue" plant, representing therefore Fi of 
cross with Sea Island, had all characters of latter. A self-fertilized strain of Sea Island, which 
had produced hitherto only normal plants, gave rise in fourth selfed generation to rogue plants 
in 4 out of 62 progenies, the average percentage of rogues having been 1.6. — T. H. Kearney. 

390. Heribert-Nilsson, H. N. Ett forsok med urval inom pedigreesorter av havre. 
[An experiment with selection among pedigree-varieties of oats.] 4 V- W. Weibulls Illustrer- 
ade Arsbok (Landskrona) 15 (1920). 1919.— Of the Danish "Tystofte Gulhvid," by pedigree 
selection, a new and more productive variety "Weibull's Fortunahavre" was obtained. Here 
is of special interest that selection within the pedigree variety "Tystofte Gulhvid" has given 
such a surprisingly good result. This shows that the mother variety "Tystofte Gulhvid," 
must either not have been homogeneous, although secured by pedigree selection, or the ori- 
ginal plant of "Fortuna" oats must represent a mutation. Under high humidity combined 
with high temperature author has observed that the oat flowers are able to open and, contrary 
to the usual rule, disperse their pollen. Cross-fertilization thus is not excluded in oats, which 
as a rule however is an autogamous plant. The author also considers as most probable that 
the individual used as mother plant had its genotype changed by a new combination. — K. V. 
Ossian Dahlgren. 

391. Hoffmann, Hermann. Geschlechtsbegrenzte Vererbung und manisch-depressives 
Irresein. [Sex-linked inheritance and manic-depressive insanity.] Zeitschr. ges. Neurol. 
Psych. 49: 336-356. 1919. — Author reviews suggestion of Lenz that certain diseases repre- 
sent dominant sex-linked characters and develops the theoretical expectations for this form 
of heredity. One of the critical requirements in these cases is that a father characterized 
by a dominant sex-linked trait should produce only normal sons and affected daughters. Lenz 
mentioned manic-depressive insanity as possible example of this type. Author finds that in 
general the heredity of the diathesis does conform approximately to theoretical expectations 
based on Lenz's hypothesis, but there are numerous exceptions. Twelve such exceptional 
family histories are presented in some detail. In these families where affected men have 
married presumably normal women there have been produced instead of all normal sons 
twenty-four affected and two normal, from which it is concluded that manic depressive in- 
sanity does not present an. entirely satisfactory example of dominant sex-linked heredity. — 
C. H. Danforth. 

392. Hopkins, L. S. A crested form of the lady fern. Amer. Fern Jour. 9: S6-8S. 
PI. 4- 1919. 

393. Jehle, R. A., and others. I. Control of cotton wilt. II. Control of cotton anthrac- 
nose and improvement of cotton. Bull. North Carolina Dept. Agric. 41 l : Supplem. 5-28. Fig. 
1-6 and 1-5. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 747. 

394. Jelinek, Dr. Nachste Aufgaben der Pflanzenzuchtung und der Sortenpriifung. 
[The next problems of plant breeding and variety testing.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 83-90. 
Dec, 1919. 

395. Kajanus, H. B. (1) Weibullsholms Ambrosia-kokart. 1 p. (2) Weibulls Koli- 
bri-fodervicker. 2 p., 2 fig. (3) Weibulls Tardus-Hundaxing. 2 p., 2 fig. W. Weibulls Illus- 
trerade Arsbok (Landskrona) 15 (1920). 1919. — New and productive sorts of Pisum sativum, 
of Vicia saliva, and of Dactylis glomerata are described: the last flowers about two weeks 
later than the common sorts. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 53 

396. Kammkkkr. Geschlechtsbestimmung und Geschlectsverwandlung. Zwei geniein- 
verstandliche Vortrage. [Sex determination and sex modification. Two popular lectures. 00 
p., 16 fig. Perles:Wien, 1918. 

397. Kammerer, K. Mischling. [Hybrids.] Ornil.Ii. Monatshefte. 43: 31-32. 1918. 

398. Kammerer, Paul. Das Gesetz der Serie. Eine Lehre von den Wiederholungen im 
Lebens- und im Weltgeschehen. [The law of series. A doctrine of the repetition in life- and 
world-phenomena. 17 X 24-5 cm., 486 p., 8 pi., 26 fig. Deutsche Verlang-Anstalt: Stuttgart, 
Berlin, 1919. 

399. Kiessling, L. Die Leistuug der Wintergerste und deren zuchterische Beeinflus- 
sung. [The performance of winter barley and its modification by breeding.] Illustr. Landw. 
Zeitung 1919: 310-311. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 283. 

400. Klatt, B. Vergleichende metrische und morphologische Grosshirnstudien an Wild- 
und Haushunden. [Comparative metrical and morphological studies on the cerebrum of wild 
and domesticated dogs.] Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Frcunde. 1918: 35-55. 1918. 

401. Klatt, B. Experimen telle Untersuchungen iiber die Beeinflussbarkeit der Erban- 
lagen durch den KOrper. [Experimental investigations on the modifiability of the hereditary 
factors through the soma.] Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde. 1919: 39-45. 1919. 

402. Knibbs, G. H. The problems of population, food supply and migration. Scientia26: 
485^495. 1919. — Popular mathematical paper showing that the present world's population 
increase is too rapid when compared with possibilities of increasing the food supply. — E. M. 
East. 

403. Kottur, G. L. An improved type of cotton for the southern Maratha country (Bom- 
bay Presidency, India). Agric. Jour. India 14: 165-167. 1 pi. 1919. 

404. Kraus, and L. Kiessling. Die Landsortenziichtung in Bayern. [Breeding of 
local varieties in Bavaria.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1918: 247. 1918. 

405. Kroemer, K. Das staatliche Rebenveredelungswesen in Preussen. [State grape- 
improvement project in Prussia.] Landw. Jahrb. 51: 1-292. 8 pi., 43 fig. 1918. 

406. Kronacher, C. Die deutscher Schweinezucht und Haltung nach dem Kriege. 
[German swine breeding and maintenance after the war.] Flugschr. Deutsch. Ges. Zuchtsk. 
1918:47. 191S. 

407. Kronacher, C. Beitrag zur "Erbfehler" Forschung in der Tierzuchtmit besonderer 
Beriicksichtigung des Rorens beim Pferde. [Contribution to investigation of hereditary defects 
in animal breeding, with special reference to "Rorens" in horses.] Flugschr. Deutsch. Ges. 
Ziichtungsk. 1918: 1-32. 1918. 

408. Kronacher, C. Allgemeine Tierzucht. Ein Lehr- u. Handbuch fur Studierende 
u. Ziichter. 4. Abteilung (Abschnitt VI des Gesamtwerkes) : Die Ziichtung. [General animal 
breeding. A text and handbook for students and breeders. 4th part (Section VI of the com- 
plete work) : Breeding. 8vo, 357 p. Paul Parey: Berlin, 1919.] 

409. Lenz, Fritz. Uber dominant-geschlechtsbegrenzte Vererbung und die Erblickkeit 
der Basedowdiathese. [Dominant sex-linked heredity and the inheritance of the Basedow dia- 
thesis.] Arch. Rassen u. Gesellschaftsbiol. 13: 1-9. 5 fig. 1918. — The fact that certain sex- 
linked traits are recessive carries with it the corollary that allelomorphic traits are sex-linked 
dominants. Biologically there is no essential difference between normal and disease-favoring 
determiners, and consequently dominant sex-linked diseases might be expected. Such dis- 
eases, instead of being very rare in the female, should be twice as frequent as in the male. 



54 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

Affected females mated to normal males should produce in equal numbers both normal and 
affected sons and daughters while affected males mated to normal females should produce 
only normal sons and affected daughters. The incidence of several diseases of man, including 
Basedow's, approximate the expectations for dominant sex-linked traits. That they are such 
can not be stated with assurance till further data shall have been accumulated. It is the 
purpose of this paper to point out the possibility of dominant sex-linked traits and to indicate 
their expected mode of inheritance. — C. H. Danforth. 

410. Lillie, Frank Rattray. Problems of fertilization. 13X 19 cm.,xii-\-27S p., 19 fig. 
Univ. Chicago Press: Chicago, 1919. — Author distinguishes two phases of fertilization, re- 
juvenescence, and combination of inheritance from two parents. Latter is only feature com- 
mon to all cases of fertilization. Morphology of fertilization is described. Chromosome equiv- 
alence of egg and sperm is emphasized. Origin of centrosome in fertilized egg is regarded as 
physiological rather than morphological. There is no evidence that mitochrondria of sperm 
have any function in heredity. Pathological polyspermy strongly supports nuclear theory 
of heredity. — Behavior of sperm under various circumstances is described, especially in 
response to chemical stimuli, including those originating in egg. Agglutination of sperm is 
due to substance in sperm, which is specific in its action. Approach of sperm to egg is not 
due solely to random activity, nor to chemotactic orientation alone, but to combination of 
different types of behavior. Gametes must both be in definite condition before fertilization 
may occur, and that condition lasts variable time in different species. Sperm owes its power 
of fertilization to a substance, not to its motility, and this substance may also be responsible 
for agglutination. Egg also owes fertilization capacity to hypothetical substance (fertilizin). 
Fertilization is accompanied by increase in rate of oxidation, changes in permeability, changes 
in colloidal condition, and chemical alterations. Fertilization involves long series of events, 
some cortical, some internal, and process may be arrested in middle, making fertilization 
partial. Such incomplete activation of egg results sooner or later in arrest of develop- 
ment. — Tissue specificity in fertilization is demonstrated when spermatozoa fail to enter 
accessible cells other than ova. Species specificity is shown by hybrid fertilization in echino- 
derms, teleosts, and Amphibia, and by self-fertilization in various animals. Such hybridiza- 
tion experiments demonstrate some non-specific and some specific factors. Latter are found 
in cortical reactions of egg. If cortical barrier is passed by foreign sperm, fertilization pro- 
ceeds normally. In plants, sterility is due to inhibition of growth of pollen tube, not to 
incompatibility of gametes, and in some cases sterility factors are known to be inherited. Spec- 
ificity is doubtless due to chemical phenomenon, problem related to agglutination of sperms. 
Analogy with immunity reaction is pointed out, but with warning that these phenomena may 
be fundamentally unlike. — Activation involves two phases, cortical and internal. Agglutina- 
tion of sperm to egg is first step in cortical phase, and is due to agglutinating substance (fer- 
tilizin). This substance is combined on entrance of one sperm, and egg does not react to other 
sperms. Author criticises Loeb's view that activation of egg is due to cortical cytolysis; 
discusses increase of oxidation, also gelation and liquefaction of cortical protoplasm, and elec- 
trical polarization. Internal phase of activation mainly relates to preparation for karyo- 
kinesis. — A. Franklin Shull. 

411. Ltjndborg, H. Befolkningsstudier i Norrbotten och nordliga Lappland sarskildt 
inagra f jallbyar av Tome sjo. [The structure of population in Norrbotten and in the northeast 
part of Lappland, specially in some mountain villages near Lake Torne.] Ord och Bild [Stock- 
holm] 28: 641-648. 11 fig. 1919. — Author describes how the Lapponians are going over to 
settle in houses and the social and race biological consequences of this change. Crossings 
between Swedes, Finlanders and Lapponians are not uncommon. The lowest and poorest 
part of the population includes as a rule Lapponians and half-blood Lapponians; the middle 
part are Finlanders; the upper portion consists of Swedes or Swede Finlanders. The younger 
a village is and the more westward up to the mountain it is situated, the more the Lapponians 
or Lapponian Finlandian elements dominate. The reason for this difference in the structure 
of population depends undoubtedly upon the race inequalities or differences in cultural quali- 
fication of the tribes in question. — K. V . Ossian Dahlgren. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 55 

412. Lundborg, H. Olika folk och kulturer, sedda i rasbiologiskt ljus. — Internationell 
Politik. [Different peoples and cultures in race-biological light.) 125X200 mm., 8 p. Stock- 
holm, 1919. — Author treats the consequences of (1) intcr-marriages, (2) extreme mixing of 
races, (3) marriages within the same tribe (inter-marriages in its wide sense) and (4) race- 
mixings between related peoples. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgrcn. 

413. Lundborg, H. Om modern arftlighetsforskning med sarskild hansyn till mannis- 
kan. [On modern inquiry into heredity with special consideration to mankind.] Ord och Bild 
[Stockholm] 28: 18G-19G. 4 jig. 1919. — Popular treatise. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

414. Lundborg, H. En svensk bondeslakts historia sedd i rasbiologisk belysning. — 
Svenska Sallskapets for Rashygien skriftserie II. [The history of a Swedish peasant family 
in eugenical light. No. II. of the papers of the Swedish Eugenical Association. 13S X 215 n 

40 p., S fig. P. A. Norstedt & Soners Forlag: Stockholm, 1920. — Author first discusses genea- 
logical investigation as a cultural subject. Especially in Sweden it might be possible to prac- 
tise genealogical inquiries on a greater scale, because the registration of the inhabitants of 
Sweden since centuries ago is more complete than in any other country. The "husf: rhors- 
bocker" are especially important, because in these books on the same page are noted whole 
families. After a small chapter on "genealogical principles"" the author proceeds to a popular 
description of his investigation on the Lister family. This family was extensively discussed 
in author's great work "Medizinisch-biologische Familieforschungen innerhalb eines 2232- 
kopfigen Bauergeschlechtes in Schweden," Jena 1913. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

415. Lynch, Clara J. An analysis of certain cases of intra-specific sterility. Genetics 
4: 501-533. 2 fig. Nov., 1919. — Analysis of sterility in certain mutant races of Drosophila 
melanogastcr. Fused is sex-linked recessive. Males are fertile with normal or heterozygous 
females; fused females produce no offspring when mated to fused males, only a few (and these 
all daughters) when mated to normal males. XXY fused females, mated to normal males, 
produce a few sons, but these are all non-disjunctional exceptions. Hence fused gene acts 
to prevent eggs from developing, but this action may be inhibited by its normal allelomorph, 
either before maturation (in heterozygous female) or after fertilization (in not-fused offspring 
of fused female). Rudimentary, another sex-linked recessive, acts in same way as fused, but 
not so completely, as rudimentary females produce a few rudimentary offspring. Morula, 
reduced bristle, dwarf (autosomal recessives) have sterile females and fertile males. Dibro 
(autosomal recessive) apparently sterile in both sexes. Cleft (sex-linked recessive) has 
sterile males, and females have never been obtained. In none of the cases studied was it 
possible to isolate a sterility gene independent of the mutant gene itself. Sterility is prob- 
ably one of the effects of these mutant genes. — A. H. Sturtevant. 

416. Macoun, W. T. Blight resistant potatoes. Canadian Hortic. 42: 129-156. 1919 — 
See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1644. 

417. MacBride, E. W. The inheritance of acquired characters. Nature 103: 222. May 
22, 1919. — Refers to recent work of Kammerer published in Archiv fur Entwicklungsmechanik, 
1919, extending earlier experiments with Alycetes, the "mid-wife" toad. These normally 
pair on land, the horny patch on the hand of the male, characteristic of water-breeding Anura, 
being absent. Kammerer had previously found that Alycetes subjected to a higher tempera- 
ture, paired in water, and that the Fi and F 2 generations developed the horny patch, even 
when returned to a terrestrial environment. It is now found that the patch persists in the 
F« generation. — McBride deprecates certain criticisms of the work of Kammerer and is in- 
clined to support the results as evidence toward the inheritance of acquired characters. He 
notes that arrangements for a repetition of the experiment in the Zoological Gardens, are 
being made, although a minimum of six years will be required. — Although author is inclined 
to challenge Mendelians in connection with the results achieved by Kammerer, experiments 
with Drosophila, particularly where abnormal abdomen develops, are suggestive that a com- 
mon explanation may underlie both phenomena. — L. B. Walton. 



56 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

418. Meader, Percy D. Variation in the diphtheria group. Jour. Infect. Diseases 24: 
145-157. 1919. — Author's material consisted of 25 different strains of the diphtheria bacillus, 
isolated, for the most part, from throats of persons infected with diphtheria during epidemic 
of the disease. Pure cultures were made of each strain by repeated plating on agar. From 
each pure culture a series of subcultures were made by plating dilutions so prepared that as 
far as possible each colony represented the progeny of a single organism. Repeated subcul- 
tures were made from selected colonies of each strain. Progeny of the various colonies were 
examined in 20 hour slant cultures on Loeffler's serum stained with LoefHer's methylene blue. 
The frequency of the various Wesbrook types of morphology were tabulated for the original 
type of each strain and for the progeny of each type. Employing as a criterion of variability 
in type the fact that the predominating types of morphology present in subcultures were dif- 
ferent from those present in the original culture, the author found that of his 25 strains 8 
showed morphologic variation, 4 may have varied only slightly, if at all, and 13 showed no 
reasonable indication of variation. — -To determine fermentative variability, each of the 25 
strains were compared with their descendants after the 5th and 10th platings as regards their 
power to produce acid in dextrose, lactose, maltose, dextrin, and saccharose. More than half 
of the cultures investigated varied after successive platings as regards their power to produce 
acid in carbohydrates. — Variability of virulence of the 25 strains was tested by means of the 
inoculation into guinea pigs of each original type and of its progeny after the 5th and 10th plat- 
ings. Some strains gained virulence, some lost it and some remained constant in the course 
of successive platings. Variations in virulence were only in part correlated with morphologic 
types. Cultures containing granular forms were frequently non-virulent, while those which 
consisted of solid-staining forms for the greater part of their cultivation were consistently 
non-virulent. — From a biometric study of the fermentative reactions of members of the diph- 
theria group it appears that they constitute a genetically related group of organisms. In 
subcultures derived from one parent strain variations in morphology, in fermentative reac- 
tions and in virulence, occur, but the virulence of a strain is not correlated with its fermenta- 
tive reactions nor closely correlated with its morphology. — M. A. Barber. 

419. Metjnissier, A. De quelques idees sur la selection des legumes. [Some ideas on 
the selection of vegetables.] Rev. Hortic. 91: 300-303. June, 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 1855. 

420. Meves, G. Eine neue Stiitze fur die Plastosomen theorie der Vererbung. [A new 
support for the plastosome theory of heredity.] Anat. Anzeig. 50: 1918. 

421. Molz, C. Natiirliche und kiinstliche Auslese zur Erzielung widerstandsfahiger 
Sorten. [Natural and artificial selection for the achievement of resistant varieties.] Deutsch. 
Landw. Presse 1918: 19. 1918. 

422. Morgan, Thomas Hunt. The physical basis of heredity. 14x21 cm., 300 p., 117 
fig. J. B. Lippincott Co. : Philadelphia, 1919. — A presentation of the modern factorial theory 
of heredity, comprising the phenomena of segregation, independent assortment, linkage and 
crossing over, the linear arrangement of the genes, interference, and the limitation of the 
linkage groups. Both the genetic evidence and the cytological are presented, and it is shown 
how the genetic phenomena are explained by the chromosome mechanism. On the basis of 
these principles an analysis is given of sex and sex-linked inheritance, non-disjunction, par- 
thenogenesis and pure lines, cytoplasmic and maternal inheritance. There is a discussion of 
variation in linkage caused by hereditary factors and by environmental conditions. The 
chapter on "Variation in the number of the chromosomes and its relation to the totality of the 
genes" deals with triploidy and tetraploidy, and recent work indicating deficiency, dupli- 
cation of factors in a chromosome, and transposition of factors from one chromosome to an- 
other. The chapter on mutation includes the explanation of pseudo-mutations by balanced 
lethals. In "The particulate theory of heredity and the nature of the gene" the author dis- 
cusses the relation of the genetic factor or gene to somatic characters and to ontogeny. — 
Alexander Wcinslci/i. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 57 

[_';;. MORGAN, T. II. Contributions to the genetics of Drosophila melanogaster. IV. 
A demonstration of genes modifying the character "notch." Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 
27s. P. 343-88S. 1 pi. ,15 Jig. Washington, D. C. 1919.- Notch is a dominant sex-linked gene 

affecting wings, lethal when homozygous; consequently all notch flies are female and heterozy- 
gous. Mass selection in the direction of slight notching, carried out through 24 generations 
of Drosophila melanogaster, resulted in marked change in direction of selection. Extreme 
selected females, out-crossed to wild-type flies, gave ordinary notch in first generation, show- 
ing notch gene unmodified. Linkage relations demonstrated results of selection due to re- 
cessive modifying factor in second chromosome. Second experiment (19 generations) gave 
similar results; crosses showed effect due to same modifier in both cases. — A modification in 
opposite direction, called "short notch," appeared several times; outcrosses to wild flies 
gave ordinary notch. Linkage relations showed this modification due to recessive modifier 
in first chromosome. — Notch gene is always necessarily heterozygous, but all results show no 
"contamination" by its normal allelomorph. Other mutations, modifying wings in somewhat 
similar or different ways, were all located in other chromosomes or different loci in X chromo- 
some, thus showing them independent of notch. — High sex-ratios (76:1 and 119:10), given by 
two notch females, were undoubtedly due to lethal mutation in not-notch X chromosome, 
as shown in other cases. Only those few sons having crossover X survive. — C. R. Plunkett. 

424. Morgan, T. H., and C. B. Bridges. Contributions to the genetics of Drosophila 
melanogaster. I. The origin of gynandromorphs. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 278. 122 
p., 4 7^., 10 fig. Washington, D. C. 1919. — The genetic situation in Drosophila melanogaster 
made possible experimental demonstration of causes of production of mosaics and gynandro- 
morphs (sex-mosaics). Principal recent theories are: delayed fertilization of one cleavage 
nucleus (Boveri 18S8) ; development from a supernumerary sperm (Morgan 1905) ; and chromo- 
somal elimination, i.e., elimination of one X chromosome from one of daughter cells at an early 
embryonic division (Morgan 1914). Critical evidence is obtained when gynandromorphs 
are hybrids of known sex-linked characters, and also contain known autosomal characters. 
A number of such cases, all described in detail, all show male and female parts differ by sex- 
chromosome only. The elimination theory is only possible one in these cases, and covers 
all but very few gynandromorphs in Drosophila. — Gynandromorphs start as females; a strik- 
ing preponderance of female parts is found, as expected on elimination theory. Starting as 
a male is theoretically possible, but not indicated in any known cases. Starting as XX 
female, the male parts will be XO, therefore sterile (as shown in primary non-disjunction); 
except in case of XXY (non-disjunctional) individuals, where male parts will be XY, fertile. 
All evidence from gynandromorphs with male abdomen and testes supports these predictions. 
— Earlier theories of gynandromorphs are critically considered. The only one besides elimi- 
nation found necessary to employ, in a few cases, is the theory of bi-nucleated eggs. Don- 
caster has found such eggs in Abraxas. — Both gonads of same individual are always alike; 
which is expected if germ plasm of Drosophila arises from single cell, as in Miastor, Chiro- 
nomus, Calliphora, and other flies. — Only one certain case was found of a somatic mosaic, 
i.e., one not involving sex-chromosome; may be accounted for by autosomal elimination or 
bi-nucleated egg. Rarity may be due to failure of autosomal elimination or to inviability of 
such flies. — Ten somatic mutations described are all males, of which nine look like known sex- 
linked characters. This is in accord with expectation, if mutation occurs in only one chromo- 
some of a pair, as is highly probable; since visible sex-linked mutations are four times as fre- 
quent as all dominants. Mosaics in plants are discussed; somatic mutation or chromosome 
elimination the most probable explanations in most cases. — All known gynandromorphs of 
Drosophila are thoroughly treated as to parentage, description, and explanation, with figures 
and diagrams of chromosomes. The great majority are adequately explained by simple X 
elimination, including a number from XXY mothers. Many are approximately bilateral, 
others largely antero-posterior, some mainly female, a few mainly male, and a few very 
irregular. In all, the male and female parts and their characters are strictly self-determining. 
No region, however small, is interfered with by neighboring parts or action of the gonad. 
The few cases not explicable by simple elimination are most simply explained as binucleated 



58 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

eggs; but on this view there should be as many autosomal mosaics as gynandromorphs of this 
type, which is not the case. An alternative explanation is non-disjunction, followed by either 
"somatic reduction" or double elimination in a cleavage division; no critical evidence to de- 
cide between these views. — Gynandromorphs in other animals are discussed at length. In 
bees, both Etjgster and von Engelhardt gynandromorphs can be accounted for by chromoso- 
mal elimination, so far as the evidence goes. In moths, those cases where sex-linked factors 
furnish critical evidence can be explained by chromosome elimination ; here the gynandromorphs 
start as males (ZZ). This explanation applies to two mosaics in Abraxas. Toyama's gynan- 
dromorphs in silk-worms can be explained as bi-nucleated eggs. Goldschmidt's mosaics in 
the gypsy moth can not be explained because there are no sex-linked factors involved. — In 
Crustacea, molluscs, and some worms (e.g., Bonellia) external conditions and age seem, in 
some cases, to be factors in determining sex; there may be genetic factors that determine sex 
under ordinary, or other, circumstances. — In birds, a few bilateral gynandromorphs are known. 
Internal secretions of the ovary are known to suppress male secondary sexual characters in 
most cases. Apparently particular differences, in some species, are not influenced. — In man 
and other mammals, cases of gynandromorphs are known. Mechanism of sex determination 
is the same as in Drosophila. Modification by hormones also possible. Freemartin caused 
by male sex-hormone, through common circulation, suppressing normal development of ovary 
(Lillie). Possibility is suggested that cancer may be conditioned by inherited gene or genes 
liable to frequent somatic mutation or chromosome aberrations. — C. R. Plunkett. 

425. MossfiRi, V. M. Egyptian cottons: Their deterioration and means of remedying it. 
Bull. Union Agric. Egypte 16: 53-79. 1918. — Supposed greater resistance to "pink boll worm" 
(Pcclinophora gossypiclla) of certain varieties of cotton in Egypt said to be due merely to 
greater precocity. In India, supposed home of this insect, however, native cottons appear 
really more resistant than introduced Egyptian cotton. Deterioration of varieties grown in 
Egypt believed to be caused by mixing of seed and by natural Ivybridization, rather than by 
any process of spontaneous degeneration. Three methods of procedure are suggested for im- 
provement of Egyptian cotton crop: (1) "Mendelian synthesis" as practiced by Balls; (2) 
selection and roguing to increase uniformity of existing varieties; (3) isolation of desirable 
mutants which originate new varieties. — T. H. Kearney. 

426. Myerson, Abraham. Mental disease in families. Mental Hygiene 3: 230-239. 
Apr., 1919. — Author used records of Taunton State Hospital from 1854 to 1916 covering 16,000 
persons, of whom 1547 were related. He compared the marriage rate of four groups — alco- 
holic insanities, general paresis, dementia praecox and senile dementia. In the first three 
groups the percentage of married males was found to be less than for females, in the seniles 
the reverse was true. The dementia praecox group showed the lowest fertility as compared 
with the total population. He concludes that marriage acts as barrier to propagation of en- 
dogenous diseases, such as dementia praecox, but not against exogenous, such as syphilis. — 
The preponderance of insane women recorded may be accounted for on the theory that women 
transmit their mental peculiarities to their female children more than to their male, but there 
is a more obvious explanation. Since men migrate to other districts more than women, female 
descendants are more likely to appear in a given asylum. The data at this particular institu- 
tion show the mother-daughter group to be the largest and sisters decidedly outnumber 
brothers. — Notwithstanding the numerous factors tending to discount the actual meaning 
of the figures, author considers it probable that descendants of insane who themselves become 
insane do so at an earlier age than their ancestors and are tending to reproduce themselves in 
smaller proportion. — With regard to the character of transmission his findings lead him to 
believe that (1) The paranoid type of psychosis gives either paranoid or dementia praecox. 
(2) Dementia praecox gives dementia praecox or feeblemindedness. (3) Manic depression 
gives manic depression or dementia praecox. (4) Involution psychosis gives dementia prae- 
cox. (5) Senile psychosis gives any form of psychosis, imbecility or epilepsy. — Thus all 
roads seem to lead to dementia praecox and thence to feeble-mindedness. — His results further 
indicate that insanity among siblings tends to be similar, and that it is more often associated 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 59 

with low-grade mentality than superior. This is at variance with the popular notion of the 
close relationship between genius and insanity. — The high incidence of tuberculosis with 
insanity often leads to mistaken inferences. — The extreme frequency of tuberculosis in the 
total population must be remembered as well as the fact that the insane, by reason of their 
deterioration, tend to live in conditions predisposing to the disease. — Two other students, 
Koller and Diem, discovered thai insane aunts and uncles occur as frequent ly in families of 
sane as of insane and that, therefore, collateral insanity is relatively unimportant unless asso- 
ciated with parental insanity. — These studies demonstrate that our knowledge is inadequate 
to warrant theories of neuropathic heredity and how imperative such research is. — Miriam 
C. Gould. 

427. Nachtsheim, H. Der Mechanismus der Vererbung. [The mechanism of heredity. | 
Naturw. Wochenschr. 18: 105-114. 1919. 

428. Nachtsheim, H. Berichtigung. [A correction.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. 
Vererb. 20:295. 1919. 

429. Nakahara, Waro. A study on the chromosomes in the spermatogenesis of the stone- 
fly, Perla immarginata Say, with special reference to the question of synapsis. Jour. Morphol. 
32:509-529. PI. 1-3. 1919. — Ten chromosomes appear in the spermatogonia division. The 
chromosome group consists of two pairs of V's, a pair of rods, two spherules (m-chromosomes), 
and two unpaired rods, one of which is much longer than the other. These last are interpreted 
as the X- and Y-chromosomes, respectively. Preparatory to the first spermatocytic division 
a double spireme forms out of the resting nucleus, and this process the author interprets as 
a precocious split for the second spermatocytic division, which follows the first without a 
resting stage. Homologous chromosomes are connected to each other telosynaptically in 
the spireme; later, the members of each pair bend toward each other at the synaptic point and 
become reunited parasynaptically before the metaphase, thus forming rings and tetrads. — 
Bertram G. Smith. 

430. Nelson*, J. C. Monomorphism in Equisetum Telmateia Ehrh. Amer. Fern Jour. 
9: 93-94. 1919.- 

431. Nicolas, G. Variations de l'androcee du Stellaria media L. en Algerie. [Variations 
of the androecium of Stellaria media L. in Algeria.] Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord. 9: 135-137. 
1918. 

432. [Norstedt, C. T. O.] [Rev. of: Harms, U. Uber die Geschlectsvertheilung bei 
Drya octopetala L. nach Beobachtungen in Kgl. Botanischen Garten Berlin-Dahlem. (Con- 
cerning sex ratios in Drya octopetala in the Kgl. Botanical Garden Berlin-Dahlem.) Ber. 
Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36:292-300. Fig. 5-10. 1918.] Bot. Notiser 1918: 247. 1918. 

433. Northrop, J. II. Concerning the hereditary adaptation of organisms to higher 
temperature. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2: 313-31S. 1920.— The experiments described were per- 
formed with races of Drosophila raised on sterile yeast cultures and handled with bacterio- 
logical care to prevent the entrance of bacteria into the breeding flasks. The incubators em- 
ployed to maintain the higher temperatures were controlled within 0.2° to 0.3°G. of the desired 
temperatures by means of an original device regulating the flow of water through the jackets. 
Drosophila will develop at 32.5°C. ; the rate of development increases from 10° up to 27.5°, 
but from 27.5° the rate falls. If the higher temperature in which a fly is raised occasions a 
lasting adaptation, it would be expected that eggs from such a fly would show increased re- 
sistance to high temperature. It was found that flies raised at 20°C. produce eggs that are 
capable of full development when raised in temperatures 29° and 32°C., but when raised in a 
temperature of 33° they will not go beyond the pupal stage. Flies raised in incubators at 32° 
produce eggs that will develop into adults when raised at 29°, but at 32° and 33° they will not 
even form larvae. The difference in these two sets of results is not due to deleterious effects 



60 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

of increased temperature upon the eggs before they are laid, because the flies raised at 20 c 
did not tend to produce eggs any less resistant after they had been laying in the high tempera- 
ture for a week or 10 days. Cultures of flies could not be held at 30° for successive generations ; 
but if the adults of each generation were removed from high temperature for 24 hours or more 
within a week after they hatched, the culture could be continued for the rest of the time at 
this temperature. One culture was continued in 30° by means of this intermittent cooling 
for ten generations and another culture was raised for 15 generations uninterruptedly at 28°; 
in neither case did there appear any sign of adaptation. The flies were still unable to produce 
more than one generation at a continuous temperature of 29° or over. "There is no evidence 
of any hereditary adaptation to higher temperature." — E. C. MacDowell. 

434. Oberstein, O. Uber das Vorkommen echter Knospenvariationen bei pommerschen 
und anderen Kartoffelsorten. [Occurrence of true bud variation in Pommeranian and other 
varieties of potato.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1919: 560-561. 1 pi. 1919. — See Bot. Absts. 
5, Entry 296. 

435. Ohly. Ziichterische Beobachtungen in einer Merinofleischschafherde. [Breeding 
observations in a Merino sheep herd.] Mitteil. Deutsch. Landw. Ges. 1918: 235. 1918. 

336. Pascher, A. Oedogonium, ein geeignetes Objekt fur Kreuzungsversuche an ein- 
kernigen haploiden Organismen. [Oedogonium, a suitable object for the study of crossing in 
uninucleate haploid organisms.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36: 168-172. 1918. — Importance of 
study of results of crossing haploid organisms is emphasized, as illustrated by the work of 
Burgeff with Phycomyces and of Pascher with Chlamydomonas . Author reports successful 
crosses between two species of Chara and between two species of Spirogyra. After a discus- 
sion of the advantages, disadvantages, and difficulties offered by various groups of algae for 
work of this nature, it is reported that species of Oedogonium have shown themselves very 
favorable for hybridization experiments. Most species of this genus are easily cultivated; 
the isolation of single filaments and the bringing them together in desired combinations 
within a confined space, such as a small tube, offer no difficulties; the filaments with maturing 
oospores can be transferred to agar, where they readily complete their development; the zoo- 
spores of different species are marked by characteristic differences in such respects as the shape 
of the cell as a whole and the form of the anterior end; and the oospore, on germinating, gives 
rise to four zoospores, whose nuclei result from the reduction divisions, and which resemble, 
except in size, the zoospores produced by vegetative cells of the same species. In making a 
cross, the female at least must belong to a dioecious species. Probably dioecious forms with 
dwarf males are especially suitable. In cultures containing several species, the author has 
found forms which, especially in the characters of the oospores, betrayed a hybrid nature. 
It is probable that some forms which have been described as species were really hybrids. 
A list of species of Oedogonium is given which are recommended for experiments in hybrid- 
ization. — C. E. Allen. 

437. Pearl, Raymond. [Rev. of : East, Edward M., and Donald F. Jones. Inbreed- 
ing and outbreeding: their genetic and sociological significance. 14x21 cm., 285 p., Jfi fig. 
J. B. Lippincott: Philadelphia, 1919.] Science 51: 415-417. April 23, 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 
4, Entry 571. 

438. [Pearson, Karl.] Quadrature coefficients. Biometrika 12: 000. Nov., 1919. — 
Formulae from Biometrika I, p. 276, are reprinted as preface to a table by P. F. Everitt to 
facilitate the calculation of areas within a curve. — John W. Gowen. 

439. Petren, A., and others. Angaende skrivelse till Konungen med begaran om 
utredning och forslag i fraga om upprattandet av ett svenskt rasbiologiskt institut. — Motion n:o 
7 i Forsta Kammaren. [Concerning a writing to the Swedish government proposing an extrica- 
tion of and a project to establish a Swedish eugenical institute. Motion n :o 7. in the first Cham- 
ber of the parliament. Bihang till riksdagens protokoll 1920. 190 x 225 mm., 27 p. Stock- 



No. 1, August, 1920 GENETICS rjl 

holm, 1920. — Mentions reasons for and importance of establishing a race-biological institute. 
Parliament is asked to demand a special proposal for the organization of such an institute. — 
K. V. Ossian Daldgrcn. 

440. Piltz, J. Uber homologe Hereditat bei Zwangsvorstellungen. [On homologous he- 
redity in hallucination.] Zeitschr. ges. Neur. u. Psych. 43. 1918. 

441. Plunkett, C. R. Genetics and evolution in Leptinotarsa. Amer. Nat. 53:561-566. 
Nov.-Dec, 1919. — Tower's work is almost entirely in agreement with the modern Mendelian 
theory of heredity. Where there is apparent disagreement, critical evidence is lacking 
because of Tower's failure to subject the individuals he worked with to a rigorous genetic 
analysis. — Alexander Weinstein. 

442. RagioniIsri, Attilio. Un bel problema per i biologi: Sulla comparsa dell' odore nei 
fiore delle "roselline di Firenze" (Ranunculus asiaticus var.). [A good problem for biologists: 
On the appearance of odor in the flowers of the "Florentine roselline" (Ranunculus asiaticus).] 
Bull. R. Soc. Toscana Orticult. 44: 87-94. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1832. 

443. Rasmuson, Hans. Genetische Untersuchungen in der Gattung Godetia. [Geneti- 
cal investigation within the genus Godetia.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 37: 399-403. 1919 — 
A very condensed preliminary note about author's experiments with Godetia Whitneyi and G. 
amoena. Branching habit, leaf-characters, color, size, form and doubleness of the flowers, 
are analyzed. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

444. Raum, J. Ein weiterer Versuch iiber die Vererbung die Samenfarbe bei Rotklee. 
[A further study on the inheritance of seed color in red clover.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 
148-155. Dec, 1919. 

445. Rebel, H. Ein neuer Tagfalterhybrid. [A new butterfly hybrid.] Verhandl. K. u. 
K. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien 68: 273-276. 1918. 

446. Richet, C., and H. Cardot. Mutations brusques dans la formation d'une nouvelle 
race microbienne. [Sudden mutations in the formation of a new race of microbes.] Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 657-663. 1919. 

447. Roberts, Herbert F. A practical method for demonstrating the error of mean 
square. School Sci. Math. 19: 677-692. Nov., 1919.— This paper treats of the mean, the 
standard deviation and coefficient of variation with especial reference to practical methods 
of illustrating the error of the mean square to students of little training in mathematics. — 
John W. Gowen. 

448. Roemer, Th. tiber Lupinenziichtung. [On Lupine breeding.] Deutsch. Landw. 
Presse 1919: 174-175. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 299. 

449. Rother, W. Phyllokakteen Kreuzungen. [Phyllocactus crosses.] Monatsschr. 
Kakteenkunde 29: 32-33. 1919.— Reciprocal crosses of P. Wrayi and P. Vogclii are described 
and differentiated. — A. S. Hitchcock. 

450. RrjzicKA, Vladislav. Restitution und Vererbung. Experimenteller, kritischer 
und synthetischer Beitrag zur Frage des Determinationsproblems. [Restitution and heredity. 
Experimental critical and synthetic contribution to the problem of determination.] Julius 
Springer: Berlin, 1920. 

451. St. John, Harold. Two color forms of Lobelia cardinalis L. Rhodora 21: 217-21S. 
1919. — Describes variation in color of flowers of Lobelia cardinalis. A form with rose-colored 
flowers, found in New Hampshire, is named/, rosea. One with white flowers was named alba 
by A. Eaton in 1836.— T. D. A. Cockerell. 



62 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

452. Scuindler, F. Bedeutung der Landrassen unserer Kulturpflanzen. [Significance 
of local varieties of our cultivated plants.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1918: 155. 1918. 

453. Schmidt, Johs. La valeur de l'individu a titre de generateur, appreciee suivant la 
methode du croisement dialleie. [Individual potency appraised by the method of diallel cross- 
ing.] Compt. Rend. Trav. Lab. Carlsberg 14: 1-33. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 302. 

454. Schroeder. Entstehung und Vererbung von Missbildungen an der Hand eines 
Hypodaktylie-Stamrnbaumes. [Origin and inheritance of deformities in a hypodactylous pedi- 
gree.] Mohatsschr. Geburtshilfe Gynakologie 48: 210-222. 3 pi. 7 fig. 1918. 

455. Shamel, A. D. Performance records of avocados based on citrus experiments. 
California Citrograph 5: 68, 86-88. 1 fig. Jan., 1920. — Description of methods recommended 
for obtaining records of yield and quality of fruit, hardiness, and other horticulturally import- 
ant characteristics of avocado trees, as basis for selection of desirable types for propagation. 
Organization suggested similar to the "bud selection department" of the California Fruit Grow- 
ers' Exchange, which last season sold 230,000 citrus buds taken from superior trees. — H. B. 
Frost. 

456. Sieqel, W. Das Recht des Gemiiseziichters. [The right of the vegetable breeder.] 
8vo. Frick: Wien. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 304. 

457. Siemens, H. W. Erbliche und nichterbliche Disposition. [Hereditary and non- 
hereditary disposition.] Berlin. Klin. Wochenschr. 56: 313-316. 1919. 

458. Siemens, H. W. Uber die Grundbegriffe der modernen Vererbungslehre. [On the 
fundamental concepts of modern genetics.] Munchener Med. Wochenschr. 65: 1402-1405. 
1918. 

459. Siemens, H. W. Was ist Rassenhygiene? [What is race hygiene?] Deutschlands 
Erneuerung 2 : 280-282. 1918. 

460. Smith, L. H. The life history and biology of the pink and green aphid (Macrosiphum 
solanifolii Ashmead). Virginia Truck Sta. Bull. 27: 27-79. 12 fig. 1919.— Much variation 
among individuals is found with respect to size of parts, color and reticulation within well- 
known pink and green varieties. No inheritance of size variations has been noted. Strains 
that differ from one another have been obtained. Sexual forms are not usually produced in 
Virginia. Spring migrants are chiefly of green variety. Nineteen first-born and eight last- 
born generations were reared from May to November, and 34 first-born generations in a twelve- 
month period. Four molts occur. Average age at beginning of reproduction is eleven days, 
average number of young produced by viviparous female is 45 during lifetime averaging 31 
days. — A. Franklin Skull. 

461. Snell, K. Farbenanderung der Kartoffelblute und Saatenanerkennung. [Color 
changes of the potato blossom and the recognition of varieties.] Der Kartoffelbau 1919: 1-3. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 306. 

462. Sommer, K. tiber Kartoffelziichtung und vergleichende anbauversuche mit Neu- 
ziichtungen auf der Domane Ellischau. [Potato breeding and comparative cultural tests of 
new varieties on the Ellischau estate.] Nachr. Deutsch. Landw. Ges. Osterr. 1919: 190-193. 
1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 307. 

463. Stahel, G. Eerste verslag over de werkzaamheden ten behoeve van de selectie van 
KofBe en Cacao. [First report on the eifectiveness of selection in coffee and cacao.] Dept. 
Landbouw in Suriname (Paramaribo) Bull. 36. 23 p. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 308. 



No. 1, August, 19201 GENETICS '' : > 

464. Stibvb, H. Uber experimentell, durch veranderte aussere Bedingungen bervor- 
gerufene Riickbildungsvorgange am Eierstock des Haushuhnes (Gallus domesticus). [On de- 
generative processes in tbe ovary of domestic fowl produced experimentally by changed external 
conditions.] Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 44: 530-588. Wfuj. L918.- Layingfowls 
were removed from their normal quarters and placed in close confinement. Aft( ious 
intervals the birds were killed and the ovaries examined.. In all cases egg production ceased. 
If the birds were well fed, production was not resumed. The large ova were not resorbed for 
several months, though degenerative changes took place in the nucleus, which extended to 
smaller and smaller ova, the longer the birds were kept. If, however, the birds were starved 
or kept on limited diet for a time, and then fed suitably, the large ova were quickly resorbed, 
the degenerative changes did not extend to the small ova, and production was resumed after 
a comparatively brief interval. — //. D. Goodalc. 

465. Stout, A. B. Further experimental studies on self-incompatibility in hermaphrodite 
plants. Jour. Genetics 9: 85-129. PI. 3-4. Jan., 1920. — Two self-sterile plants of Verbascum 
phoeniceum were crossed. In F 1( 58 plants were self-sterile, 9 bore some seeds, and 2 were 
highly self-fertile. From a highly self-fertile plant of this species there were raised (in addi- 
tion to 27 plants with contabescent anthers) 5 self-sterile plants, 2 plants with some seeds, 
and 5 highly self-fertile plants. — Sowings made from open-fertilized or commercial seeds of 
Eschschollzia californica, Nicotiana Forgetiana, Brassica pekinensis, and Raphanus sativus, 
showed a majority of self-sterile, and a minority bearing few or many seeds. The descendants 
of each of two self-fertile plants of Nicotiana Forgetiana showed a majority of more or less 
self-fertile plants. — In Cichorium intybus, 10 plants were uniform as to self-fertility or self- 
sterility throughout the blooming period. Of the descendants of 3 self-fertile plants, 244 were 
self-sterile, and 107 bore some seeds. . In the next selfed generation, 205 plants were self- 
sterile, and 266 self-fertile in various degrees. — It is concluded that self-sterility in some spe- 
cies is highly variable. — John Belling. 

466. Sto-rtevant, A. H. Contributions to the genetics of Drosophila rnelanogaster. III. 
Inherited linkage variations in the second chromosome. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 278: 
305-341. Washington, D. C. 1919.— The data presented demonstrate two genes in second 
chromosome of Drosophila rnelanogaster, each of which, in females heterozygous for it, greatly 
decreases crossing-over in region in which it lies. Both genes were found in same female, in 
stock from Nova Scotia. C u i, located to left of black, makes star black=0, and black purple 
very small. C U r, located between purple and plexus, greatly reduces purple speck region. 
Homozygous Cu shows no effect on crossing-over; homozygous C'ni not tested. No crossing- 
over in males, as always. — Cm, located in right end of third chromosome, greatly decreases 
cro3sing-over between spineless and rough when heterozygous, but increases it when homozy- 
gous. Cni.ii, in third chromosome, when heterozygous decreases crossing-over in third chro- 
mosome, but increases purple curved region of second. — Mechanism of these effects is still unr 
known. Qther linkage variations are caused by sex, age, temperature, and genetic factors. 
In all cases, linear order of genes is unchanged, and flies of same constitution, under like 
conditions, give consistent results. The methods and results are striking confirmation of 
chromosome view of heredity. — C. R. Plunkett. 

467. Sturtevant, A. H. A new species closely resembling Drosophila rnelanogaster. 
Psyche 26: 153-155. 1 fig. Dec, 1919.— Describes Drosophila simulans, new species that has 
hitherto been confused with D. rnelanogaster. New form is common and widely distributed. 
Specimens can be separated easily only by means of male genitalia. Female rnelanogaster X 
male simulans produces only daughters, unless the mother carries a Y-chromosome. The 
hybrids are all sterile. — A. H. Sturtevant. 

468. Sturtivant, Grace. Registration of new varieties. Gard. Chron. 67: 73. Feb. 
14, 1920.— Plant patents seem impossible in the United States; but the registration of new 
varieties is important. It is suggested that higher awards should be given for plants in gar- 



64 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

dens than for those at exhibitions. The custom of bracketing the breeder's name after the 
name of the variety is spreading among Iris specialists. Parentage should be put on record. — 
John Belling. 

469. Sumner, F. B. Continuous and discontinuous variations and their inheritance in 
Peromyscus. Amer. Nat. 52: 177-208. 12 fig. April-May, 1918. — Discusses in this first paper 
structural and pigmental differences in the western deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus 
(Wagner) based on collections from four climatically different localities in California, — 
Eureka, Berkeley, LaJolla, and Victorville. Humidity and rainfall are in a descending, and 
mean annual temperature in an ascending, order for localities as given. Considers hair color 
including microscopical structure, skin color, length of body, tail, foot, and ear, and number 
of tail vertebrae, illustrating by histograms and ordinary graphs. — Finds for pigmentation, 
intensive and extensive, series is Eureka>Berkeley>LaJolla> Victorville. For tail length 
Eureka>LaJolla>Berkeley and Victorville. For number of caudal vertebrae, Eureka> 
LaJolla>Victorville. For foot length, Eureka>LaJolla, Berkeley and Victorville. Ear 
length LaJolla>Eureka and Victorville>Berkeley. General conclusions reserved for final 
paper. — L. B. Walton. 

470. Tammes, T. Die Flachsbliite. [The flower of flax.] Recueil Trav. Bot. Neerland. 
15: 185-227. 2ft fig. 1918— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 310. 

471. Taylor, H. V. The popularity and deterioration of potatoes. Card. Chron. 67: 108. 
Feb. 28, 1920. — New potato varieties are usually lower in quality than old standard varieties 
but at the same time are more resistant to diseases and adverse conditions. With cultivation 
and propagation the qualities improve, but vigor and disease resistance decreases. These 
simultaneous changes are held responsible for the appearance of six varieties which have 
attained popularity and each after ten to fifteen years have been succeeded in turn by another 
new variety. — J. L. Collins. 

472. Thelltjng, A. Neure Wege and Ziele der botanischen Systematik erlautert am Bei- 
spiele unserer Getreidearten. [New methods and purposes of botanical taxonomy illustrated 
by examples of our cereal species.] Naturw. Wochenschr. 17: 449^458. 465-474. S fig. 191S. 

473. Thellung, A. tiber geschlechtsbegrenzte Speziesmerkmale (zu dem Aufsatz von 
Brehm). [On sex-limited species characters (in response to von Brehm).] Naturw. Wochen- 
schr. 18: 144. 1919. 

474. Thomas, Roger. The improvement of "Tinnevellies" cotton. Agric. Jour. India 
14: 315-330. 1919. 

475. Turesson, G6te. The cause of plagiotropy in maritime shore plants. Contributions 
from the plant ecology station, Hallands Vadero, No. 1. Lunds TJniversitets Arsskrift. N. F. 
16 2 : 1-33. 15 tables, 4 fig-, # pi- 1919. — The prostrate form of some shore plants is demon- 
strated to depend upon geotropism induced by brilliant sunlight ("photocliny")- In obscure 
light the geonegative reaction becomes predominant. — From one hereditary point of view 
it is interesting to find that the prostrate vegetation can be made up of two genetically 
different elements, viz., modificatory prostrate forms, and hereditary prostrate variations. 
Both forms are sometimes found within the same systematic species. Alriplex latifolium, 
A. rat idum and Chenopodium album have each a forma "prostratum," which is constantly 
plagiotropic; the main species are only plagiotropic in intense light and erect in ordinary light. 
When growing together on exposed beach it may be difficult to separate the two types, and 
cultivating of them becomes necessary. By self-fertilization the prostratum form of both the 
A triplex-species is found to breed true to plagiotropy. — "The hereditary prostrate variations 
differ physiologically from the prostrate modifications in being more sensitive to light; they 
respond to conditions of illumination which leave the latter unaffected and in a vertical posi- 
tion." Author supposes that the prostrate races have come into existence by dropping out 
of "heighf-determining factors. — A". V. Ossian Dahlgren. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 65 

470. Urban, J. Hochpolarisierende Rube und ihre Nachkommenschaft. [High-po'ar- 
izing beets and their progeny.) Zeitschr. Zucker Endustr. BShmen 42: 387 391. 1919. Bee 
Bot. Abats. 5, Entry 312. 

477. Vaerting, M. Die verschiedene Intensitat der pathologischen Erblichkeit in ihrer 
Bedeutung fiir die Kriegsdegeneration. [Different intensity of pathological inheritance and its 
significance for war degenerations.] Der Fraucnarzt. 191N. 

ITS. v.\x der Wolk, P. C. [German rev. of: van deb Wolk, P. C. Onderzoekingen 
over blyvende modificaties en hun betrekking tot mutaties. (Researches on permanent modifi- 
cations and their relations to mutations.) Cultura 31: 82-105. 1 pi. 1019. (See Bot. Absts. 
3, Entry 296.)] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 142-144. Dec, 1919. 

479. Vernet, G. Biometrie et homogeneite. [Biometry and homogeneity.] Bull. Agric. 
Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 15-26. 1920. 

480. Vieillard, P. Note sur la selection des riz par la constitution de lignees pures et 
sur les hybridations des riz. [Note on the selection of rice by establishment of pure lines and 
on the hybridization of rice.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 11-15. 1920. 

481. Vogt, A. Vererbung in der Augenheilkunde. [Heredity in ophthalmology.] Miinche- 
ner Med. Wochenschr. 66:1-5. 1919. 

482. Volkart, A. 40. und 41. Jahresbericht. Schweizerische Samenuntersuchungs- 
und Versuchsanstalt in Oelikon-Ztirich. [40th and 41st annual report. Swiss seed-control 
and experiment station in Oerlikon-Zurich.j Landw. Jahrb. Schweiz. 1919: 1-40. 1919.— St < 
Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 313.] 

483. von Bubnoff, Serge. Uber einige grundlegende Prinzipien der palaontologischen 
Systematik. [Some fundamental principles of paleontological taxonomy.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 158-168. Sept., 1919.— Wedekind was followed in his application of 
the statistical rules of variation to paleontological material. Two very common Triassic 
ammonites from one locality were studied in hundreds of specimens. A form had been separ- 
ated from each and named as a species on account of a single and doubtful difference. When 
the variates were seriated, the supposed separate forms gave in each case a single typical varia- 
tion curve along with the species. This shows that the difference in question was not suffi- 
cient to distinguish species, or even varieties; and races, or "elementary species," cannot be 
dealt with in paleontology. — A correlation between two or more characteristics was obtained 
by comparing different stages of growth, or by comparing closely allied species. Character- 
istics which are correlated in this fashion should vary together if the variation is genetic. 
They did not vary together in a trial of individuals of the same species. Hence this correla- 
tion is a test of specific difference. — John Belling. 

484. von Caron-Eldingen. Physiologische Spaltungen ohne Mendelismus. [Physio- 
logical segregation without Mendelism.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 1919: 515-516. 1919.— Sec 
Bot, Absts. 5, Entry 314.1 

485. von Caron-Eldingen. Mutationen und Doppelkdrner. [Mutations and double 
grains.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 45: 618. S Jig. 191S. 

486. von Caron-Eldingen. Physiologische Spaltungen oder vegetative Mutation (Mein- 
ungsaustausch). [Physiological splitting or vegetative mutations.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 
46:56. 1919. 

487. von Graevenitz, Luise. Ein merkwurdiges Resultat bei Inzuchtsversuchen. [A 
remarkable result in an inbreeding experiment.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 
169-173. Sept., 1919.— Effects of four different types of pollination compared on the off- 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. T, NO. 1 



66 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

spring of three plants, Petunia, Digitalis and Oenothera. Flowers of individual plants treated 
with pollen from following sources: (1) from the same flower, (2) from other flowers on 
the same plant, (3) from a sister plant, (4) from a plant of a different strain. In all but 
the first the flowers were castrated. For (1) and (2) the same lot of pollen was used and ap- 
plied at the same time. Fifty-two plants of Petunia were pollinated in this way and the pro- 
genies of each, numbering at least 50 individuals in each class, were weighed. The results 
show that in 37 cases the (2)-pollinated plants were heavier than (1) while in 15 cases the re- 
verse holds. The other two types of pollination resulted in still heavier plants on the average 
according to the dissimilarity of the parents. Four plants of Digitalis treated in like manner 
show the same result, the cross-pollination between different flowers of the same plant give 
heavier offspring than self-pollination within the individual flower. Oenothera gave no dif- 
ferences. Antirrhinum, although not fully investigated, shows a difference between the pol- 
linations. Author is unable to find any circumstances which might account for these effects 
and considers them to be biologically not understandable. — D. F. Jones. 

488. von Oettingen. Die Vererbung erworbener Eigenschaften (aus dem Werke der 
Pferdenzucht von Oberlandstallmeister von Oettingen). [The inheritance of acquired charac- 
ters (from the work in horse-breeding by von Oettingen).] Deutsch. Landw. Tierzucht. 23:7. 
1919. 

489. von Ryx, G. Ein neues Eeispiel einer Knospenmutation bei den Kartoffeln. [A 
new example of bud mutation in potatoes.] Deutsch. Landw. Presse 2. 1 fig. 1918. 

490. von Tschermak, A. Der gegenwartige Stand des Mendelismus und die Lehre von 
der Schwachung der Erbanlagen durch Bastardierung. [The present status of Mendelism and 
the doctrine of the weakening of hereditary units through hybridization.] Naturw. Wochen- 
schr. 17:509-611. 1918. 

491. von Tschermak, Erich. Uber Ziichtung landwirtschaftlich und gartnerisch wicht- 
iger Hulsenfriichter. [Breeding of agriculturally and horticulturally important legumes.] Arb. 
Deutsch. Landw. Ges. 1919: 80-106. 1919. 

492. von Tschermak, Erich. Bastardierungsversuche mit der griinsamigen Chevrier- 
Bohne. [Hybridization studies with the green-seeded Chevrier bean.] Zeitschr. Pflanzen- 
zucht. 7: 57-61. June, 1919. 

493. von Tschermak, E. Beobachtungen bei Bastardierung zv/ischen Kulturhafer und 
Wildhafer. [Observations on hybridizations between cultivated oats and wild oats.] Zeitschr. 
Pflanzenziicht. 6: 207-209. 1918. 

494. von Tschermak, E. Beobachtungen uber anscheinende vegetative Spaltungen an 
Bastarden und iiber anscheinende Spatspaltungen von Bastardnachkommen speziell Auftreten von 
Pigmentierungen an sonst pigmentlosen Deszendenten. [Observations on apparent vegetative 
splitting in hybrid offspring, especially the occurrence of pigmentation on otherwise pigmentless 
descendants.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 216-232. 1 fig. Nov., 1920. 

495. von Ubisch, G. Gerstenkreuzungen. [Barley crosses.] Landw. Jahrb. 53:191-244. 
S pi, 28 fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 315. 

496. Waller, A. E. Xenia. School Sci. Math. 19: 150-157. Feb., 1919.— Popular ac- 
count of xenia to which nothing new is added. — See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 115. — J. H. 
Kemplon. 

497. Walter, F. K. tJber "familiare Idictie." [On familial idiocy.] Zeitschr. ges. 
Neur. u. Psych. 40. 1918. 



No. 1, August, 1920] GENETICS 67 

498. Webber, Herbert John. Selection of stocks in citrus propagation. California 
Agric. Exp. Sta. [Berkeley] Bull. 317: 2G7-301. /, tables, 14 fig. Jan., 1920.— The individual 
trees in citrus orchards are always markedly variable in yield, doubtless partly because of 
variation in the stocks used in budding. Sweet orange and sour orange are principal citrus 
stocks in California. Seeds of each species have usually been collected indiscriminately; 
seedlings are always highly variable, yet few are usually discarded in nursery. — Tests at Citrus 
Experiment Station showed that large, intermediate and small nursery trees of three standard 
Citrus varieties retained their original size rank after two years in orchard, though selected 
in nursery budded from "performance-record" trees, where many of smaller stocks had been 
discarded at transplanting and some also at budding. Sweet-orange and sour-orange seed- 
lings selected in nursery rows for variation in leaf form, habit, etc., and budded on sour-orange 
stocks in duplicate, indicate presence of numerous genetic types, some undesirable, among 
ordinary nursery stocks. Measurements in nursery of sour-orange stocks sorted at trans- 
planting showed great variation, with much greater average size from the seedlings originally 
larger. — Possible factors in stock variation discussed. Probably seedlings small because of 
small embryos in polyembryonic seeds, crowding in seed bed, etc., as well as those genetically 
weak, are undesirable as stocks. Recommendations include: (1) planting of seeds from 
trees budded to selected good stock varieties, (2) rigorous elimination of small seedlings at 
transplanting and budding, and of small budded trees when ready for orchard planting. — 
IF. B. Frost. 

499. Weibull, C. G. Weibullsholm 1870-1920, en aterblick. [Weibullsholm 1870-1920, 
a retrospective review.] 18 p., 11 fig. W. Weibulls Illustrerade Arsbok (Landskrona) 15 
(1920). 1919. — Account of the evolution and working methods of Weibull's station for plant 
improvement. — K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

500. Weingart, W. Kunstliche Befruchtung von Kakteen. [Artificial fertilization of 
cacti.] Monatsschr. Kakteenkunde 29: 106-107. 1919. — The author gives the results of self 
and cross pollination of several cactuses, mostly species of Cereus. — A. S. Hitchcock. 

501. Wolff, Friedrich. Ein Fall dominanter Vererbung von Syndaktylie. [A case of 
dominant inheritance of syndactyly.] Arch. Rassen u. Gesellschaftsbiol. 13: 74-75. 191S. — 
One man in a family of five was syndactyl. Both of his parents, his sister and his three 
brothers were normal, and there seems to have been no previous history of syndactyly in this 
family. Married to a normal woman, he had seven children, all syndactyl. Each of these 
has married a normal individual and the combined number of grandchildren is now eighteen, 
of whom eight are syndactyl. In this family the syndactyly is somewhat more marked in 
males. — C. H. Danforth. 

502. Yampolsky, Cecil. The occurrence and inheritance of sex intergradation in plants. 
Amer. Jour. Bot. 7: 21-38. Jan., 1920. — A general discussion of sex intergrades based on the 
author's studies of Mercurialis annua, on various other studies of sex-intergrades and sex 
polymorphism in plants and in animals, and on a survey of data on sex forms in orders of seed 
plants as given in Engler and Gilg's "Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien." — In the monocots, 10 
out of 11 orders representing 22 families have hermaphroditic, monoecious, dioecious and 
polygamous individuals, and in dicots 31 of the 40 orders including 90 families have certain 
representatives with two or more of the various types of sex. This distribution, shown in 
tables for orders and families (not for species) reveals that "practically every order has fam- 
ilies which contain forms that show more than one kind of distribution of sex elements." The 
various terms used in describing sex conditions in plants are defined and species illustrating 
them are cited. It is pointed out that the obvious facts of sex distribution in plants, together 
with the results of experimental studies of heredity in polygamous or intersexual forms sup- 
port the doctrine of varying sex potencies in germ cells rather than a sex-determination based 
on segregation of fixed unit factors. — A. B. Stout. 



68 HORTICULTURE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

503. Ylppo. Uber das familiare Vorkommen von Icterus neonatorum gravis. [On fam- 
ilial occurrence of Icterus neonatorum gravis.] Miinchener Med. Wochenschr. 65: 9S. 1918. 

504. Zander, L. Der Einfluss der Bastardierung auf die Honigbildung. [The influence 
of hybridization on honey formation.] Zeitschr. Angew. Entomol. 5: 88-93. 1918. 

505. Ziegler, H. E. Zuchtwahlversuche an Ratten. [Selection experiments on rats.] 
Festschr. 100-jahr. Best. Kgl. Wurtt. Landw. Hochschule Hohenheim 1919: 385-399. 1919. 

HORTICULTURE 

J. H. Gotjrley, Editor 

FRUITS AND GENERAL HORTICULTURE 

506. Condit, I. J. The Kaki or oriental persimmon. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
316: 231-266. 20 fig. 1919. — A discussion is given of the history of the persimmon, Dio- 
spyros, Spp., its introduction into the United States and the botany of the reproductive 
parts. Different varieties of the Oriental species of persimmon, Diospyros kaki, are discussed 
at length from the standpoint of their morphology, astringency, soil requirements, methods 
of propagation and care of the trees, and methods of harvesting, processing and marketing 
the fruit. A table of analysis of different varieties of persimmons is given and a brief discus- 
sion of the insect enemies and diseases. — W. P. Kelley. 

507. Detjen, L. R. The limits in hybridization of Vitis rotundifolia with related species 
and genera. North Carolina Agric. Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 17. 25 p. 1919. — See Bot. Absts. 4, 
Entry 562. 

508. Gardner, V. R. Pruning the apple. Missouri Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 90. 20 p. 
It fig. 1920. 

509. Hendrickson, A. H. Plum pollination. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 310. 
28 p. 5 fig. 1919. — A considerable number of varieties of two different species of plums are 
grown commercially in California, namely, the Japanese, Primus triflora, and the European, 
P. domestica. Of the seventeen varieties studied all except four are self-sterile. No evidence 
of inter-sterility between different varieties was noted, but certain varieties are more effec- 
tive pollinators than others. Comparative study of different orchards indicated that the 
common honey bee is an effective agent in promoting cross-fertilization between the different 
varieties of plums. — W. P. Kelley. 

510. Shaw, P. J. Fourteenth Annual Report of the Nova Scotia Agricultural College and 
Farm. Part 5. — Report of the Professor of Horticulture. Prov. of Nova Scotia Ann. Rept. 
Sec. for Agric. 1918: 75-100. 1919. 

511. Sheward, T. Fruit trees in pots for winter forcing. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 360. 
1 fig. 1919. 

512. Smith, Arthur. A lesson on fall preparation of the ground for spring planting. 
Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 341-343. 1919. 

513. Truelle, A. La situation des terrains a-t-elle de 1'influence sur la richesse sac- 
charine des pommes a cidre? [Has the location of the soil an influence on the sugar content of 
cider apples?] Ann. Sci. Agron. Francaise et Etrangere 36: 107-116. 1919. — Pomologists have 
always held that the soil and exposure are among the most important factors affecting the 
chemical composition of cider fruits. Some data are published in which are given the density 
at 15° and 1 of n 1 sugar expressed as grams of fermentable glucose. Twelve varieties of apples 
were studied but only the most commercially important six are reported on. The data are 



No. 1, August, 1920] HORTICULTURE 69 

grouped and considered under the headings of fit those for trees grown i md pla- 

teaus and (2) those for trees grown in valleys, a comparison being made for each variety g" 
in the two situations. The results show considerable variation in Mir sugar content, (here 
being greater variation among those grown in the valleys. According t<> the author the fol- 
lowing points are indicated by the results at hand: (1) The topographic position exercises 
an influence upon the production of sugar in certain varieties of cider apples. (2) The effect 
of l he loeat ion on the sugar content is not uniform, in some varicl ies it is greater when grown 
on the higher elevations and with others it is greater when they are grown in valleys. f3) 
The differences in the weights of sugar in the juice from the apples grown on the uplands and 
in the valleys vary from 1 to 10. ss grams per liter. (4) The effect of topography on the sugar 
content of cider apples is generally feeble. The effect of topography is less than that of va- 
riety, which depends mainly on the composition of the soil. — A. B. Beaumont. 

514. Tufts, Wauhen P. Pollination of the Bartlett pear. California Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Bull. 307: 369-390. 8 fig. 1919. — The majority of the varieties of pears grown in California 
bloom for comparatively brief periods only, but all of them produce an abundance of pollen. 
Artificial pollination experiments showed that Bartlett pears are partially self-sterile when 
grown in certain localities and wholly so in others. All the other commercial varieties are 
capable of cross fertilizing the Bartlett variety. It was noted that the fruit resulting from 
cross-fertilization with pollen from a different variety tended to drop less freely in June than 
was the case with self-fertilized fruits. It is recommended that other varieties of pears be 
planted intermittently throughout an orchard of Bartlett pears as a means of promoting cross- 
fertilization. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 798.]— IF. P. Kelley. 

515. Tufts, Warren P. Almond pollination. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 306: 
:I37-36G. 15 fig. 1919. — It is shown that all the common varieties of almonds grown in Cal- 
ifornia are self-sterile to a large extent and certain of them are inter-sterile. The different 
varieties may be roughly divided into two classes on the basis of the time of blooming, and 
considerable differences were noted in the amounts of pollen produced by the different vari- 
eties. Experiments demonstrated that cross-pollination can be effected between certain 
varieties very readily whereas other varieties are inter-sterile. It is shown that mixed plant- 
ing of inter-fertile varieties in the same orchard results in increased yields of fruit. The inter- 
pollinating relationships of the different varieties are shown tabularly. The effects of meteor- 
ological conditions and insects on pollination are briefly discussed. The common honey bee 
is though to be the best pollinating agent. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 797.]— IP. P. Kelley. 

FLORICULTURE AND ORNAMENTAL HORTICULTURE 

516. Acosta, Celsa. Sobre el cayeput. [The cajuput.] Revist. Agric. Com. jy Trab. 
2: 535-537. 3 fig. 1919. — Description of cajuput tree (Melaleuca leucadendron Linn.) and its 
uses. — F. M. Blodgell. 

517. Arango, Rodolfo. La palma real, su belleza ornamental y utilidad practica. [The 
royal palm as an ornamental and useful plant.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 557-559. 2 fig. 
1919. 

518. Baxter, Samuel Newman. How nurserymen may best compete for the Christmas 
tree market. Florists' Exchange 49: 133. 1920. — Ordinary nursery ground is too valuable 
for growing large Christmas trees; but small trees are gaining in favor with dwellers in 
small apartments and can be profitably grown. Nursery-grown, bushy stock is more attrac- 
tive than the wild, the supply of which may soon become exhausted or unavailable. The 1- to 
2-foot size could be offered in 6- or 8-inch pots, and the 2- to 4-foot size in larger pots or tubs, 
both at reasonable prices. Frequent transplanting is unnecessary; thinning of plants in the 
nursery row and shearing will assist in making bushy specimens. Figures are given of ex- 
pected yield per acre over a ten-year period. — L. A. Minns. 



70 HORTICULTURE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

519. Esler, John G. A rhododendron king. Florists' Exchange 49: 169. 1920. — Mr. 
W. K. Labar for the past fifteen years has collected native rhododendrons all over the Blue 
Ridge from Pennsylvania to North Carolina, selling them, as well as azaleas, kalmias and 
leucothoes, to parks, cemeteries and nurserymen. He has secured about 100 acres of wooded 
hillside with northern exposure, and will specialize in the above mentioned plants and others 
of similar nature. He is planting some of these by the thousand, using small collected plants 
and seedlings. — L. A. Minns. 

520. Gibson, Addison H. The poinsettia. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 366. 1919. 

521. Gibson, H. Hardy shrubs that can be forced. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 335, 336. 
1919. 

522. Gibson, Henry. Forcing herbaceous plants and bulbs for winter flowers. Gard. 
Chron. Amer. 23: 359. 1919. 

523. Griffiths, David. Producing domestic Easter lilies. Florists' Exchange 49: 134. 
1920. — Notes on growing Easter lilies up to the present are added to Griffith's article in Flor- 
ists' Exchange 48: 775. 1919. Nine batches of bulbs now in the greenhouses of the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, are mentioned, all of which 
promise interesting data in this investigational work. It is suggested that each grower of 
Easter lilies might advantageously do a little experimental work for himself. — L. A. Minns. 

524. Hammond, Bertha B. Forcing hyacinths for winter bloom. Gard. Chron. Amer. 
23:337,338. Fig. 1-6. 1919. 

525. Holzhausen, Axel. Laeliocattleya suecica nov. hybr. Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. 
[Stockholm] 13 : 97-99. 1919. 

526. Matthews, Edwin. Transplanting a mammoth yew tree in winter. Florists' Ex- 
change 49 : 83. 1 fig. 1920. — -An English yew, 25 feet in height, 30 feet in circumference, about 
80 years old, and weighing, with the ball of soil attached, approximately 5 tons was moved 
about one-half mile at Beverly, New Jersey, in January, 1918, and reset on the grounds of the 
owner. It was raised out of its former situation by means of rollers and windlass, raised 
onto a strong dray wagon by means of jack-screws, and drawn to its destination by six horses. 
Adverse conditions made the task formidable, but subsequent good care makes the removal 
appear to be successful up to the present. — L. A. Minns. 

527. Moore, Henry I. Descriptive list of hardy and semi-hardy primulas. Gard. Chron. 
Amer. 24: 401, 402. 1920. 

528. Moore, Henry I. The city rose garden. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 361. 1919. 

529. Pleas, Sarah A. A plea for seedling peonies. Flower Grower 6: 123, 124. 1 fig. 
1919. 

530. Rothe, Richard. Landscape possibilities with brook and natural stream. Gard. 
Chron. Amer. 23: 393, 394. 4 fig. 1920. 

531. Sakamoto, Kiyoshi. The Japanese garden and how to construct it. Florists' Ex- 
change 49: 61, 63, 138. 9 fig. 1920. — A Japanese garden must be made to appear as if it were 
a piece of natural scenery. The noblest sentiment evoked comes from the correct placing of 
each object — cottage, tree, herb or stone. Only large gardens can be successfully arranged 
to present different aspects according to season. An ordinary garden may better be made to 
appear much the same the year round. Evergreens are the foundation planting, set off by 
deciduous trees. The main types of garden are described : (1) the plain-garden, reproducing 
a plain, usually of considerable extent, good examples of which are the Tokiwa Garden and 



No. 1, August, 1920) HORTICULTURE 71 

the gardens of the Imperial Shrines of Ise; (2) the cypress garden, which may he email, 
only a section cut apart from a larger garden and representing a forest scene in miniature; 
and (3) the thicket garden, small, seeming to lead one to a dense wood beyond. — L.A.Mii 

532. Saunders, A. P. American Iris Society. Florists' Exchange 49: 285. 1920.— The 
meeting for the formation of the American Iris Society was held at the Museum Building of 
the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx Park, New York, on January 29, 1920. Sixty persons 
were present, among whom were many of the trade, and amateur Iris specialists. Dr. N. L. 
Britton, Director of the New York Botanical Garden, delivered the opening address. He 
told of the Iris garden begun in the New York Botanical Garden, and invited members of the 
newly-formed Iris Society to make free use of the library of the Botanical Garden. — The 
work of the Iris Society has been carefully planned. There will be test and exhibition gar- 
dens established, Iris shows with suitable prizes, and investigations made in history, classi- 
fication of garden varieties, culture and pests of the Iris. A constitution was approved and 
officers elected of whom John C. Wister of Philadelphia is president, and R. S. Sturte- 
vant of Wellesley, Massachusetts, is secretary. — L. A. Minns. 

533. Smith, Arthur. The care and culture of house plants. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 
372-375. 1919. 

534. Smith, Arthur. Putting the garden to bed for the winter. Gard. Chron. Amer. 23: 
368-371. 1919. 

535. White, E. A. Hubbard Gold Medal awarded to rose "Columbia." Florists' Ex- 
change 49: 171. 1920. — The Executive Committee of the American Rose Society has recently 
voted to award to the hybrid tea rose Columbia, registered in 1917 by E. G. Hill, of Richmond, 
Indiana, the Gertrude M. Hubbard Gold Medal for the best rose of American origin introduced 
during the last five years. This medal, the highest honor the American Rose Society can con- 
fer on a hybridizer, has been bestowed but once; in 1914 it was given to M. H. Walsh of 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts, for the introduction of the climbing rose "Excelsa." — L. A. 
Minns. 

VEGETABLE CULTURE 

536. Olmstead, W. H. Availability of carbohydrate in certain vegetables. Jour. Biol. 
Chem. 41 : 45-58. 1920. — The amount of carbohydrate available to the body from certain 
vegetables, usually used in low carbohydrate diets for diabetic patients, was determined 
(1) by the use of diastase and copper reduction, (2) by feeding to phloridinized dogs. The 
results by these two methods were — cabbage (1) 4.4 per cent, (2) 5.0 per cent, cauli- 
flower (1) 2.8 per cent, (2) 3.4 per cent, spinach (2) 1.2 per cent, lettuce (1) 1.0 
per cent. The amount in cabbage was reduced about 90 per cent by thrice cooking. — G. B. 
Rigg. 

537. Tracy, W. W. Growing tomato seed. Seed World 7 8 : 18-19. 1920. 

538. Work, P. Vegetable gardening on eastern muck soil. Jour. Amer. Peat Soc. 13: 
27-36. 1920. — Muck soils have proved to be preeminently adapted for the production of on- 
ions, celery and summer lettuce and they are well suited for several other crops. — G. B. Rigg. 

539. Zimmerman, H. E. Tomato grafted on potato. Amer. Bot. 25: 144. 1 fig. 1919 . 

HORTICULTURE PRODUCTS 

540. Baughman, Walter F., and George S. Jamieson. The composition of Hubbard 
squash seed oil. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 152-157. 1920. 

541. Haynes, Dorothy, and Hilda Mary Judd. The effect of methods of extraction 
on the composition of expressed apple juice, and a determination of the sampling error of such 



72 MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

juices. Biochem. Jour. 13: 272-277. 1919. — The following points were taken up: (1) does 
rapid freezing by liquid air produce any alteration in character of the sample, (2) does freez- 
ing render tissues freely permeable to all those constituents of the cell sap present in expressed 
juice, (3) the probable error due to individual variability in apples used. Comparisons were 
made of Ph values, freezing points, time and fall of viscometer, conductivity, acidity, and 
determination of sugars. No real difference was found between liquid air and freezing mix- 
ture method. Tissues were freely permeable to acids and sugars but colloids were held back 
as indicated by changing viscosity. Samples varied greatly resulting in a large probable 
error. Authors conclude that neglect of sampling errors in previous work of this nature viti- 
ates much data. — A. R. Davis. 

542. Jamiesom, George S., and Walter F. Baughman. Okra ssad oil. Jour. Amer. 
Chem. Soc. 42: 166-170. 1920. 

MORPHOLOGY, ANATOMY AND HISTOLOGY OF VASCULAR 

PLANTS 

E. W. Sinnott, Editor 

543. Baccarini, P. Notule teratologiche. [Teratological notes.] Nuovo Gior. Bot. 
Ital. 25: 225-247. 1918. — Abnormalities in flower development and morphology were noticed 
among members of diverse plant groups: Delphinium Ajacis, Brassica Rapa, Isatis tinctoria, 
Viburnum Sandankwa, Dahlia variabilis, Cypripedium sp., Carlina vulgaris and Anchusa 
italica. The abnormalities consist in depression, entire disappearance or malformation of 
floral parts, notably the essential parts of the flower. In some cases, for example in Del- 
phinium Ajacis, the reduction in the number of carpels suggests the reappearance of char- 
acters found at present in the Staphysagria group. — Ernst Arlschwager. 

544. Bassler, Harvey. A sporangiophoric lepidophyte from the Carboniferous. Bot. 
Gaz. 68: 73-108. Aug., 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1597. 

545. Bexon, Dorothy. Observations on the anatomy of teratological seedlings. II. On 
the anatomy of some polycotylous seedlings of Centranthus ruber. Ann. Botany 34: 81-94. 
9 fig. 1920. — The vascular anatomy of seedlings of Centranthus ruber showing all degrees of 
polycotyly from very incomplete tricotyly to complete tetracotyly is described. The hemi- 
tricotylous material is divisible into three groups: (a) Two bundles, one from each half of 
the incompletely split cotyledon, approach and fuse at various levels to form one pole of the 
diarch root, the other pole being formed by the bundle from the other cotyledon, (b) The 
two bundles remain distinct for a distance in the hypocotyl forming with the bundle from the 
other cotyledon a triarch condition, which eventually becomes reduced to diarchy by the fusion 
of the two bundles from the same cotyledon, (c) One bundle from the split cotyledon fails 
to rotate, retains its collateral structure and finally disappears. In the tricotyls a triarch con- 
dition is usually established, and becomes reduced to the diarch condition either by the dis- 
appearance of one arm or by the fusion of the two. The hemitetracotyls and tetracotyls 
for the most part show conditions like those described under (a) and (b) above with the modi- 
fications resulting from the splitting of both original cotyledons instead of one. One hemi- 
iotracotyl showed double structure throughout and evidently represented a twinned condi- 
1 ion. It is suggested that the twinning may be due either to the fusion of distinct embryos 
or to the partial separation of the daughter cells resulting from the division of the embryo 
initial. — W. P. Thompson. 

546. Bobilioff, W. De inwendige bouw der schorselementen ven Hevea Brasiliensis. 
[The structure of cell elements in the bark of Hevea Brasiliensis. 1 Arch. Rubbercult. Neder- 
landsch-Indie 3 : 222-231. 1919. — Paper deals principally with the structure of the laticiferous 
vessels of Hevea and their cytology in connection with the physiological significance of latex. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS 73 

• 

The author points out thai protoplasm ami nuclei occur in the Laticiferous vessels, bul that 
the nuclei arc larger than those of other cm-lex cells. Both nuclei and vacuoles occur in the 
protoplasm where they can be seen after the caoutchouc has been dissolved out. Therefore 
the latex of ll,uea is probably cell-sap, which generally occurs in the vacuoles of the laticifer- 
ous vessels. Sometimes many of the nuclei of laticiferous • ' unite in one place, l.cnce 
it seems thai the nuclei have the faculty of moving. Author also observes that the nuclei 
pass from one vessel into another through the wall openings. — W. E. Cake. 

547. BuRQERSTElN, A. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Scoglien und Kleineren Inseln 
Siiddalmatiens. 8. Anatomische Beschreibung des Holzes einiger Straucher und Halb- 
straucher. [The natural history of the smaller islands of southern Dalmatia. 8. Anatomical 
description of the wood of some shrubs and undershrubs.] Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. W'ien. 

ith.-Nat. Kl.) 92: 329-331. 191G. 

~>i<. Chirtoiu, Marie. Remarques sur le Symplocos Klotzschii et les affinites des Sym- 
plocacees. [Remarks on Symplocos Klotzschii and the affinities of the Symplocaceae.] Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 350-361. 5 fig. 1918. 

549. Chirtoiu, Marie. Observations sur les Lacisteme et la situation systematique de 
ce senre. [Observations on the species of Lacistema and the systematic position of this genus.] 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 317-349. 18 fig. 1918. 

550. Clute, Willard N. Peloria. Amer. Bot. 25: 148. 1919. 

551. Coulter, J. M. Perennating fruit of Cactaceae. [Rev. of: Johnson*, Duncan* S. 
The fruit of Opuntia fulgida. A study of perennation and proliferation in the fruits of certain 
Cactaceae. Carnegie Inst, Publ. 269. 62 p., 12 pi. 1918.] Bot. Gaz. 68: 151. 1919. 

552. Coulter, J. M. Root-nodules. [Rev. of: Spratt, Ethel R. A comparative ac- 
count of the root-nodules of the Leguminosae. Ann. Botany 33 : 189-199. 5 fig. 1919. (See 
Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1139.)] Bot. Gaz. 68: 311. 1919. 

553. Coulter, J. M. Suspensor of trapa. [Rev. of: Tison, A. Sur le suspenseur du 
Trapa natans L. Rev. Gen. Bot. 31 : 219-228. 5 fig. 1919. (See Bot. xVbsts. 3, Entry 2451.)] 
Bot. Gaz. 68:312. 1919. 

554. Cremata, Merlino. Un fenomeno curioso. [A curiosity.] Revist. Agric. Com. y 
Trab. 2 : 509. 2 jig. 1919. — Several cases are cited where the royal palm has become branched. 
— F. M. Blodgett. 

555. Dixon, Henry H. Mahogany and the recognition of some of the different kinds by 
their microscopic characters. Sci. Proc. Roy. Soc. London 15: 431-4S6. 22 pi. 1918. 

556. Eberstaller, Robert. Beitrage zur Vergleichenden Anatomie der Narcisseae. 
[Comparative anatomy of Narcissus.] Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. (Math. -Nat. Kl.) 
92:87-105. S pi. 1916. 

557. Esmarch. Uber den Wundverschluss bei geschnittenen Saatkartoffeln. [Wound 
healing in cut seed potatoes.] Fiihl. Landw. Zeit. 67: 253-256. 1918. — True periderm forma- 
tion on the exposed surfaces of cut seed potatoes takes place only, and most rapidly, when 
the tubers are kept in a fairly moist place. The practice of leaving the cut tubers to dry in 
the air results only in the drying in of the upper cell layers which may be accompanied by a 
suberization of the walls. It is questionable whether a crust formed in such a way affords 
real protection against parasitic bacteria and fungi. — Emsl Artschwager. 



74 MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

558. Gertz, Otto. Proliferation av Honhange hos Alnus glutinosa (L.) I. Gaertn. [Pro- 
liferation of the female catkins of Alnus glutinosa.] (Resume and legends of illustrations in 
German.) Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 71-74. 1919. — Author describes and illus- 
trates a case of proliferated female catkins in Alnus glutinosa not heretofore reported in lit- 
erature. — W. W. Gilbert. 

559 Grier, N. M. Note on proliferative power of Pinus sp. Ohio Jour. Sci. 20: 21-23. 
1919. 

560. Groves, James. Sex-terms for plants. Jour. Botany 58: 55-56. 1920. — A brief 
note continuing the discussion of the terminology of plants begun in Jour. Botany 57. The 
codification of botanical terminology is very necessary. Authors are now constantly in- 
venting new terms and piling up a mass of terminology which cannot but retard and embar- 
rass future workers. This problem should be dealt with in future meetings of the Inter- 
national Botanical Congress. — K. M. Wiegand. 

561. Hawtrey, S. H. C. Notes on a few useful plants and home industries of Paraguay. 
South African Jour. Indust. 3: 35-41. 1920. 

562. Hill, J. Ben. Anatomy of Lycopodium reflexum. Bot. Gaz. 68: 226-231. 6 fig. 
1919. — The chief points of interest are the presence of typical cortical roots and the various 
"types" of stele in the stem. The development and differentiation of the tissues in the 
steles of the cortical roots parallel those in the stele of the stem. The xylem arrangement 
may be radial, parallel-banded, or radial so modified as to consist of an inner cylinder of xy- 
lem inclosing a small strand of phloem, the last being most frequent. The author's previous 
suggestion that in Lijcopodium all xylem arrangements may occur in the same stem is con- 
firmed. — H. C. Cowles. 

563. Hirscht, Karl. Verschlossenblutige Pflanzen im Zimmergarten. [Cleistogamous 
flowers in a window garden.] Monatsschr. Kakteenkunde 29: 103-104. 1919. — The cleistoga- 
mous flowers of Anacampseros filamentosa Sims, are described. — A. S. Hitchcock. 

564. Jauch, Berthe. Quelques points de l'anatomie et de la biologie des Polygalacees. 
[Certain details of the anatomy and biology of Polygalaceae.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 47- 
84. 15 fig. 1918. 

565. Jatjffret, Aime. La determination des bois de deux Dalbergia de Madagascar, 
d'apres les caracteres de leurs matieres colorantes. [Identification of wood of Dalbergia by 
staining reactions.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 693-694. 1919. — The wood of two 
species of Dalbergia from Madagascar showed very characteristic specific reactions when 
treated with alcohol, sulphuric acid, caustic soda, ammonia, iron perchloride, bisulphite of 
soda, ether, chloroform, and benzene. The alcoholic solution of the powdered wood of each 
species also gave a characteristic spectrum. Such characters offer a basis for the identifi- 
cation of species in the absence of other parts of the plant. — F. B. Wann. 

566. Johansson, K. Fyllomorfi och diafys hos Geranium pyrenaicum L. [Phyllomorphy 
and diaphysis of Geranium pyrenaicum L.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 99. 1919. 
— A brief description of cases of phyllomorphy and diaphysis in Geranium pyrenaicum is 
given and references made to cases of teratology in other species of Geranium. — W. W. Gilbert. 

567. Kondo, M. Ueber die in der Landwirtschaft Japans gebrauchten Samen. [Seeds 
used in Japanese agriculture.] Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Forsch. 1: 261-324. 17 fig. 1918. — 
See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 37. 

568. McMurray, Nell. The day flower. Amer. Bot. 25: 150. 1919.— The flower of 

Commelina communis is described. — W. N. Clule. 



No. 1 , August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS 75 

569. Miller, E. C. Development of the pistillate spikelet and fertilization in Zea mays L. 
Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 255-265. PI. 19-32. 1919. — Study made on three varieties of maize: 
Pride of Saline, Freed White Dent, and Shorrod White Dent. The development of the pis- 
tillate spikelet is briefly described. — In the development of the embryo sac there is no de- 
generation of megaspores; the megasporocyte nucleus by three divisions gives rise to the eight 
nuclei of the sac, as in Lilium. The antipodals multiply and form a tissue of from 24 to 36 
cells in the base of the sac. — The silk is receptive to pollen not only at the stigmatic surface, 
but also along the greater portion of its length. The pollen tube may penetrate the silk at once 
or grow along the surface for some distance and penetrate later. Around the two vascular 
bundles of the silk are sheaths of cells with rich contents; it is between these cells that the tube 
grows. The tube penetrates into the embryo sac and .liberates the two male nuclei, which 
are formed before the shedding of the pollen grain. One of them fuses with the egg nucleus, 
while the other unites with the two polar nuclei, which do not fuse until this time. About 
26 to 28 hours elapse between pollination and fertilization. — The endosperm develops rapidly, 
filling the sac with tissue in 36 hours; the embryo by this time has 14 to 16 cells. [See Bot. 
Absts. 4, Entry 679.]— L. W. Sharp. 

570. Miller, Ward L. Polyxylic stem of Cycas media. Bot. Gaz. 68: 208-221. 11 fig. 
1919. — The normal cylinder begins its differentiation as high up as the meristem, the others 
beginning theirs successively lower, and each one in the cortex outside the next inner cylinder. 
Protoxylem and protophloem are developed during the early activities of the normal cylinder, 
the protoxylem elements usually being scalariform, as in the primary xylem. The secondary 
xylem is characteristically pitted. In the first cortical cylinder most of the xylem elements 
are pitted, neither protoxylem nor protophloem being observed. In both cylinders there is 
a relatively large number of suberized bast fibers. All cortical cylinders are similar in origin 
and development, and probably are related in appearance to alternating periods of rest and 
activity. — H. C. Cowles. 

571. Morvillez, F. L'appareil conducteur foliaire des Legumineuses : Papilionacees et 
Mimosees. [Leaf traces in the Leguminosae: Papilionatae and Mimosoideae.] Compt. Rend. 
Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 787-790. 9 fig. 1919. — -Ten types of vascular supply in the petioles of 
members of the sub-families Papilionatae and Mimosoideae are described and figured. In a 
previous paper (Compt. Rend. 167: 205. 1918) the leaf traces in the Caesalpinioideae were 
described. — The three sub-families of the Leguminosae present types of leaf traces with med- 
ullary strands similar to those of the Chrysobalanoideae of the Rosaceae; this character is 
encountered even in such widely separated genera as Swarlzia, Affonsea and Bocoa. The 
most highly specialized forms possess the simpler trace. — Subdivisions of the Papilionatae 
agree in leaf trace anatomy with the exception of the Astragaleae, in which are encountered 
the various types characteristic of the other tribes. This may represent a stock from which 
the others have been derived. Moreover, the Astragaleae, through the Sophoreae, seem to 
be related to types possessing medullary strands, thus constituting an assemblage of closely 
related forms, to which are attached the different sub-families of the Leguminosae. — F. B. 
Wann. 

572. Nelson, J. C. Monomorphism in Equisetum Telmateia Ehrh. Amer. Fern Jour. 
9:93-94. 1919. 

573. Nelson, J. C. Another "freak" Equisetum. Amer. Fern Jour. 9: 103-106. PI. 6. 
1919. — Linn County, Oregon, is a new locality for Equisetum fluviatile L. Among the speci- 
mens collected was one, E. fluviatile var. polystachyum, which had 31 branches of the two 
upper whorls bearing strobiles at the tip. — F. C. Anderson. 

574. Sahni, B. On certain archaic features in the seed of Taxus baccata, with remarks 
on the antiquity of the Taxineae. Ann. Botany 34: 117-134. 7 fig. 1920.— It is suggested that 
the Palaeozoic seeds Cardiocarpus, Cycadinocarpus , Mitrospermum, and Taxospermum, all 



76 MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

of which probably belonged to the Cord ait ales, form a series illustrating a general tendency, 
a continuation of which has resulted in the production of the type of seed found in Taxus, as 
well as in Torn an and Cephalotaxus. This tendency may be summarized as follows: The 
point of origin of the "outer" system of vascular strands shifts nearer and nearer the subnu- 
cellar pad of tracheids which gives rise to the "inner" system. During this process the bun- 
dles of the outer system cut through the "stone." The canals through the stone then move 
forward toward the micropyle so that for an increasing distance the bundles come to lie in- 
side the stone. At the culmination of the process when they lie entirely within the stone the 
condition found in Taxus is reached. In this genus the "inner" system of bundles has dis- 
appeared. The seeds of Torreya and Cephalotaxus are derived from the same source by a 
modification of the same tendency. On the basis of this theory these three genera are the 
nearest existing relatives — apart from Ginkgo— of the Cordaitales and like Ginkgo have been 
derived directly from the Cordaitales. It is proposed to place them in a separate group 
the Taxales, distinct from Coniferales and nearer Ginkgo. — W. P. Thompson. 

575. St. John, Harold. The genus Elodea in New England. Rhodora 22 : 17-29. 1920. 
—See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 451. 

576. Salisbury, E. J. Variation in Anemone apennina, L., and Clematis vitalba, L., with 
special reference to trimery and abortion. Ann. Botany 34: 107-116. 9 fig. 1920. — This 
paper furnishes additional data supporting the author's previously published views concern- 
ing the essential trimery of the Ranunculaceous flower and the causes of variation in the 
numbers of the constituent parts. Curves are given showing the variation in the number of 
stamens, carpels, and perianth parts in a large number of flowers of the species studied. The 
curves show marked periodicity, the crests occurring at multiples of three. In more than 
half the flowers of Anemone apennina the stamens and carpels are in multiples of three. Evi- 
dence is given to show that congenital fission is the chief cause of variation in number, though 
transformation of stamens into perianth parts was also observed. — W. P. Thompson. 

577. Schaffner, John H. Dieciousness in Thalictrum dasycarpum. Ohio Jour. Sci. 
20: 25-34. 1919. — Intermediate forms between extremes of staminateness and carpellateness 
are described. Great diversity of sexual expression is found on different branches of the same 
inflorescence. It is concluded that maleness or femaleness is determined by the physiological 
state at the inception of the sporophylls; or that if sex has been determined earlier, it is later 
reversed. A general survey of the origin and nature of dieciousness in sporophytes is given, 
showing evolutionary gradations from the bisporangiate to the monosporangiate condition 
in various groups. — H. D. Hooker, Jr. 

578. Seward, A. C. [Rev. of: Chamberlain, C. J. The living cycads. Univ. Chicago 
Science Ser. 172 p. 91 fig. Univ. Chicago Press: Chicago, 1919.] New Phytol. 18: 262. 
1919. 

579. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. Miscellaneous 
topics. New Phytol. 18: 129-176. Fig. 64-78. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 720. 

5S0. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. General conclu- 
sions. New Phytol. 18: 201-231. Fig. 79. 1919. 

581. Soueurs, R. Embryogenie des Polygonacees. Developpement de l'embryon chez 
le Polygonum Persicaria L. [Development of the embryo of Polygonum persicaria L.] Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 791-793. 8 fig. 1919. — The two-celled proembryo of Polygonum 
persicaria L. gives rise, by a series of transverse divisions, to six layers of cells, the upper two 
being derived from the apical cell and the lower four from the basal cell. The two layers pro- 
duced from the apical cell give rise respectively to the cotyledons, as in the Ranunculaceae 
and Cruciferae, and to the upper portion of the hypocotyl. In the Ranunculaceae and Cru- 
ciferae the corresponding layer gives rise to the complete hypocotyl. The four layers derived 
from the basal cell of the two-celled proembryo give rise respectively to (1) the lower portion 
of the hypocotyl; (2) the root cap; and (3) and (4) a rudimentary suspensor. — F. B. Wann. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY, ETC., VASC. PLANTS 77 

582. Spratt, Amy Vera. Some anomalies in monocotyledonous roots. Ann. Botany 34: 
99-105. 77. 3, 1 fig. 1920. -Members of several monocotyledonous natural orders show an 
anomalous root condition consisting in the filling in of a large pith with scattered vascular 
strands. These may be formed by secondary growth {Dracaena) or differentiated at the 
growing point (Pandanus, Yucca) and at later stages may form a solid stele in some cases. 
The secondary thickening in hracaena may occur in the pericycle or in cortical layers. — 

W. P. Thompson. 

583. SpRBCHBR, A. Etude sur la semence et la germination du Garcinia mangostana L. 
[A study of the seed and germination in Garcinia mangostana L.] Rev. Gen. liot. 31: 513-531, 
609-G34. PI. o 7,34jig- 1919. — In the East Indian "mangosteen," a member of the (oil tiferae, 
the ovule is anatropous and has two integuments. During the development of the embryo 
the nucellar cells are absorbed, the sac coming to life directly against the inner integument. 
The cells of the latter bud into the sac and form an embryo, which becomes del ached from the 
integument and is completely surrounded for a time by the endosperm cytoplasm with its 
free nuclei; these soon disappear. When fully developed the embryo has the form of a swollen 
tubercle which represents the hypocotyl; there is no trace of root, stem, or cotyledons. Two 
or three such embryos are occasionally developed in one embryo sac, forming a compound 
tubercle. The central cylinder which differentiates in the tubercle usually lies along the lon- 
gitudinal axis of the latter, but in many cases it develops in an oblique or transverse position. 
Normal fertilization and embryogeny also occur. — The course of the vascular bundles in the 
flower and fruit is followed, and it is shown that the white pulp in which the seed lies (usually 
only- one seed matures) represents the endocarp; this separates at an early stage from the red 
mesocarp, becomes divided into sections, and grows fast to the integument. The histological 
changes occurring during the development of the fruit are described. — At germination a root 
and a stem grow out from the embryonal tubercle and develop very- slowly. If the stem nnd 
a portion of the tubercle be removed a new stem is regenerated. In polyembryonic seeds 
more plantlets develop from the tubercle. The primaiy root has no root haire, but the walls 
of certain epidermal and hypodermal cells remain thin; water enters at these points. — The 
arrangement of vascular bundles in the seedling and the histology^ of its various parts are 
briefly described. In root, stem, leaf and fruit there is a system of secretory canals which 
arise schizogenously. — L. W. Sharp. 

584. Stout, A. B. Intersexes in Plantago lanceolata. Bot. Gaz. 68: 109-133. 2 pi. 
Aug., 1919— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1518. 

585. Styger, Jos. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Umbelliferen-fruchte. [Contribution on 
the Anatomy of Umbelliferous Fruits.] Schweiz. Apotheker Zeitg. 57: 199-205, 22S-235. 7 
fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 831. 

586. Turrill, W. B. Observations on the perianth in Ranunculus auricomus and Anem- 
one coronaria. New Phytol. 18:253-256. 3 fig. 1919. — The author describes transition stages 
between stamens and petals, petals and sepals, and sepals and bracts- in Ranunculus; and m 

a sepal occurring in the whorl of bracts in Anemone. — I. F. Lewis. 

587. Weatherwax, Paul. Paraffin solvents in histological work. Bot. Gaz. 68: 305- 
306. Oct., 1919. — The sinking of paraffin in the replacement of xylol may be avoided by run- 
ning a current of cold air through the melted paraffin, thus causing it to harden as a frothy- 
mass of lessened specific gravity. Before allowing it to harden, the mass is kneaded to secure 
finer grain and a more even distribution of the air bubbles. The author, however, does not 
find' any special disadvantages in the old method, and sees no valid reason for the rather gen- 
eral abandonment of the use of chloroform as a medium for the introduction of paraffin. — 
H. C. Coivles. 

588. Weingart, Wixh. Vom Reif des Cereus trigonus Haw. var. guatemalensis Eichl. 
[The bloom on Cereus trigonus var. guatemalensis.] Monatsschr. Kakteenkunde 29: 80-84. 
1919.— The author shows that the bloom contains resin as well as wax. — .4. S. Hitchcock. 



78 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, ALGAE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

589. Weingart, Wilh. Spharite im Hypoderm von Cereen. [Sphere crystals in the 
hypoderm of Cereus.] Monatsschr. Kakteenkunde 29: 45^18. 1919. — An account is given 
of the sphere crystals in Cereus Hirschtianus and C. Lauterbachii, and of the effect upon them 
of various reagents. The spherites contain no proteids and are allied to inulin. They con- 
stitute reserve material. — A. S. Hitchcock. 

590. Woodward, R. W. Further notes on Philotria. Rhodora 21: 218-219. 1919 — 
In a recent issue (Rhodora 21: 114. 1919.), writer reported what appeared to be Philotria 
angustifolia growing in brackish water at Old Lyme, Connecticut. On revisiting the station 
in August 1919 both flowers and fruit were examined while fresh, and from this examination 
detailed descriptions of the staminate and pistillate flowers and the fruit are given. Writer 
has not had an opportunity to verify his identification by comparison with authentic material 
but believes that it is P. angustifolia or some species closely related to it. — James P. Poole. 

MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF ALGAE 

E. N. Transeau, Editor 

591. B0rgesen, F. The marine algae of the Danish West Indies. Vol. 3. Rhodo- 
phyceae. Dansk Bot. Ark. 3: 145-240. Fig. 149-230. 1917.— This part completes the family 
Squamariaceae, from p. 144, 1915, of the same volume. (This family contributed by Mme. 
A. Weber-van Bosse), and includes the families Hildenbrandiaceae, Corallinaceae (the sub- 
family Melobesieae by Mme. Paul Lemoine, text in French) and part of the Ceramiaceae. 
New are Amphiroa rigida Lamour. var. antillana B0rgesen; Mesothamnion caribaeum, nov. 
gen. & sp. B0rgesen; Antithamnion antillarum B0rgesen; Spyridia aculeata var. disticha, 
and its forma inermis B0rgesen. New combinations: Lithophyllum accretum (Fosl. & Howe) 
Lemoine; Lithophyllum (?) propinquum (Fosl.) Lemoine; Melobesia (Lithoporella) allantica 
(Fosl.) Lemoine; Melobesia (Litholepis) affinis (Fosl.) Lemoine; Porolithon mamillare (Harv.) 
var. occidentale (Fosl.) Lemoine; Porolithon Boergesenii (Fosl.) Lemoine. Mme. Lemoine's 
treatment of the Melobesieae has a key to the 20 species, and list of the other species known 
from the Antilles as a whole; also a comparison with the species of other regions, showing a 
strong resemblance to those of the Mediterranean, and a somewhat less marked though still 
distinct resemblance to those of the Indo-Pacific. 19 of the 20 species are figured, either in 
section or in habit or both; most of them for the first time. Two species are recorded for the 
first time in America: Jania adhaerens Lamour., of the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and Japan; 
and J. decussato-dichotoma Yendo, of Japan. Jania sp., Grifithsia sp., Callithamnion sp., 
Antithamnion sp., are described and the last two figured; probably new, but sterile. — Frank 
S. Collins. 

592. B0rgesen, F. The marine algae of the Danish West Indies. Vol. 3. Rhodo- 
phyceae. Dansk Bot. Ark. 3 : 241-304. Fig. 281-307. 1918.— Completes the family Cerami- 
aceae and begins the family Rhodomelaceae. New are Laurencia chondrioides B0rgesen; 
Polysiphonia sphaerocarpa B0rgesen. — Frank S. Collins. 

593. B0rgesen, F. The marine algae of the Danish West Indies. Vol. 3. Rhodo- 
phyceae. Dansk. Bot. Ark. 3 : 305-368. Fig. 308-360. 1919.— Completes the family Rhodo- 
melaceae and covers the families Delesseriaceae, Bonnemaisoniaceae, Gigartinaceae, and 
Rhodophyllidaceae. New are Dasya caraibica B0rgesen; Cottoniella arcuata B0rgesen, nov. 
gen. et sp. Dasya sp. is described and figured, probably new species but sterile. For Lopho- 
cladia trichoclados are described and figured the cystocarps and antheridia, hitherto unknown. 
As in previous parts of this paper, full descriptions are given of all species, and many details 
are described and figured for the first time. — Frank S. Collins. 

594. Boyer, Charles S. Rare species of North American Diatomaceae. Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club 47: 67-72. PI. 2. 1920. — The following new species of diatoms are described: Au- 
liscus floridanus , A. hyalinus, Dimerogramma intermedium, Glyphodcsmis tumida, G. campechi- 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, ALGAE 79 

one, Synedra anguinea, S. incisa, Eunotia Stevemonii, Pinnularia Hagelsteinii, Nilzchia 
scmicostata, and Surirella Palmeri. Navicula Attwooddii M. Perag. and an abnormal form of 
Aulodiscus oregonus Harv. & Bail, are discussed. — P. A. Munz. 

595. Bristol, B. Muriel. On the alga-flora of some desiccated English soils : an impor- 
tant factor in soil biology. Ann. Botany 34: 35-80. PI. 11. 12 fig. 1920.— By means of water 
cultures it is show that there is a widely distributed plant assorial ion in cultivated soils con- 
sisting of moss protonema and algae. Sixty-four species and varieties of algae were identi- 
fied. All these algae can withstand from four to twenty-six weeks desiccation. Descriptions 
of the algae including six new species are given. — E. N. Transeau. 

596. Bullock-Webster, G. R. A new nitella. Irish Nat. 28: 1-3. PL 1. 1919 — 
Nilella spanioclema, a new species collected at Lough Shannach, County Donegal, Ireland. — 
W. E. Praeger. 

597. Carter, Nellie. On the cytology of two species of Characiopsis. New Phytol. 18: 
177-186. 8 fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 118. 

598. Church, A. H. Historical Review of the Florideae II. Jour. Botany 57: 329-334. 
1919 (continued from Ibid. 57: 304). — The Florideae represent an independent line of evolu- 
tion in the sea from the ancestral stage of encysted plankton-flagellates, attaining somatic 
and reproductive specialization along their own lines. Nuclear migrations and haustorial 
connections of the carpospore are but an extension of secondary pit-connections and migration 
in the somatic organization. Cenocytic decadence of the trophocyte is paralleled by the sec- 
ondary coenocytic organization in the vegetative soma of distinct generic types. — Progressive 
differentiation of the sex mechanism leads through inevitable stages to oogamy and fertiliza- 
tion in situ, following the failure of the oospore to be discharged, thus giving rise to many 
separate phyla of algae. Though efficient in economy of materials, this method leaves 
dispersal unprovided for. — Most important in the Floridae, however, is not the fertilization 
in situ with a parasite zygote and a sporophyte generation producing spores, but the presence 
of three successive generations as follows: (I.) Gametophyte, (II.) Carposporophyte (dip- 
loid) and (III.) Tetrasporophyte (haploid). In (I.) there is the most complete economy 
in the sexual process. The gametes are expressed as mere nuclei, a condition otherwise at- 
tained only in the Angiosperms. There is also post-sexual nutrition. This is made possible 
by the mechanism of the pit-connections left open at the base of the young carpogonium. 
In (II.) the generation is asexual. Whether it be haploid or diploid does not matter, but 
there has been no inducement to a haploid condition. It is a very much reduced stage. In 
(III.) the spores are immediately dispersed and take the small chance of immediate germina- 
tion. They grow to a free autotropic soma, but there is a reduction to the haploid condition 
at the formation of tetraspores. — The haploid spores on germination give a haploid soma which 
is normally free and autotropic, and which may be sexual and repeat the sequence, though 
it may as well be asexual. Of special interest are cases where the tetraspore formation is 
wanting and reduction is otherwise provided for, but the locus of the process is wholly sub- 
sidiary and secondary. The condition in Scinaia and Nemalion in this respect is discussed. 
— The clue to the peculiar behavior of the zygote and young carposporophyte in its relation 
to the auxiliary cells is seen in its practically holoparasitic habit. The passage of food mater- 
ial quickly is rendered possible by the mechanism of secondary pit-connections dependent on 
the soft penetrable wall-membrane. — The clearest view of the Florideae is that they consist 
of a multitude of distinct phyla as the survivors of a specialized and circumscribed ancient 
race of Marine Algae. All of the living representatives are on a closely comparable physio- 
logical plane, but the phyla diverge as to somatic construction and organization and as to 
internal economy, becoming more specialized in relation to the parasitic carposporophyte. — 
The phases of haustorial connection, progressively more intricate and devastating in relation 
to the parental thallus they drain, constitute but one aspect of the question. The produc- 
tion of the cystocarpic wall after fertilization passing to the initiation of these structures be- 
fore fertilisation represents a specializal ion of great significance. A true phytogenetic classi- 



80 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, ALGAE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

fication should thus combine: (1) the auxiliary cell standpoint of Schmitz, with (2) the 
special feature of thallus-organization, and (3) adult cystocarpic-differentiation, more 
clearly recognized as significant by the older algologists (Harvey). [See also Bot. Absts. 4, 
Entry 1014.]— K. M. Wicgand. 

599. Coulter, J. M. Alaria. [Rev. of: Yendo, Kichisaburo. A monograph of the 
genus Alaria. Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, 43 1 : US p. 19 pi. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 
5, Entry 612.)] Bot. Gaz. 68: 151-152, 1919. 

600. Dtjcellier, F. Contribution a l'Etude de la flore desmidiologique de la Suisse. [A 
contribution to the study of the Desmid flora of Switzerland.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 85- 
154. 8 pi., 134 fig. 1918. — The many species of Desmids found at five different stations are 
enumerated with detailed notes and figures. Many of the species are new to Switzerland. — 
W. H. Emig. 

601. Ducellier, F. Etude critique sur Euastrum ansatum Ralfs et queiques-unes de ses 
varietes Helvetiques. [A critical study of Euastrum anasatum Ralfs and some of the Swiss 
varieties.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 35-46. 29 fig. 1918. — Euastrum ansatum Ralfs var. 
simplex n. var., also the new varieties commune, didcltiforme, robustum, and rhomboidale, are 
figured and described in detail. — W. II. Emig. 

602. Ducellier, F. Trois Cosmarium nouveaux. [Three new forms of Cosmarium.] 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 12-16. 3 fig. 1918. —The three new forms of Cosmarium described 
and figured include: (1) C. obliquum Nordst. form minutissima n. form., the smallest known 
form of this species; C. crassangulatum Borge, var. Champesianum n. var. differs from the 
species in size and the papillose nature of the cell wall; and C. Hornavanense (Schmidle) 
Gutwinski form Helvetica n. form. — W. H. Emig. 

603. Ghose, S. L. A new species of Uronema from India. Ann. Botany 34: 95-98. 15 
fig. 1920. — Uronema indicum from Lahore, India, is described, bringing the number of species 
in this genus up to four.— E. N. Transeau. 

604. Groves, James. Sex-terms for plants. Jour. Botany 58: 55-56. 1920. — See Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 560. 

605. Hodgetts, William J. Roya anglica G. S. West. A new Desmid; with an emended 
description of the genus Roya. Jour. Botany 58: 65-69. 1920. — The author has compiled the 
account of this new species from descriptions, notes and drawings by G. S. West. The form 
of the vegetative cell is cylindrical or subcylindrical, unconstricted and very slightly tapering 
toward each end where it is subtruncate. The zygospore is globose with a hyaline smooth 
wall. The chief distinctions on which Roya can be retained as a genus are: (1) the simple 
structureless nature of the wall; and (2) the delay in the division of the chloroplast until 
the cell has reached maturity. — K. M. Wicgand. 

606. Howe, Marshall A. Observations on monosporangial discs in the genus Liagora. 
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 47: 1-S. PI. 1, fig. 25-29. 1920.— The genus Liagora of the marine 
red algae of the family Nemalionaceae is made up of species mostly dioecious, some being 
monoecious. Some species often have small flat orbicular discs of a deep red color and bear- 
ing on their distal surface a few sporangia the contents of which remain undivided. The lack 
of any obvious genetic connection between these and the Liagora makes them appear to be 
independent of it. They probably arise from gonidia, gemmae, or aplanospores which come 
from terminal or subtcrminal cells of the assimilatory filaments of the Liagora. — P. A. Mum. 

607. Lucas, A. H. S. Notes on Australian Marine Algae, II. Description of four new 
species. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 44: 174-179. PL 6. 1919.— Laurencia infes- 
tans is described and figured and Falkenbcrgia olcns, Polysiphonia zostericola and Tricho- 
desmium scoboideurn are discussed in detail. — Eloise Gerry. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, ALGAE 81 

60S. Meister, Kit. Zur Pflanzengeographie der schweizeriscben Bacillariaceen. [On the 
plant geography of the Swiss Bacillariaceae.) Bot. Jahrb. 55 (Beiheft): 125 L59. 8 fig. L919. 
— Brun in 1880 described 32 genera and 182 species from Switzerland; Meister in 1912 listed 
45 genera and 376 species, or including varieties 621 forms. The greater proporl ion of I be Swiss 
diatoms occurred also in the Tertiary. About one-half of the Tertiary diatomaceous flora 
has persisted down to the present: thus when compared with the Phanerogams the conserva- 
tive nature of the diatoms is apparent. The number that have appeared since Tertiary times 
is less than those that have perished so that the diatoms seem to be a waning group. Tertiary 
species common to central France and Hungary must have arisen in pretertiary times, there- 
fore in the Cretaceous or Jurassic. The oldest known genera of fresh water Bacillariaceae are 
Epithemia, Rhopalodia, and Melosira. The Swiss diatom flora shows a much closer relation 
to the west European than to the east European tertiary flora. Several old tertiary forms 
are now found living only in Switzerland. The oldest forms from the Oligocene or those of 
the Miocene of west or east Europe now inhabit the bottoms of the Swiss lakes. There are 
many diatoms in the Alps and in the colder lakes of the lowlands that occur elsewhere only 
in the far north or in central Asia. Meister believes that Diatoms have migrated from cen- 
tral Asia to the Alps and the Arctic region rather than the reverse. Why are there so many 
endemic species in Switzerland when diatoms are generally so ubiquitous? There is no good 
explanation at present, but the author assumes as a working hypothesis that the relics have 
descended from preglacial times and that conditions during or before the glacial period were 
different from what is generally believed. Meister shows that many diatoms inhabit both 
highland and lowland lakes and are therefore not sensitive to variations in warmth; more 
than three-fourths were found to be indifferent. Extensive lists are given in various portions 
of the paper. Navicula acuta n. sp. is described. — K. M. Wicgand. 

609. Pilger, R. Ueber Corallinaceae von Annobon. [On the Corallinaceae of Annobon.] 
Bot. Jahrb. 55: 401-435. 55 fig. 1919. — This paper is the first report on the algae collected 
in 1911 by Dr. J. Mildbraed on Annobon, the smallest of the Guinea Islands, where the black 
calcareous rocks support a rich flora of marine algae. These lime-loving algae inhabit a zone 
between low and high tides which is wider on the west coast where the waves are high, and 
narrowest on the north where there is simply the swell of the ocean. The Corallinaceae are 
often very delicately colored. The decalcified material was imbedded in paraffin, sectioned 
and stained with Ruthenian red, Bismark brown, chlor-iodide of zinc, or haematoxylin. A 
brief account of the genus Goniolithon Foslie is given together with Foslie's diagnosis of the 
genus, and Harvey's description of G. mamillare (Harvey) Fosl., the only species found by 
Mildbraed. This species ranges from Brazil and Terra del Fuego to Cape Verde and Algoa 
Bay. Foslie suggests that G. mamillare may be a juvenile form of G. brassica-florida. Pilger 
gives extended descriptions of his material under four headings: (1) female material, (2) 
tetraspore material, (3) inner structure of the conceptacle projections and the branches, and 
(4) structure of the cortex. The female material formed thin crusts on the rocks with a 
smooth or uneven surface, the crusts sometimes being proliferous. The tetrasporic material 
produced crusts on stones or mussels. The cell structure, cell division, plasma membrane, and 
chromatophores are described, and illustrated. The reaction of the different cells to chlor- 
iodide of zinc is discussed. Elongation of the cell-rows takes place always by the division 
of the uppermost cell of the row, and the cells are connected in the direction of growth by pe- 
culiar double-faced pits. Heterocysts are formed in Goniolithon in 2's or 3's on the surf t n e 
of the "Vorsprung." The whole floor of the tetrasporic conceptacle is covered with 4-par i 1 
tetrasporangia. The female conceptacles are in most cases empty or contain merely 
remains of carpospores. The cortex is differentiated into a hypothallus and a perithallus. 
The cells of the perithallus are rich in starch. Ldthophyllum africannm Foslie occurs on Anno- 
bon. This species forms cornice-like projections from the rock 15 cm. or even 30 cm. broad. 
The little fan-shaped ends of the inconspicuous branches are arranged story-like on the sur- 
face of the mass. L. Kolschyanum linger is next described. This species is often attar 
to the larger species, L. africanum. It has a thin crust with a different type of branching. 
The crust does not show a real hypothallus with cells running at an angle to those of the peri- 

BOT\NICAL ABSTRACTS. VOI . V, NO. 1 



82 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, BRYOPHYTES [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

thallus, and there are no pit connections between the cells in the lower layers of the crust. 
Litltophyllum leptothalloidcum and L. Mildbracdii are described as new. These are thin crus- 
taceous species, the former growing on L. africanum, the latter on stones and rocks. The anat- 
omy and reproductive bodies of each are described. Amphiroa annobonensis also is described 
as new. Extended observations are made on the cellwall and tetrad cohesion of the cells in 
the Corallinaceae. The author finds that a middle lamella is present and therefore the whole 
gelatinous mass seeming to lie between the cells is really cell wall, and the calcium carbonate 
is actually deposited in the wall. The contributions of Yendo and Mme. Lemoine are cited. 
The author differentiates between pores due to the breaking down of the wall and true pits; 
and considers this to be of systematic value. — K. M. Wiegand. 

610. Reverdin, L. Le Stephanodiscus minor nov. spec, et revision du genre Stephano- 
discus. [Stephanodiscus minor n. sp. and a revision of the genus Stephanodiscus.] Bull. 
Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 17-20. 22 fig. 1918. — A new species of Stephanodiscus (Diatom) with 
three to six silicious appendages is described and compared with the other two species of the 
same genus. — W. H. Emig. 

Gil. Smith, Catharine, W. Variation in the number of ribs in Costaria costata. Publ. 
Puget Sound Biol. Sta. 2: 207-312. 1919. — While the number of ribs reported in literature 
is 3-5, the author finds that the number may be as high as 11. The number is not necessarily 
constant throughout the length of the same frond. — T. C. Frye. 

612. Yendo, K. A monograph on the Genus Alaria. Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 
43 : 1 . 1919. — Deals mainly with the taxonomy of this genus but considers briefly various mor- 
phological details, the economic uses, and the distribution of these large marine algae. A 
considerable bibliography is included. — G. J. Peirce. 

613. Zimmermann, Ch. Quelques diatomees nouvelles ou curieuses. [Some new or 
peculiar diatoms.] Broteria Ser. Bot. 17: 97-100. PI. 3 (5 fig.). 1919.— Eight of the nine 
forms mentioned are proposed as new, viz. : Navicula cardinaliculus var. margaritacea, 
N. Jeqaitinhonhae, A 7 . Torrendii with var. capitata and forms typica and nana, N. mutica 
var. rhombica, Achnanthcs lanceolata var. brasilie?isis , Fragilaria undulata var. brasiliensis. 
All forms mentioned are figured, and all are from Brazil. — Edward B. Chamberlain. 

MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF BRYOPHYTES 

Alexander W. Evans, Editor 

614. Amann, Jules. Additions a la flore des mousses de la Suisse. [Additions to the 
moss flora of Switzerland.] Bull, de la Murithienne 1916-18: 42-66. 1919.— The author first 
gives a large number of localities extending the range of species listed in the Flore des mousses 
de la Suisse [see Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1032], and mentions a number of forms now first re- 
ported for the region, usually accompanying these reports with short descriptive notes. He 
proposes the following species as new: Amblystegium ursorum, Bryum perlimbatum, Ceratodon 
mollis, Desmatodon spelaeus , Didymodon riparius (notKindb.), Lesquereuxia glacialis , Mnium 
adnivense, Pseudoleskeclla ambigua, Ptychodium abbreviatum, P.-albidum, and P. pallescens. 
Under the genus Ptychodium he gives a key to the Swiss species and states that between Les- 
quereuxia saxicnla and Ptychodium plicatum a long series of transitional forms occurs, so that 
sterile material can not be definitely determined. At the conclusion of the paper he lists, 
as an example of the general trend of moss associations in the high-alpine region, twenty-one 
mosses and one hepatic found growing on the mica-schist of the Combin de Corbassiere (Pen- 
nine Alps) at an altitude of 3600-3700 m. — Edward B. Chamberlain. 

615. Bristol, B. Murtel. On the gemmae of Tortula mutica, Lindb. Ann. Botany 34: 
137-138. 5 fig. 1920. — This is a note recording the discovery of a specimen of Tortula mutica 
which bore numerous gemmae scattered over the surface of the leaf. The gemmae are borne 
on one-celled stalks and generally consist of two or four cells. — W. P. Thompson. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, BRYOPHYTES 83 

616. Britton, E. G. Mosses of Bermuda. Bryologist 22: 87. 1919.— Tins list of 
twenty-two species is an enumeration without comment of the forme mentioned in the 
recently issued Flora of Bermuda by Bkitton and others. — Edward />'. Chamberlain. 

617. Brotiierus, V. F., and W. W. Watts. The mosses of North Queensland. I 'roc. 
Linnaean Soc. New South Wales 43: fill .V>7. 191S.- In a foreword the second author gives 
a brief description of the region where most of his collections were made and refers to the 
important work on the mosses of Queensland done by F. M. Bailey. He calls attention to 
the fact that the species of North Queensland are Malasian rather than Australian in their 
affinities. He notes further that, as a result of his explorations, one new genus and fourteen 
new species have been brought to light, that 17 other genera and 30 other species have been 
added to the flora of Australia, and that numerous species, heretofore known only from other 
parts of Australia, can now be definitely recorded from Queensland. In the main body of 
the work a list of species is given, with localities and occasional notes on distribution, and 
the new genus and new species are described. The new genus, Pterobryidium Broth. & Watts., 
is related to Pterobyropsis Fleisch. and is based on a single species. The new species are the 
following, Brotherus and Watts being the authorities except where otherwise noted: Brachy- 
menium Wattsii Broth., Bryum kurandae, Campylopus Wattsii Broth., Chaetomitrium ento- 
donloides, Dicranoloma Wattsii Broth., Eclropothecium serriofolium, Floribundaria robustella, 
Fissidens cairnensis, F. kurandae, Pterobryidium australe, Pterobryopsis filigera, Syrrhopodon 
cairnensis, Taxithelium Wattsii Broth, and Trichosteleum elegantulum. To these should be 
added Mniodendron comatulum Geheeb, a manuscript species here described for the first time. 
— A. W. Evans. 

618. Chamberlain, Edward B. [Rev. of: Amann, J., and C. Meylan. Flore des 
mousses de la Suisse. [Flora of the mosses of Switzerland.] Geneve, 1918. (See also Bot. 
Absts. 4, Entry 1032.)] Bryologist 22: 41-43. 1919.— The reviewer criticises the method 
employed by the authors in the citation of authorities for binomials. In all cases the original 
authority for the species is given, but when this name appears in parentheses the authority 
for the combination is not indicated in any way; the reader, therefore, unless thoroughly 
conversant with the literature, is in doubt as to "whether the combination be 'new' or not." 
In other respects the reviewer speaks in high terms of the work. — A. W. Evans. 

619. Corbiere, L. Deux mousses africaines egalement francaises. [Two African mosses 
occurring likewise in France.] Rev. Bryologique 41: 84-85. 1914. [Issued in 1919.1— In this 
paper (which is to be continued) the discovery of Grimmia Pitardi Corb. in the department 
of Var in southern France is announced. The species was described in 1909 from specimens 
collected in Tunis and has since been recorded from Tripoli. A full description is included. 
— A. W. Evans. 

620. Dixon, H. N. Rhaphidostegium caespitosum (Sw.) and its affinities. Jour. Botany 
58: 81-89. 1920. — The author's first impression of Rhaphidostegium sphaerotheca (C. M.) 
Jaeg., obtained from material collected on Table Mountain, Cape Colony, led him to believe 
that it was a well-marked species. Further study, however, showed that this was not the 
case but that the Table Mountain specimens, which were exceptionally large and fine, belonged 
to an extensive "Formenkreis," the usual material of which was small and commonplace. 
In this "Formenkreis" the author was able to include a number of specimens from South and 
Central Africa and from the Mascarene Islands, some of which had been referred to other 
species or even to other genera. Previous experience suggested that when a plastic species 
had a wide African distribution it was well to look further and see if it might not be identical 
with some South American or Australian species. Acting on this hypothesis the author was 
able to demonstrate that R. sphaerotheca was really a synonym of the American 7?. caespi- 
tosum (Sw.) Jaeg., a species originally described by Swart z from West Indian material under 
the name Hypnum caespitosum. He was able to show further, by the study of numerous type- 
specimens, that R. caespitosum had many synonyms and that it had a cosmopolitan range in 
the tropical and subtemperate portions of the Southern Hemisphere, even extending into 



84 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY, BRYOPHYTES [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

the temperate zone. The best specific characters for this polymorphic species are derived 
from the perichaetial leaves and capsules, and it seems to be impossible to divide it into definite 
groups, since the variations run in different directions and are little correlated. Some of the 
species referred in this paper to R. caespitosum, as synonyms, are the following: Hypnum 
lithophilum Hornsch., Hypnum loxense Hook., Leucomium Robillardii (Duby) Jaeg., Pterogoni- 
ella Stuhlmanni Broth., R. agnatum (Hampe) Jaeg., R. caespitans Schimp., R. Catillum (C. 
M.) Jaeg., R. cucullatifolium (Hampe) Jaeg., R. Dicnemonclla (C. M.) Broth., R. Duisaboanum 
(Mont.) Jaeg., R. fluminale (C. M.) Broth., R. inconspicuum (Hornsch.) Jaeg., R. Kcgelianum 
(C. M.) Jaeg., R. perlaxum (C. M.) Par., R. Sauloma (C. M.) Broth., R. sphaerotheca (C. M.) 
Jaeg., R. subsphaericarpum (Hampe & C. M.) Jaeg., Sematophyllum subnervatum Mitt., and 
Stereodon tristiculus Mitt. In all 58 synonyms are given. — K. M. Wiegand. 

621. Dotjin, Ch., and L. Trabtjt. Deux hepatiques peu connues. [Two little known 
hepatics.] Rev. Gen. Bot. 31: 321-328. PI. 9, 1 fig. 1919.— Two liverworts from Algeria, 
Corbierella algeriensis Douin & Trabut and Riccinia perennis (Steph.) Trabut, are described. 
The first is probably the same as Exormotheca Holstii Steph. but, on account of certain pecu- 
liar characters, is made the type of the new genus Corbierella Douin & Trabut. The second 
species, which was originally described by Stephani under the name Riccia (Ricciella) perennis, 
is the only member of the genus Riccinia Trabut, proposed in 1916. The writers regard it 
as intermediate between the Ricciaceae, with which it is classed, and the Marchantiaceae. — 
L. W. Sharp. 

622. Evans, Alexander W. Notes on New England Hepaticae. — XV. Rhodora 21: 
149-169. PL 126, 14 fig. 1919. — Under the name Nardia obscura the writer describes and 
discusses a new species, closely related to N. hyalina (Lyell) Carringt. and N. obovata (Nees) 
Lindb. It has been observed in several mountainous localities, especially in the White Moun- 
tains, and seems to retain its distinctive features even while exhibiting a considerable range 
of variability. For the sake of comparison the features of N. hyalina and N. obovata are like- 
wise discussed. Another species, Cephalozia Loitlesbergeri Schiffn., is reported for the first 
time from New England, the first American record having been based on material from Nova 
Scotia. Additions to local state floras include the following: Jungermannia sphaerocarpa, 
Calypogeia sphagnicola and Notothylas orbicularis from Maine; Riccardia pinguis, Pellia 
Neesiana, and Lophocolea alata from Massachusetts. According to the census given at the 
close of the paper 191 Hepaticae are now known from New England, including 142 from Maine, 
151 from New Hampshire, 129 from Vermont, 79 from Rhode Island, 145 from Connecticut, 
and 62 from all six states. — James P. Poole. 

623. Harris, G. T. On Schistostega osmundacea Mohr. Jour. Quekett Microsc. Club 
II, 13: 361-374. 2 pi., 2 fig. 1917. — This moss thrives in crevices, caves, burrows, etc., facing 
north to northeast, where it is moist but not wet. The capsules are deciduous. Gemmae 
are formed on the protonema and are disseminated by animals. The flask-shaped cells found 
on protonema are separation-cells, remaining after the liberation of gemmae. The protonema 
is made up largely of obconic light-cells, whose structure is discussed, and is almost com- 
pletely used up in mature plants. — L. B. Walker. 

624. Kashyap, S. R. The androecium in Plagiochasma appendiculatum L. et L. and P. 
articulatum Kashyap. New Phytol. 18: 235-238. 2 fig. 1919.— At the end of the paper the 
author summarizes his conclusions as follows: "Three different considerations, therefore, 
show that the androecium of P. appendiculatum and P. articulatum is really homologous with 
that of the higher Marchantiales in being a branch-system (1). The arrange- 
ment of the scales at the tip of the lobes which is very similar to that at the tip of the vege- 
tative lobe. (2). The repeated branching of the receptacle, two or three times in some speci- 
mens. (3). The invariably acropetal succession of the antheridia in all lobes exactly as in 
Marchantia, the highest genus of the Marchantiales." — I. F. Lervis. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. 85 

625. Luisier, A. Les mousses de Madere. [Mosses of Madeira.] Broteria Ser. Bot. 
17: 112-142. 1919. — This article is the sixth of a scries covering a complete discussion of 
Madeiran mosses and includes the genera Bryum (in part) to Thamnium. No mw forms are 
described, but short notes, references, and reprints of original descriptions are appended to 
many of the species mentioned. More extended and critical discussions occur for liryum 
serrulatum Card., Pogonatum subaloides (C. M.) Jaeg., Neckera intermedia Brid., and the 
species of Lcucodon and of Echinodium. — Edward B. Chamberlain. 

626. Melin, Elias. Sphagnum angermanicum n. sp. Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 
13: 21-25. S fig. 1919. — Under the above name the author describes and illustrates a new 
species of Sphagnum which he found in Angermanland, .Sweden, in 1915, 1916 and 1917. It 
is related to S. molle Sulliv.— IT. W. Gilbert. 

627. Paul, H. Einige fur den Bayerischen Wald neue Pflanzen. [Plants new to the 
Bavarian Forest.] Mitteil. Bayer. Bot. Ges. Erforsch. Heim. Flora 3: 467-168. 1918.— The 
author lists the following four plants as additions to the known flora of the Bavarian Forest: 
Scutellaria minor L., Sphagnum subbicolor Hpe., Bryum cyclophyllum Br. Eur., and Cathar- 
inaea Hausknechlii Broth. He describes the exact localities where these plants were found 
and ^numerates various other species, both spermatophytes and bryophytes, which grew in 
association with them. — A. W. Evans. 

628. Potier de la Varde, R. Observations sur quelques especes du genre Fissidens. 
[Observations on certain species of the genus Fissidens.] Rev. Bryologique 41: 85-92. PI. 1. 
1914. [Issued in 1919.] — In the first part of this paper (which is to be continued) the value of 
apparent dioecism as a specific character in the genus Fissidens is discussed. This condition 
is brought about when the same protonema gives rise to distinct male and female shoots. It 
thus represents a special form of monoecism, and the student of mosses is cautioned against 
attributing positive dioecism to a species until the protonemal relations have been estab- 
lished. In the second part of the paper the status of F. tamarindifolius Wils. is considered, 
and the conclusion is reached that it represents a form of F. inconsians Schimp. This con- 
clusion is based on the study of a long series of European specimens ranging from England to 
Italy and the Tirol. The figures were drawn from material collected in the department of 
the Manche in France. — A. W. Evans. 

629. Seymour, M. E. Mosses of the Cascade Mountains, Washington, collected by J. A. 
Allen. Bryologist 22: S5-86. 1919. — This is a list, without comment, of the specimens 
issued in the somewhat uncommon set of exsiccati mentioned in the title. — Edward B. 
Chamberlain. 



MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, LICHENS, BACTERIA 

AND MYXOMYCETES 

H. M. Fitzpatrick, Editor 

630. Adams, J. F. The alternate stage of Pucciniastrum Hydrangeae. Mycologia 12: 
33-35. 1920. — Along a path about which hydrangeas and hemlocks were numerous, Hydrangea 
arborescens was found to be heavily infected with Pucciniastrum Hydrangeae while the hem- 
locks were infected with a Peridermium stage resembling P. Peckii. Inoculation with accio- 
spores on Hydrangea arborescens grandiflora proved successful, mature uredinia appearing 
in about 12 days. Three other species of cultivated hydrangeas and a species of Vaccinium 
failed to show infections. Because of differences in hosts and in morphology, the Perider- 
mium is considered distinct from P. Peckii and is technically described, the name P. 
Hydrangeae (Berk. & Curt.) comb. nov. being proposed. — H. R. Rosen. 



86 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

G31. Arxaud, G. Les Asterinees. [The "Asterinees."] Ann. Ecole Nation. Agric. 
Montpellier 16: 1-288. PI. 1-53, 22 fig., maps 1-3. July 1917-August, 1918.— The name 
Asterinees is given to a group of black, saprophytic fungi which, although taxonomically hetero- 
geneous, are homogenous from the standpoint of biology and climatology. Nearly all Pyreno- 
mycetes belong to this group. The work is divided into three parts: (1) Comparative 
morphology. (2) Special taxonomy and morphology. The two groups of Pyrenomycetes, 
viz., Microthyriales and Dothideales are studied and described in detail. (3) Climatology 
and geographical distribution. A bibliographical index of the most important publications 
pertaining to these fungi is given. — F . F. Halma. 

632. Arthur, J. C. Errors in double nomenclature. Bot. Gaz. 68: 147-148. Aug., 
1919. — Attention is called to the difficulties which confront taxonomists working with para- 
sitic fungi, because of the necessity of having accurate taxonomic knowledge of hosts as 
well as of parasites. Occasion is taken to correct an error in a previous paper by the author 
(Bot. Gaz. 65: 470-471. 1918. See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 385). Two species there described 
as new, Puccinia Nicotianae and P. Acnisti, growing respectively on Nicotiana tomentosa 
and Acnislus arborescens, turn out to be one species, and the host of the two also is identical. 
The common host now appearing to be A. aggregalus, the correct name of the parasite is Puc- 
cinia Acnisti. — H. C. Cowles. 

633. Bachmann, E. Neue Flechtengebilde. [New lichen structures.] Ber. Deutsch. 
Bot. Ges. 36: 150-156. PI. 3. 1918. — Studies of microtome sections of the thalli of limestone- 
inhabiting lichens containing Chroolepvs or Scytonema as gonidia show three new points: 
(1) Spheroidal cell-clusters made up of groups of pseudoparenchymatous cells and storing 
oils; (2) "Hyphal knots," similar in structure, but without the oil and believed to serve 
for water-storage; and (3) Wandering gonidia, which are free from connection with the 
hyphae, occur more deeply situated than the usual gonidia, and are yellow-red instead of 
green. — L. W. Riddle. 

634. Bokura, U. A bacterial disease of lily. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan l 2 : 36-90. 
PL 1-2. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1243. 

635. Breed, R. S., and H.J. Conn. The nomenclature of the Actinomycetaceae. Jour. 
Bact. 4: 583-602. 1919. — A review of the literature relative to the proper generic names to 
be used in the family Actinomycetaceae is given, followed by a discussion in which the con- 
clusion is reached that the generic name Actinomyces Harz should be used rather than Strep- 
tothrix Corda, Streptothrix Cohn, Discomyces Rivolta, or Actinocladothrix Afanasiev and 
Schultz. Nocardia Trevisan may be used as a subdivision of the genus Actinomyces. A. 
bovis Harz may be considered as the type species.— Chester A. Darling. 

636. Burger, Owen F. Sexuality in Cunninghamella. Bot. Gaz. 68: 134-146. Aug., 
1919— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2096. 

637. Chou, Chung Ling. Notes on fungous diseases in China. [Text in Chinese.] 
Khu Shou [Science-Publication of the Chinese Science Society] 4: 1223-1229. Fig. 1-16, 
1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 732. 

638. Clark, Paul F., and W. H. Ruehl. Morpholgical changes during the growth of 
bacteria. Jour. Bact. 4: 615-625. 1919. — Seventy strains of bacteria representing 37 species, 
many of which were pathogenic forms, were studied as to the variation in size, shape, char- 
acteristic groupings, and staining when grown for different periods of time on ordinary cul- 
ture media. The conclusions were that in all strains examined excepting those of the diph- 
theria group and possibly B. mallei the organisms found in cultures four to nine hours old 
are much larger than in older cultures. The period when the largest organisms are found 
corresponds closely to the period when the cells are dividing rapidly. In the diphtheria group 
the organisms in cultures of from 4 to 9 hours old are definitely smaller and more solid stain- 
ing than in older cultures. — Chester A. Darling. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. 87 

639. Colosi, G. Contribute alia conoscenza dei Licheni della Sardegna. [Some Lichens 
of Sardinia.) Malpighia 28: 458 171. L919. — Lists L15 species and varieties, two of the 
varieties being new. — L. W. Riddle. 

640. Dittrich, ('<. Uber Vergiftungen durch Pilze der Gattungen Inocybe und Tricbo- 
loma. (Poisoning caused by species of Inocybe and Tricholoma.] Ber. Deutsch Bot. C,cs. 
36:456-459. 1918. — Inocybe sambucina is reported to have cause] seven' poisoning. !!■ 
ever, since the species has not been identified with certainty and no specimens could be 
obtained the following season, it is doubtful whether the fungus in question or some other 
organism was responsible. Tricholoma ' and related species are considered harm' 
by some and poisonous by others. — Ernst Arlschwager. 

641. [Dodge, B. O.] Anonymous. Index to American mycological literature, 
logia 12: 55-58. 1920. 

642. Doidgh, E. M . An interesting group of leaf fungi. South African Jour. N 
Hist 1: 164-171. 4 fig. 1919. — An account of the Peris poriaceae and Microihyriaceae, is given 
in a non-technical style, including methods of collecting, preserving and making microscopic 
preparations. — E. HI. Doidge. 

643. Dufrexoy, Jean. Sur les maladies parasitaires des Chenilles processionaires des 
Pins d'Arachon. [Concerning parasitic maladies of caterpillars.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
Paris 168: 1345-1346. 1919. — Brief descriptions of various bacteria and higher fungi found 
growing as parasites on certain larvae. Those mentioned are: Bacterium pityocampae, 
Streptococcus sp., Beauveria globulifera (J. Beauverie) and Penicillivm sp. — V. II. Young. 

644. Emile-Weil, P., and L. Gaudix. Contribution a. l'etude des onychomycoses — 
Onychomycoses a Penicillium, a Scopulariopsis, a\ Sterigmatocystis, a Spicaria. [Contribut on 
to the study of onychomycoses due to Penicillium, etc.] Arch. Med. Exp. ot Anat. Path. Paris 
28: 452hJ67. PL 12, 4 fig- 1919. — Mycoses of the nails are not uncommon, but have been 
given little study. They are mostly confined to the toe-nails, particularly those of the big 
toes. The pathological aspects are discussed briefly. Reports are given of Penicillium 
brevicaule var. hominis ( = Scopulariopsis Koningi Vuill.), Scopulariopsis cinerea n. sp., Spi- 
caria unguis n. sp., Sterigmatocystis unguis n. sp. The cultural characteristics of these fungi 
are described, as well as their morphology. Their mode of infection is probably through lesions. 
They frequently follow frost injury. — E. A. Bessey. 

645. Eriksson, Jakor. Sur l'heteroecie et la specialisation du Puccinia caricis, Reb. 
[On heteroecism and specialization in Puccinia caricis Reb.] Rev. C6n. Bot. 32: 15-1S. 1920. 
— After a large number of collections and inoculation experiments author divides Puccinia 
caricis into 3 species: P. Caricis diffusa, with aecidia on Urtica and Ribes; P. caricis- Urticae 
(P. Urticiae-caricis , Kleb.), with aecidia on Urtica; and P. caricis-Ribis (P. Ribesii, Cari- 
cis, Kleb.), with aecidia on Ribes. Under the last named are 3 sub-species: P. Caricis- 
Ribis, diffusa; P. caricis-Grossulariae ; and P. caricis-Ribis-nigri. — L. W. Sharp. 

646. Fragoso, Romualdo Gonzalez. Notes and communications at the session of Oct. 
1, 1919. Bol. R. Soc. Espafiola Hist, Nat. 19: 429-430. Oct., 1919.— The President of the 
Society commented on certain species distributed as new in the last fascicle of Maire's "Myco- 
theca Boreali-Africana," particularly with reference to their relation to the mycological flora 
of Spain. Puccinia Scirpi-littoralis (Pat.) Maire, II, III. The species encountered on Scirpus 
in regions where there is no IAmnanthemum nymphoides may be this new species; P. Laguri- 
Chamaemoly Maire, O, I— II, III, probably occurs in southern Spain where Allium Chamae- 
moly occurs; P. madritensis Maire, O, I— II, III, is probably the species reported as an aecid- 
dium on Clematis cirrhosa from the Balaeric islands and referred to P. Agropyri Ell. & Ev. ; 
Uromyces Cuenodii Maire, II, III; Entyloma Eryngii-tricuspidati Maire, probably occurs in 
southern Spain; Physoderma Ornithogali Maire attacks Ornithogalum narbonnense which 
occurs in all parts of Spain. — O. E. Jennings. 



88 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

647. Fries, Thore C. E. Onygena equina (Willd.) Pers. funnen i Haliand. [Onygena 
equina (Willd.) Pers. found in Holland.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 107. Fig. 1. 
1919. 

648. Gunn, W. F. Some Irish Mycetozoa. Irish Nat. 28: 45-48. 1919.— The number 
of Irish Mycetozoa should approximate those recorded from Great Britain and further explora- 
tion is desired. A list of thirty-eight species and varieties from new localities and one, 
Hemitrichia vesparium, new to Ireland is given. — W. E. Praeger. 

649. Hadden, N. G. The Uredineae of West Somerset. Jour. Botany 58: 37-39. 1920. 
— This paper is a list of the rusts found within a few miles of Porlock in Somerset, England. 
The list is said to contain an unusually large number of species, a number of which are rare 
and interesting. The nomenclature is that of Ramsbottom's list of British Uredinales. — 
K. M. Wiegand. 

650. Harris, J. E. G. Contributions to the biochemistry of pathogenic anaerobes. VIII. 
The biochemical comparison of microorganisms by quantitative methods. Jour. Path, and 
Bact. 23: 30-49. Fig. 1-2. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 936. 

651. Herre, A. W. C. T. A list of lichens from southeastern Alaska. Publ. Puget Sound 
Biol. Sta. 2: 279-285. 1919. — A taxonomic report on the lichens collected by the members of 
the U. S. Bureau of Soils Kelp Exploration Expedition to Southeastern Alaska in 1913. 86 
species and varieties were collected, of which 19 were not previously known from Alaska. 
The range of others is extended. — T. C. Frye. 

652. Herrmann, E. Behandlung und Untersuchung der Trockenpilze. [Treatment and 
examination of mushrooms for drying purposes.] Pharm. Zentralhalle Deutschland 60: 5-7, 
21-25. PI. 1, fig. 16. 1919. — A description of edible fungi and tests for distinguishing these 
from poisonous fungi. — H. Engelhardt. 

653. Hollands, A. Ch. Formes levures pathogenes observees dans le sang d'Acridium 
(Caloptenus italicus L.). [Pathogenic yeast forms observed in the blood of Acridium.] Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 1341-1344. 1 fig. 1919. — Marchal has reported yeast forms in 
the blood of the caterpillars of Cochylis. It is probable that these are parasitic. Author in 
1918 discovered a form of yeast in the blood of crickets (Caloptenus italicus). The normal 
limpid blood of the insect assumes a milky appearance when the insect is affected and death 
ensues. Disease was produced by injection of blood of diseased individuals into normal ones. 
It was possible to produce the disease in Psophus stridulus L. but in other forms experimented 
upon the yeast cells were rapidly destroyed by the leucocytes. Organism is described and 
figured. The organism was obtained in pure culture on various media and in certain cases 
filamentous forms have appeared. Author suggests two possibilities, viz., that a yeast and 
another fungus are present and secondly that the yeast form is merely one stage in the life 
cycle of a filamentous form. It is proposed to inoculate insects with both forms to settle 
this point. — V. H. Young. 

654. Keissler, K. v. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Scoglien und Kleineren Inseln 
Suddalmatiens. 4. Fungi. [The natural history of the smaller islands of southern Dalmatia. 
4. Fungi.] Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. (Math.Nat. Kl.) 92:299-300 1916.— Only six 
species are listed. These are Diplodina Sandstedei, Didymosphaeria sp., Hysterium angus- 
tatum, Stictis radiata, Scutula Aspiciliae, and Leciographa centrifuga. — H. M. Fitzpalrick. 

655. Kempton, F. E. Origin and development of the pycnidium. Bot. Gaz. 68: 233-261. 
6 pi. Oct., 1919. — Pycnidia originate and develop by two main methods, meristogenous and 
symphyogenous, the meristogenous method resolving itself into two modes, simple and com- 
pound. Variations of the meristogenous method are found in Coniothyrium pyriana and 
Sphaeronaemella fragariae. The symphyogenous method is less often found and is variable. 
Acervuli arise as do pycnidia, simple acervuli by the simple meristogenous mode, and complex 
ones usually by the compound meristogenous or symphyogenous method. Complex subicles 



No. 1. August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. 

usually arise symphyogenously, although they may arise by the compound mcrisiogenous 
mode. Simple sporodochia usually originate by I lie simple meristogenoua met hod. ( 'omplex 
sporodochia, with a large base or subicle, usually arise either by the compound meristogenoua 
mode or symphyogenously. The pseudo-acervulus of i he species of P< talozzia b1 udied arises 
and develops as a pyenidium which breaks open and appears like an acervulus. The Bimple 
meristogenous development is the one more often found in the Sphaeropsidales, while the 
compound meristogenous and aymphybgenous modes are the more usual in the Melanconiales 
and Tuberculariaceae. — F. E. Kempton. 

656. Lagerbhrg, ToRSTEN. Onygena equina (Willd.) Pers. fran Dalarna. [Onygena 
equina (Willd.) Pers. found in Dalarna.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 108. Fig. 1. 
1019. 

057. Lendner, A. Les mucorinees geophiles recoltees a Bourg-Saint-Pierre. [The soil 
mucors collected at the village of St. Peter, Switzerland.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 362-376. 
S fig. 1918. — Six cultures of Mucor which were obtained from the soil near St. Peter contained 
two new varieties and two new species. Mucor Ramannianus Mocllcr was frequently found 
in coniferous forests, sometimes on Sphagnum of peat bogs. M. plumbens Bonorden was com- 
mon in the air and soil. M. hiemalis Wehmer ( — ) var. albus n. var produced occasional zygo- 
spores with the -f- strain of the species. M. hiemalis (+) var. loundrae n. var. differs from 
the species in its habit of growth in cultures. M. Jauchae n. sp. was isolated from the soil 
of a fir forest. M. vallesiocus n. sp. was obtained from the soil, of a meadow. — W. H. Emig. 

658. Lettau, G. Schweizer Flechten. [Some lichens of Switzerland.] Part I. Hed- 
wigia 60: 84-128. Part II. Hedwigia 60: 267-312. 1918.— An enumeration of the lichens and 
of some fungus-parasites of lichens, arranged by localities with critical notes. No new spe- 
cies are described. — L. W. Riddle. 

659. Li cent, Eug. La forme ascophore du Clasterosporium fungorum (Fr.) Sacc. (Am- 
phisphaeria fungorum n. sp. Eug. Licent.) [The ascogenous form of C. fungorum (Fr.) Sacc] 
Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 170: 60-62. 1 fig. 1920.— C. fungorum is transferred 
from the Mucedineae to the genus Amphisphaeria of the Ascomycetes. The author 
has discovered and describes the asci-containing perithecia which appear in November be- 
neath the dark-colored conidiferous filaments of this fungus when growing upon the white 
fructifications of Corticium calceum Persoon or C. lacteum Fries as a host. These perithecia 
develop until they project almost entirely free from the conidial layer, attaining a diameter 
of 0.2 to 0.5 mm.— C. H. and W. K. Farr. 

660. Magnusson, A. H. Material till VSstkustens Lavflora. [Material for the Lichen 
Flora of the West Coast.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 75-92. 1919.— The author 
gives a list of several hundred species of lichens found by him on the west coast and adjacent 
islands of Sweden together with brief notes on their habitat and abundance. — W. W. Gilbert. 

661. Malme, Gust. O. A. Lichenes suecici novi. [New Swedish lichens.] Svensk. 
Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 26-31. 1919.— Author gives Latin descriptions of six new spe- 
cies of lichens of the genera Lccidea, Catillaria, and Rhizocarpon. — W. W. Gilbert. 

662. McCulloch, Lucia. Basal glume rot of wheat. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 543-551. PI. 
6H-63. 1920.— See Bot, Absts. 5, Entry 749. 

663. Merewschkowsky, C. Note sur une nouvelle forme de Parmelia vivant a l'etat 
libre. [A new form of Parmelia living in an unattached condition.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 
10: 26-34. 1 fig. 1918. — Parmelia conspersa (Ehrh.) Ach. forma raga n. form occurs in abun- 
dance on a certain plateau with all the vegetative characteristics of a steppe. On the steppe, 
conditions for growth are unfavorable to the production of new lichen plants by the devel 
ment of fungous spores and algal cells. As a consequence of the arid conditions this lichen 
does not have fruiting bodies but multiplies by the fragmentation of the thallus. — W. H. Emig. 



90 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

664. Mtjrrill, William A. Corrections and additions to the polypores of temperate North 
America. Mycologia 12: 6-24. 1920. — Since the publication of the polypores in the North 
American Flora much additional information has been obtained on this group involving clearer 
identity of some of the forms previously described and adding a number of species not pre- 
viously listed. Various changes are accordingly made or suggested involving the reclassi- 
fication of numerous forms. — H. R. Rosen. 

665. Mtjrrill, W. A. Fungi from Hedgcock. Mycologia 12: 41-42. 1920.— Twelve 
species of polypores collected by Hedgcock and others are listed. — H. R. Rosen. 

666. Mtjrrill, W. A. Collecting fungi at Yama farms. Mycologia 12: 42-43. 1920 — 
Describes an interesting collecting tour in a large tract of virgin land near Poughkeepsie, 
New York. Nearly 100 species of fungi were collected and several of the more interesting 
polypores and agarics are mentioned.—//. R. Rosen. 

667. Mtjrrill, W. A. Trametes serpens. Mycologia 12:46-47. 1920. — American speci- 
mens referred to Trametes serpens Fr. are found to have smaller pores and are "otherwise 
distinct" from those of Europe. The distribution of the American plant is given and it is 
compared with a Philippine specimen, Elmeriana setulosa, which it seems to match. — H. 
R. Rosen. 

668. Mtjrrill, W. A. The genus Poria. Mycologia 12: 47-51. 1920.— Historical sketch 
of the genus Poria as used by mycologists before the time of Persoon together with Persoon's 
interpretation of thegenus is presented. P . medullapanis (Jacq.) Pers., one of the species upon 
which Persoon based the genus, is thoroughly described, its variations noted and a large num- 
ber of American collections of this species which were examined by the writer are listed. — 
H. R. Rosen. 

669. Murrill, W. A. Collecting fungi near Washington. Mycologia 12 : 51-52. 1920.— 
Brief notes of mycologists and of a few fleshy fungi seen during a collecting trip around 
Washington, D. C.—H. R. Rosen. 

670. Northrtjp, J. H., Lauren H. Ashe, and R. R. Morgan. A fermentation process 
for the production of acetone and ethyl alcohol. Jour. Indust. Eng. Chem. 11: 723-727. 2 fig. 
1919. — The general characteristics of a new organism, Bacillus acetoethylicum, are givien ac- 
cording to the descriptive chart of the Society of American Bacteriologists, but a formal diag- 
nosis is postponed for a later paper. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1515.] — B. M. Duggar. 

671. Olivier, H. Les lichens pyrenocarpes de la flore d'Europe. [The pyrenocarpic 
lichens of Europe.] Bull. Geog. Bot, 28: 146-152, 168-183. 1918.— First two installments 
of a compilation of all the described genera, species, and varieties, of pyrenocarpic lichens 
of Europe, with keys and diagnoses. The two parts cited include the genera Normandina, 
and Endocarpon (taken in a broad sense), and the key to Polyblastia.—L. W. Riddl . 

672. Paine, Sydney G., and W. F. Bewley. Studies in bacteriosis. IV.— "Stripe" 
disease of tomato. Ann. Appl. Biol. 6 : 183-202. PL 8-9, 5 fig. 1919.— See Bot Absts. 5, Entry 
756. 

673. Paine, Sydney G., and H. Stansfield. Studies in bacteriosis. III. — A bacterial 
leaf-spot disease of Protea cynaroides, exhibiting a host reaction of possibly bacteriolytic nature.] 
Ann. Appl. Biol. 6: 27-29. PL 2, fig. 3-6. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 757. 

674. Pethybridge, G. H., and H. A. Lafferty. A disease of tomato and other plants 
caused by a new species of Phytophthora. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 15: 487-503. 3 pi. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1335. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. '.'I 

ii7.">. Pfeiler, \\., and 1'. Engelhahdt. Zeigt der Ferkeltyphus-Eacillus <Eac. Vol- 
dagsen Daramann und Stedefeder) ein Labiles biochemisches und agglutinaiorisches Ver- 
halten? [Does the Ferkel typhus bacillus (Bac. Voldagsen Dammann und Stedefeder) show a 
labile biochemical and agglutination relation?] Zeitschr. [nimunit&tsforsch. u. exp. Thera] 
28:434 145. L919. — The authors show 11 mi Bac. Voldagsen Damm. & Stedef. is distinct from 
the other members of the paratyphosus group and thai H does not approach the characl 
of the group on long continued cultivation on artificial media -C. 11'. Dodg . 

676. Plitt, Charles C. A short history of lichenology. Bryologisl 22: 77 85. L919. 

677. Puyhaubert, A., and R. Jolly. Note sur un cas de mycetome a grains noirs pro- 
voque par un champignon du genre Madurella. [Notes on a case of mycetoma with black gran- 
ules, caused by a fungus of the genus Madurella.] Arch. Med. Exp. et Ana. Path Paris 28: 
441— 145. 5 fig. 1919. — A skin disease of a native of the Ivory Coast was shown to be due to 
infection with a fungus probably identical with Madurella mycetomi (Laveran) Brumpt. 
The fungus grown in pure culture on carrot gave abundant mycelium with numerous small 
black sclerotia, but no spores. — E. A. Bessey. 

678. Rick, J. Contributio II ad monographiam agaricinorum brasiliensium. [Second 
contribution to a monograph of Brazilian agarics.] Broteria Ser. Bot. 17: 101-111. 1919. — 
The article is asequel to one published in Broteria for 1905. After briefly outlining difficulties 
of study, the author lists 92 species or varieties mostly collected in the vicinity of Parecy 
Novo. Notes upon spore measurements, color, appearance, and habitat, based upon fresh 
material, accompany some of the species. Tricholoma sulphur ellem, Clilocybe nauseosa, 
Cillybia sericea, Mycena sulphur eo-conspersa, Leptonia rosea, L. straminea, L. albo-serrulato, 
L. olivacea, L. fuligineo-straminea, Pholiota pusilla, P. rosea, Inocybe megalospora, Psalli 
haemorrhoidaria var. straminea, and Schizophyllum album are proposed as new. Note is made 
that Lactarius Russula as previosly reported by the author is probably L. trivialis. — Edwar<l 
B. Chamberlain. 

679. Robertson, W. F. A starch-splitting bacterium found in cases of diabetes mel- 
litus. Jour. Path, and Bact. 23: 122-123. 1919. 

680. Romell, L. Svamplitteratur, sarskilt for studium av hymenomyceter [hattsvampar). 
[Mycological literature, especially for the study of the hymenomycetes (hat fungi).] Sven^k. 
Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 110-112. 1919. — A list of European literature on the hymeno- 
mycetes and related fungi is given comprising thirty titles. — W. W. Gilbert. 

681. Rosen, H. R. Ergot on Paspalum. Mycologia 12: 40-41. 1920. — Paspalum flor- 
idanum is recorded as a new host for Claviceps spp. It is noted that attacked spikelets fall 
with pedicels attached to them in contrast to the fall of normal spikelets in which the pedicels 
remain attached to the rachis. — H. R. Rosen. 

682. Seaver, Fred J. Photographs and descriptions of cup-fungi — VIII. Elvela infula 
and Gyromitra esculenta. Mycologia 12: 1-5. PL 1. 1920. — Comparison between descrip- 
tions and illustrations of Elvela (Helvetia) infula and Gyromitra esculenta leads the writer to 
believe that these names are referable to the same fungus. Differences noted by various 
authors are explainable as variations. The name Elvela infula Schaeff. is adopted because 
of its priority; 11 synonyms are listed and the plant is redescribed and illustrated. — //. R. 
Rosen. 

683. Sernander, R. Subfossile Flechten. Flora 112: 703-724. 7 fig. 1918. 

684. Speare, A. T. Further studies of Sorosporella uvella, a fungous parasite of noctuid 
larvae. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 399-439. PI. 51-56. 1920.— Sorosporella uvella is recorded for 
America. It is found to be related to the verticillaceous hyphomycetes rather than to the 
Entomophthorales. It produces chlamydospores and thin-walled conidia. Yeast -like v 



92 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. [Bot. Abstb., Vol. V, 

tative cells, occurring in the blood of infected insects, are ontogenetically related to other 
phases in the development of the organism. Fruiting structures of the Isaria type have been 
observed in culture and in moist chamber. An ascigerous stage has not been observed. An 
emended description is presented. — -The organism produces a disease of noctuid larvae (cut 
worms) and in infection experiments a mortality of from 60 to 90 per cent was obtained. — 
Ingestion of vegetative cells by phagocytes was observed, the process being followed appar- 
ently by the destruction of the phagocytes. Phagocytosis is discussed at some length, also 
certain phases of insect control by means of fungous parasites. — A bibliography of 24 titles is 
appended. — D. Reddick. 

685. Stevens, F. L. Three new fungi from Porto Rico. Mycologia 12: 52-53. 1920.— 
The following fungi collected by the writer and briefly described by Mr. Lamkey are presented: 
Microstoma ingaicola Lamkey sp. nov. producing witches' brooms on Inga laurina, M. pithe- 
colobii Lamkey sp. nov. producing spots on Pithecolobium saman, and Perenoplasmopara 
portoricensis Lamkey sp. nov. producing spots on Melia azedarach. — //. R. Rosen. 

686. Stevens, F. L., and Nora Dalbey. A parasite of the tree fern (Cyathea). Bot. 
Gaz. 68:222-225. 2 pi. Sept., 1919. — A fungus collected on Cyathea arborea in Porto Rico has 
characters suggesting relationship with Microthyriaceae, Perisporiaceae, Dothidiaceae, and 
Phacidiaceae; the authors incline to place it in the last-named group, proposing for it a new 
generic name, Griggsia. The type species is described as Griggsia cyathea. — H. C. Cowles. 

687. Strasser, P. Pius. Siebenter Nachtrag zur Pilzflora des Sonntagberges (N.-6.) 
1917. [7th addition to the fungus flora of Sonntagberg.] Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. Gesell. Wien. 
68: 97-123. 1918. — A list of species is given accompanied by the data of collection and criti- 
cal notes. The material was in most cases examined by von Hohnel and a considerable number 
of species and a few genera are listed as new and are attributed to him. Some of these have 
been published elsewhere by von Hohnel but others are designated here as unpublished, the 
binomial being followed by the citation "v. H. nov. spec, in litt." These fall in many groups 
of the fungi but since technical descriptions of these will be given elsewhere by von Hohnel 
they need not be listed here. — H. M. Fitzpatrick. 

688. Takahashi, R. On the fungous flora of the soil. Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan 
l 2 : 17-22. 1919. — The author isolated several fungi from the soil of the test garden of the 
Tokyo Imperial Agricultural College by using soil extract gelatin-agar (+60, Fuller's scale). 
The isolation is made at two different periods, the one in September, 1915, and the other in 
February, 1916. The result of the experiments is listed as follows: In 1915 (a) In the soil 
obtained from 2 cm. below the surface: Mucor racemosus, Aspergillus oryzae, A. fumigatus, 
Penicillium roseum, P. candidum, P. sp. No. 1., Chaetomium crispatum, Stemphylium verru- 
culosum, and Penicillium sp. No. 2.; (b) 5 cm. below the surface: Aspergillus fumigatus, A. 
niger, Penicillium humicola, P. candidum, Allescheriella nigra, Acrostalagmus sp., and Hel- 
minthosporium subulatum; (c) 8 cm. below the surface: Aspergillus fumigatus and Trichoderma 
Koningi; (d) 12 cm. below the surface: Penicillium Duclauxi, Penicillium sp. No. 2, Chaeto- 
mium alivaceum and Alternaria tenuis. In 1916 (f) 2 cm. below the surface: Rhizopus nigri- 
cans, Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, A. glaucus and A. nidulans; (g) S cm. below the surface: 
Mucor adventitus, M. circinelloides, Zygorhynchus Molleri, Rhizopus ?vigricans and Botrylis 
cinerea. — T. Matsumoto. 

689. Tanaka, Ty6zabur6. New Japanese fungi-notes and translations — VIII. Myco- 
logia 12: 25-32. 1920. — The following fungi are described: Phytophthora Carica (Hora) 
Hori causing a fruit rot of Ficus Carica, Capnodium Tanakae Shirai and Hora sp. nov. sapro- 
phytic on fruits of Citrus grandis, Gloeosporium foliicolum Nishidasp. nov. causing a spotting 
of fruits and leaves and a blighting of twigs of Citrus spp., Dactylaria Panici-paludosi Sawada 
sp. nov. on living leaves of Panicum paludosnm, Dactylaria Leersiae Sawada sp. nov. on 
living leaves of Leersia hexandra and Dactylaria Cosli Sawada sp. nov. on living leaves of 
Costus speciosus. — //. R. Rosen. 



No. 1, August, 1920] MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF PI NGI, ETC. 93 

090. Tsuji, R. On the morphology and the systematic position of Cercosporella persica 
Sacc. and Clasterosporium degenerans Syd. (Japanese.) Ann. Phytopath. Soc. Japan l 2 : 
23-35. Fig. 1-2. 1919. — A fungus found on the leaves of a peach tree in Japan proved to be 
identical with Cercosporella persica Sacc. collected on a similar host and determined by W. I r, 
Farlow in the United States. This fungus is closely related to Clasterosporium degt torn*, 
Syd. on the leaves of Primus Mumc and Armeniaca, in that its conidiophores arc produced 
on creeping hyphae emerging from stomatal openings, and also in color, shape, and mode of 
septation of their conidia, etc. He comes to the conclusion that these two species should 
be included under the same genus, and the name Clasterosporium persicum (Sacc.) Tsuji is 
proposed for the first-named species. — T. Matsumoto. 

691. Vuillemin, Paul. Remarques sur les mycetomes. Hommage a la memoire de R. 
Jolly. [Remarks on mycetomas. Tribute to the memory of R. Jolly.] Arch. M6d. Exp. 
Anat. Path. Paris 28: 446-451. 1919. — Gives a discussion of the different types of mycetomes 
and of the fungi producing them, in particular Madurella mycetomi (Laveran) Brumpt. — E. A . 
Bessey 



'&. 



692. Waksman, Selman A. Cultural studies of species of Actinomyces. Soil Sci. 8: 
71-215. PI. 1-4. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 998. 

693. Watson, W. The bryophytes and lichens of calcareous soil. Jour. Ecol. 6: 189-19S. 
1918. — Gives lists of calciphile and calcifuge species, arranged by habitats as they occur in 
England; also a list of "indifferent" species. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 309.] — L. W. Riddle. 

694. Weimer, J. L. Variations in Pleurage curvicolla (Wint.) Kuntze. Amer. Jour. Bot. 
6: 406-409. 1919. — Variation in this species was studied to determine the taxonomic value 
of certain characters. The number of spores in the ascus is apparently 128, 256, or 512. The 
spore size in the strain studied is approximately the same as that recorded for other strains 
of the species, but the size of the perithecia is somewhat more variable. Secondary spore 
appendages, supposed to be a constant taxonomic character for the species, were not demon- 
strated. — E. W. Sinnott. 

695. Weimer, J. L. Some observations on the spore discharge of Pleurage curvicolla 
(Wint.) Kuntze. Amer. Jour. Bot. 7: 75-77. 1920. — Author reports that this species is able to 
discharge its spores to a height of 45 cm. above the fruiting surface of the culture, probably higher 
than can any other Ascomycete yet studied. This is due in part to the fact that the spore mass 
discharged is rather large and heavy, comprising some 500 spores and a quantity of gelatinous 
substance. Experiments show that the spore discharge is strongly and positively heliotropic, 
but that reflected light seems to exert a stronger stimulus than does direct light. — E. W. 
Sinnott. 

696. Weston, William H. Repeated zoospore emergence in Dictyuchus. Bot. Gaz. 
68: 287-296. 1 pi., 1 fig. Oct., 1919. — The non-sexual reproduction of the fungus studied 
shows it to be a species of Dictyuchus, but exact determination was impossible, because sexual 
reproduction was not observed. Dictyuchxis differs from all other Saprolegniaceae, save per- 
haps Aplanes, in that during spore formation the walls of adjacent spores unite with one 
another and with the enveloping sporangium membrane to form a polygonally chambered 
indehiscent structure. The zoospores which emerge from the sporangiospores come to rest 
and encyst as usual, but from these encysted spores ("cystospores") in turn laterally biciliate 
zoospores may emerge. This repeated emergence of laterally biciliate zoospores has not pre- 
viously been reported in any of the Saprolegniaceae. — H. C. Couies. 

697. Wheldon, J. A. Llanberis lichens. Jour. Botany 58: 11-15. 1920. — A list of 
lichens compiled in the district around Llanberis in August, 1919. Many lichens known to 
occur in this district were not seen, while some rare species were observed. Few corticole 
species were collected as most of the time was spent above tree line. The arrangement is 



94 MORPHOLOGY AND TAXONOMY OF FUNGI, ETC. [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

that of A. Lorrain Smith's British Lichens. The list contains the names of about 125 species 
and a number of varieties. One species, Bilimbia cambrica, is described as new. — A'. M. 
Wiegand. 

698. Wilsox, G. H. A method for the simultaneous demonstration of gram-positive and 
gram-negative organisms in sections. Jour. Path, and Bact. 23: 123-124. 1919. 

699. Winslow, C. E. A., I. J. Kligler, axd W. Rothberg. Studies on the classifica- 
tion of the colon-typhoid group of bacteria with special reference to their fermentative reactions. 
Jour. Bact. 4: 429-503. 1919. — The authors review rather completely the literature of the 
colon-typhoid group and arrange the whole series into six groups based mainly upon their 
fermentation of various carbohydrates. Several cultures are studied and classified. Seven- 
teen species are included in the entire six groups and characteristics of each species given. 
The commonly called B. paratyphosus A is designated as B. paratyphosus and B. paratyphosus 
B. as B. sckottmulleri, a new name; the name B. morgani is given to the formerly-called Morgan 
bacillus. — Chester A. Darling. 

700. Yasuda, A. Kinrui-Zakki 87. [Notes on fungi, 87.] Bot. Mag. Tokyo 33: 112-114. 
1919. — Three species of Hymenomyccles found in Japan Stereum boninense, Hydnum violascens, 
and Tomentella fusca, are reported. The first-named species was first described by the author 
under the name Hymenochaete boninensis Yasuda. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1196.] — 
T. Matsumoto. 

701. Yasuda, A. Kinrui-Zakki S3. [Notes on fungi, 88.] Bot. Mag. Tokyo 33: 140-141. 
1919. — Three species of Hymenornycct.es found in Japan, Polyporus Greenii, Stereum rimosum, 
and Clavaria amethystina, are reported, of which the first-named species is new to science, its 
morphological characters being as follows: Pileus stipitate, corky, brown, covered with fine 
hairs, circular in outline 4 to 5 cm., slightly convex, triangular in section, azonate, context 
brown, thick, mouths grayish brown, angular, 1 to 2 mm.; spores light brown, ellipsoid, 
smooth, 8-9X5-5. 5/x; stipe 2 to 3.5 cm. high, 1.1 to 1.5 cm. in diameter, slightly narrowed at 
the base, concolorous with the pileus, covered with fine hairs. Growing on the ground, 
Settsu, Japan. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1197.]— T. Matsumoto. 

702. Yasuda, A. Kinrui-Zakki 89. [Notes on fungi, 89.] Bot. Mag. Tokyo 33: 167-169. 
1919. — Three species of Hymcnomycetes found in Japan, Polystictus scopulosus, Coniophora 
arida, and Hypocrca citrina, are reported. The first-named species is new to science; mor- 
phological characters as follows: Sporophore stipitate, coriaceous, 6.5 to 9 cm. high; pileus 
thin, fan-shaped, 4.5-6 cm. in length, 5 cm. in width, margin irregularly waved, chestnut 
brown, covered with depressed scales, context whitish; stipe short, lateral, smooth, yellowish; 
mouths grayish, tubes short, angular, 0.2 to 0.3 mm. ; spores ellipsoid, smooth, light brown, 
7 by 5 fi. Growing on the stem of Alnus sp. [See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1198.] — T. Matsumoto. 

703. Yasuda, A. Kinrui-Zakki 90. [Notes on fungi, 90.] Bot. Mag. Tokyo 33: 189- 
191. 1919. — Three species, namely Stereum japonicum, Chactosphaeria tristis, and Lycoperdon 
spadiceum , are reported. The first-named species is new to science; morphological charac- 
ters as follows: Fructification ruspinate, coriaceous, 8 to 15 cm., hymenial layer light brown, 
velvety, upper part of context concolorous with the hymenium, lower part grayish brown, 
cystidia club-shaped, light brown, encrusted with crystals of calcium oxalate; spores spherical, 
hyaline, smooth, 4 n. Growing on stems. — T. Matsumoto. 

704. Zahlbruckxer, A. Beitrage zur Naturgeschichte der Scoglien und Kleineren In- 
seln Siiddalmatiens. 5. Lichenes. [The natural history of the smaller islands of southern 
Dalmatia. 5. Lichens.] Denkschr. K. Akad. Wiss. Wien. (Math.-Nat. Kl.) 92: 301-322. 
1916. — New species are described and various nomenclatorial changes are made in the genera, 
Vcrrucaria, Dermatocarpon, Arthonia, Artholhdium, Roccclla, Lecanactis, Lecidea, Gyalecla, 
/'■ rtusaria, Lecanora, Ramalina, Protoblastcnia, Caloplaca, Xanthora, Bucllia, Rinodina. 
One hundred and twenty-six species are listed. — •//. M . Fitzpatrick. 



No. 1. August, 1920] paleobotany 95 

705. Zschacke, II. Die mitteleuropaeischen Verrucariaceen. (The Verrucariaceae of 
central Europe.] Bedwigia60: 1-9. 1918. — Two earlier papers with the same title have i ei a 
published. The presenl paper is based on collections made in Switzerland, while the author 
was interned. An enumeration of species is given with cital ions of localil ies and some cril ical 
notes. Staurothele geoica is described as :i new species. — L. W. Riddle. 



PALEOBOTANY AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY 

E. W. Berry, Editor 

706. Barett, A. Contribution to the study of the "Siphoneae verticillatae" of the Calcare 
di Villanova-Mondovi. [The verticillate Siphoneae of the Villanova-Mondovi limestone.] Atti 
Soc. Etal. Sci. Nat. eMus. civ. St. Nat. Milano 58:216-230. 1919— The "Calcare di Mondovi" 
typically exposed — as the name indicates — in the region of Mondovi 'Piedmont) and in par- 
ticular in the massif of Villanova a few kilometers from the town, is rich in diminutive triassic 
algae, which, about 1865, Prof. Bruno recognized for the first time there. Different specimens 
of like fossils were studied by Gumbel and by Zittel who referred them to the Muschelkalk 
and the Wettersteinkalk horizons. For this work Barett examined some specimens of the 
Calcare di Villanova at the Museo Geologico di Torina, sent by Prof. Bruno, and especially 
the abundant material of his own collecting not only from Villanova, but also from other locali- 
ties of the surrounding calcareous zone: M. Calvario, Gravagna, P.loline and Torre, Pever- 
agno. Material of different appearance according to the source or origin, but always crystal- 
line, so that the fossils, although superficially seemingly well preserved are profoundly 
metamorphosed in the interior, rendering their preparation and study most difficult. Barett 
recognized the presence of the following Diploporidi in the Calcare di Mondovi: Kanlia debilis 
Gumbel, K. philosophi Pia, K. dolomitica Pia, Tentlosporclla gigantea Pia, T. hercules Sapp., 
T. vicctina Tornquist, and in addition the following, which he proposes as new: Kantia 
philosophi var. gracilis n. var., K. monregalensis sp. n., and K. (?) Brunnoi sp. n. He describes 
and figures them all. — Despite the great number of specimens examined, their different orifiin< 
or sources, and the extraordinary abundance of the individuals contained in them, this study, 
because of the above-mentioned difficulty, has not yielded as great results as might have 
been hoped; nevertheless from this it stands proved that in the Calcare di Mondovi there 
are also encountered the Kanlia philosophi and dolomitica typical of the Muschalkalk, and 
the Teutlosporella gigantea and T. vicentina, hitherto not noted; and there results then the 
confirmation that the horizon is to be referred to the lower Neotriassic— R. Pampanini. 

707. Benson, M. Cantheliophorus, Bassler: New records of Sigillariostrobus (Mazo- 
carpon). Ann. Botany 34: 135-137. 1920.— Evidence is given to show that specimens 
described by Bassler as proving the existence of a sporangiophoric lepidophyte and referred 
to a new genus Cantheliophorus, as well as similar specimens previously described by Nath- 
orst, are really examples of Sigillarian microsporophylls. — '.'-'. P. Thompson. 

708. Berry, E. V, t . The evolution of flowering plants and warmblooded animals. Amer- 
Jour. Sci. 49:207-211. Mar., 1920.— Discusses the correlation between the two and the depend- 
ence of the latter on the former— E. W. Berry. 

709. Bertraxd, Paul. Les zones vegetales du terrain houiller du Nord de la France. 
[Plant zones of the coal regions of Northern France.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 
780-7S2. 1919.— A table of the location and vertical extent of the plant zones in the coal 
deposits of Northern France. — F. B. Wann. 

710. Cockerell, T. D. A. Carpolithes macrophyllus a Philadelphus. Torreya 19: 244. 
19X9. — Carpolithes macrophyllus Ckll., described in Torreya 11: 235, is transferred to Phila- 
dclphus, but very likely belongs to P. palaeophilus Ckll. (1908).— .7. C. Nelson. 



96 PALEOBOTANY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V. 

711. Conklin, E. G. The mechanism of evolution. [1] Sci. Monthly 10: 170-181. 
1920. — This is a discussion of Mendelism in which the author concludes that the law, especially 
as regards the segregation of inheritance factors, is of universal occurrence — that there is 
no other type of inheritance. Alternative inheritance with dominant and recessive char- 
acters, purity of germ cells, monohybrids, dihybrids, etc., factorial theory of heredity, blend- 
ing inheritance, species hybrids, and unequal reciprocal hybrids are discussed in relation to 
the above conclusion. [See also next following Entry, 712.] — L. Pace. 

712. Conklin, E. G. The mechanism of evolution. [2] Sci. Monthly 10: 269-291. 
Fig. 11-21. 1920. — This paper takes up the cellular basis of ontogeny and phylogeny. There 
is no fundamental difference between germ cells and somatic cells. Nucleus and cytoplasm 
are fundamentally different chemically, morphologically and physiologically. — Mitosis fur- 
nishes the necessary mechanism for the accurate division of the cell, and the persistent iden- 
tity of the chromosome is accepted. The suggestion is made that chromomeres are probably 
much more constant than chromosomes. — The mechanism of heredity is to be found in the 
germ cells. Genetics and cytology must cooperate in correlating features of the germ cell 
with the phenomena of heredity. The similarity of chromosomes of the spermatozoon and 
of the egg, the reduction division, the doubling of chromosomes in fertilization, the sex- 
chromosomes, sex-linked characters, linkage of characters, chromosomal localization and 
cross-overs are all presented as favoring the localization of the genes in the chromosomes. 
[See also next preceding Entry, 711.] — L. Pace. 

713. Coulter, J. M. Cones of Williamsonia. [Rev. of: Arber, E. A. Newell. Re- 
marks on the organization of the cones of Williamsonia gigas. Ann. Botany 33: 173-179. 5 fig. 
1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1143).] Bot. Gaz. 68: 152. 1919. 

714. Grandori, Ltjigia. Su di un seme mesozoico di pteridosperma e sulle sue affinita 
con forme paleozoiche e forme viventi. [On a Mesozoic pteridosperm seed and its affinities 
with Paleozoic and recent forms.] Atti d'Accad. Veneto-Trentino-Istriana. 8:107-116. 8 fig., 
1 pi. 1915. 

715. Grandori, Ltjiqia. Sulle affinita delle Pteropsida fossili, studio critico. [On the 
affinities of the fossil Pteropsida.] Atti d'Acad. Veneto-Trentino-Istriana 8: 163-195. 7 fig. 
1915. 

716. Knowlton, F. H. A dicotyledonous flora in the type section of the Morrison forma- 
tion. Amer. Jour. Sci. 49: 189-194. Mar., 1920. — Records the presence of an Upper Creta- 
ceous flora similar to that of the Dakota sandstone from the type locality of the Morrison for- 
mation near Golden, Colorado. The Morrison formation has yielded a varied dinosaur fauna 
and there has been much controversy as to whether it was of Jurassic or Lower Cretaceous 
age. — E. W. Berry. 

717. Principi, Paolo. Le Dicotiledoni fossili del giacemento oligocenico di Santa 
Giustina e Sassello in Liguria. [The fossil dicotyledons of the Oligocene of Santa Giustina 
and Sassello in Liguria.] Mem. Desc. Carta Geol. d'ltalia 6: 1-294. PL 1-85. 1916 (1919). 
— Liguria is one of the classic regions of Tertiary geology. The Oligocene of Sta. Giustina 
and Sassello record the transition from continental to delta and then lagoonal or estuary to 
littoral conditions of deposition followed by a recurrence of lagoonal conditions at the base 
of the middle Oligocene and littoral again at the top of the middle Oligocene. The fossil 
plants which are the subject of the memoir come from the basal beds or Sannoisian stage. 
Previous accounts of this flora have been published by Sismonda in 1859 and 1865, and Squin- 
abol in the period from 1889 to 1892 described the Cryptogams, Gymnosperms and Monocoty- 
ledons. — The dicotyledons recorded number 339 forms, the most varied genera being Quercus 
Juglans, Myrica, Ficus, Laurus, Cinnamomum, and Rhamnus. Eighty-six new species are 
described in the following genera: Castanea, Dryophyllum, Quercus, Juglans, Juglandophyl- 
lum, Myrica, Comptonia, Populus, Protoficus, Ficus, Artocarpidium, Artocarpus, Cocculites, 



No. 1, August, 1920] PALEOBOTANY 97 

Cocculus, Laurus, Persea, Cinnamomum, Magnolia, Anona, Sterculia, Dombeyopsis, Ptero- 
spermites, Bombax, Sapindus, Malpighiastrum, Celastrus, Rhamnus, Aralia, Dcwalquea, 
Cornus, Terminalia, Lomatia, Amelancbier, Prunus, Machaerium, Aristolochia, Chrysophyl- 
lum, Diospyros, Apocynoi)hyllum, Alstonia, Viburnum and Carpites. — The flora shows a 
curious mingling of temperate and tropical types and contains very many more of the former 
than does the known North American floras of corresponding age. — E. W. Berry. 

718. Sahni, B. On certain archaic features in the seed of Taxus baccata, with remarks 
on the antiquity of the Taxineae. Ann. Botany 34: 117-134. 7 fig. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 574. 

719. Schlagintweit, O. Weichselia Mantelli im nordostlichen Venezuela. [Weichselia 
Mantelli in northeast Venezuela.] Centralb. Min. Geol. Palaont. 1919: 315-319. 1919 — 
Records this ubiquitous Mesozoic fern from Santa Maria, Venezuela, in a shale thought to be 
Neocomian in age. — E. W. Berry. 

720. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. Miscellaneous 
topics. New Phytol. 18: 129-176. Fig. 64-78. 1919.— This is chapter 12, in which miscel- 
laneous topics are presented. A table of known fossil remains of Compositae and their locali- 
ties is accompanied by critical notes and comments. The composites are believed to have 
arisen in late Cretaceous or early Eocene. From the point of origin in the northern Andean 
region of South America, migration occurred chiefly along mountain ranges. By the end of 
the Eocene the differentiation of types and wide dispersal was accomplished. — A summary of 
cytology, with original figures based on Senecio, follows. Spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and 
the history of the embryo sac are discussed, with a special account of the antipodals. The 
chromosomes are treated from the standpoint of phylogeny. A table is given of the number 
in all composites so far as known. — The nature and distribution of the latex system in the 
tribes are discussed. — Last are brief accounts of seedling structure, pericarp, anatomy, phyto- 
chemistry, and pappus in the Compositae. — The bibliography contains 173 titles. — I. F. 
Leivis. 

721. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. General conclu- 
sions. New Phytol. 18: 201-234. Fig. 79. 1919. 

722. Stopes, Marie C. New Bennettitean cones from the British Cretaceous. Phil. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. London B, 208: 389-440. 5 -pi. 1918. — Bennettites albianus, sp. nov., is 
described from a cone found in the Gault (or Albian) of Folkestone Warren. The fruit is an 
ovulate cone, not less than 70 mm. in diameter and probably much more. The innumerable 
seeds, 600 or more revealed in a single transverse section, are five-ribbed, much elongated, 
torpedo-shaped, 5-6 mm. long and about 1.2 mm. in greatest diameter. The seed with its 
many layered integument is inclosed in a cupule-like extension of tubular cells of the stalk. 
The micropyles are blocked by plugs of nucellar tissue. Around the apex of the seed, inter- 
seminal scales are completely mutually fused not only with each other but with the seed tissues. 
The embryos contain two cotyledons and both the radicle and the hypocotyl are relatively 
massive. The scales are externally covered by a well marked "plastid layer" which runs 
around the collar of the micropyle. — The complete fusion of the stony scales must have meant 
that there was great stability and strength in the hard, uniform shell which surrounded the 
fruit. This solid shell firmly enclosed the ripe seeds, which did not rattle about in it loose, 
for the ribbed apices of the seeds were wedged into the solid mass. It is not impossible that 
the hard fruit had considerable drought to withstand. It certainly seems fitted to do so. — 
The extraordinarily great size of Bennettites albianus raises a point of general interest. In 
many families of animals giant forms appear shortly before the extinction of the group. This 
new Bennettites possesses the largest cone of the family and was taken from the highest and 
latest geological horizon in which the group is known. May it then be considered in the same 
light as the animal giants — namely a burst of glory before extinction? Any conclusion on 
this point, no matter how tempting, must not be accepted too readily. A giant fruit in many 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



; 98 PATHOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol V 

of the cycadales may be borne on small plants. The giantism of the animals approaching 
extinction was not in their reproductive organs but in their general bodies. The comparison 
with animals is, therefore, insecure and rests on too many assumptions. Paleobotanical evi- 
dence is made up of too few isolated cases to point a general law of evolution. — Bennettites 
maximus Carruthers is also figured and described in detail for the first time. The only speci- 
men of this is from the lower Greensand in the Isle of Wight. This specimen consists of a large 
trunk containing a number of cones. Sections made of this trunk show a number of cones. 
These are bisporangiate. The male organs were developing at the time the plant was petri- 
fied. The female receptacle was at that time undifferentiated, meristematic tissue. Sec- 
tions have been made, however, of one cone showing the ovule rudiment and the surrounding 
tissue. — A. E. Waller. 

723. Stopes, Marie C. On the four visible ingredients in banded bituminous coal: 
Studies in the composition of coal, No. 1. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B, 90: 470-487. PI. 11-12. 
1.919* — Proposes names fusain, durain, clarain, and vitrain for four recognizably distinct 
ingredients of banded bituminous coal. These types are distinctive (a) in effect on sensitive 
plates (b) chemical and physical behaviour (c) in microscopic details. — Paul B. Sears. 

724. Wilson, W. J. Notes on some fossil plants from New Brunswick. Geol. Surv. 
Canada, Summary Rept. 1917 F: 15-17. 1918. — Publication of identifications and notes on speci- 
mens and photographs submitted to Robert Kidston. The material came from the Carbon- 
iferous of Rothwell, New Brunswick. — E. W. Berry. 

PATHOLOGY 

G. H. Coons, Editor 
C. W. Bennett, Assistant Editor 

725. Anonymous. Celery leaf-spot disease or blight. Jour. Dept. Agric. Ireland 20: 
86-89. 3 fig. 1920. 

726. Anonymous. A new disease of pears, new to the continent of America. Agric. Gaz. 
Canada 6: 951-952. 4 fig- Oct., 1919. — Specimens of pears received by the Division of Botany, 
Dominion Department of Agriculture, from Kentville, Nova Scotia, showed an unusual rot. 
Nearly full grown pears showed one or more large, circular, dark-brown spots which were 
quite firm in texture. Phylophlhora cactorum was obtained in culture from the spots. Only 
the fruit upon the low hanging branches showed the disease, which suggests that the infection 
may originate from surrounding infected vegetation. Control measures, chiefly prophylactic 
are suggested. — 0. W. Dynes. 

727. Appel, Otto, and Johanna Westerdijk. Die Gruppierung der durch Pilze 
hervorgerufenen Pflanzenkrankheiten. [The classification of plant diseases due to fungi.] 
Zeitschr. Pflanzenkrankh. 29: 176-186. 1919. — The authors point out the advantages of a 
classification based upon symptomology, particularly to students of phytopathology. They 
suggest five main groups, viz. : rots, spots, fungus coverings, increase of tissues, and vascular 
diseases. Each main group is divided into auxiliary groups, thus: "Rots," for instance, is 
subdivided into rot of seeds, of seedlings, of roots, of tubers, of bulbs, of rhizomes; basal stem 
rots; general stem rots; rots of buds and flowers, of fruits, of wood, of bark; and dry rots. 
The group "Increase of tissues" covers witches' brooms, galls, and flower and fruit transfor- 
mations (ergot, smuts, etc.). Each group is discussed, reviewing examples. — H. T. Gilssow. 

728. Baker, C. F. A contribution to Philippine and Malayan technical bibliography. 
Work fundamental to plant pathology and economic entomology. Philippine Agric. 8: 32-37. 
1919. See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 123S. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PATHOLOGY 

729. Barrb, H. W. Report of the division of botany. South Carolina Wi.-. 3ta. 
Ann. Rent. 32: 20-31. 1919. — A summary of the work on tin- following projects is given: 

Cotton anthracnose, angular loaf spot of cotton, bacterial content of milk, planl 'li i 
survey, cooperative research. — G. H. Coon*. 

730. Blin, H. La pourriture des griffes d'asperges. [Asparagus root-rot.] Rev. Hortic. 
91: 325-326. 1 fig. Aug., 1919. — This disease is due to Rhizoctonia violacea which atti 
many other types of plants. All portions of asparagus plants which are attacked should be 
carefully dug up and burned. The soil should then be disinfected with carbon-bisulfide 

(about 250 grams per square meter) or preferably formaldehyde (about 60 grams per squ 
meter). Either of these should be forced into the soil at several places with a syringe. Sulfo- 
carbonate of potassium (300 grams in 100 liters of water) has also been used successfully. 
The soil is first removed from the hills which have been attacked and these are then Bprayed 
lightly with the mixture. The following year, before hilling-up a second treatment is given. 
Before replanting infected areas they should be thoroughly disinfected during the winter 
and the clumps dipped in the disinfecting solution. Following any of these treatments the 
soil should be well fertilized, since the disinfection destroys the soil organisms present. Care 
should be taken to avoid such disinfectants as may leave harmful residues in the soil treated. 
As a matter of precaution, it is better not to replant infected areas for 2 or 3 years. — E. ./. 
Kraus. 

731. Boas, Friediucti. Beitrage zur Kenntnis des Kartoffelabbaues. [Contribution to 
the knowledge of deterioration in potatoes.] Zeitschr. Fflanzenkrankh. 29: 171-176. 1919. — 
The author states that minute differences in the hydrogen-ion concentrations may have marked 
effects upon metabolic processes. — This caused him to inquire whether, in plant diseases, 
especially in leaf roll or curly disease of potatoes, there could be determined any differences 
in the hydrogen-ion concentrations existing in sound and diseased plants. — He ascertained 
from his experiments (describing technique employed) that, without exception, the cell sap 
of sound plants showed appreciably more acidity than that of diseased plants. The acid 
metabolism of diseased plants is plainly disturbed. In determining the albumen metabolism 
that might be expected under the circumstances, author determines that the diseased potato 
stems are flooded with amino acids, while the sound tissues are free, or only show traces of 
these acids. Examining then into the catalase contents of diseased and sound plants, he 
finds obvious differences in his experimental varieties, inasmuch as the diseased portions show 
an increase in catalase contents over the sound ones; but not all experiments gave identical 
results. (Bibliography.) — H. T. Giissow. 

732. Chou, Chung Ling. Notes on fungous diseases in China. (Text in Chinese.) 
Khu Shou [Science-Publication of The Chinese Science Society] 4: 1223-1229. J,6 fig. 1919. 
— The author gives a detailed description of symptoms and morphology of fifteen fungous 
diseases found in the locality of Nanking: Peronospora parasitica on Brassica juncca, Perono- 
spora effusa on spinach, P. vicae on peas, P. schleidcniana on onion leaves, Altcrnaria brassicae 
on Brassica pekinensis, Cercospora crucnta on beans, Ustilago crameri on wheat, U. avenae 
on oats, Urycyslis tritici on wheat, Ustilago shiriana on bamboo, Erysiphe gramijiis on barley, 
Pleospora gramineum on barley, Exoascus deformans on peach leaves, Aecidium mori on mul- 
berry stems, and Sclerotinia cinerea on cherries. — Chunjen C. Chen. 

733. Cook, Mel. T. Philippine plant diseases. [Rev. of : Reinkixg, Otto A. Philippine 
economic-plant diseases. Philippine Jour. Sci. A, 13: 165-274. 43 fig., 22 pi, 1918. (See Bot. 
Absts. 2, Entry 1308.)] Bot. Gaz. 68: 310-311. 1919. 

734. Cook, Melville T. Report of the department of plant pathology. Ann. Rept. 
New Jersey Agric. Exp. Sta. 1918: 299-302. 1919. 

735. Cook, Mel. T. Potato diseases in New Jersey. New Jersey Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 
105. 38 p. 1919. — Along with descriptions and illustrations of the common potato diseases 



100 PATHOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

the results of the spraying tests for a period of six years and the rules governing seed certifi- 
cation in several States are given. — Mel. T. Cook. 

736. Cook, Mel. T. Seed and soil treatment for vegetable diseases. New Jersey Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Circ. 106. 4 p. 1919. 

737. Cook, Mel. T., and J. P. Helyar. Diseases of grain and forage crops. New Jersey 
Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 102. 16 p. 1918. 

738. Chain, C. C. Warm bath for wheat. Sci. Amer. 121 : 579. 1 fig. 1919.— Popular 
account is given of treatment for smut. — Chas. H. Otis. 

739. Darnell-Smith, G. P. Dry rot in timber. Australian Forest. Jour. 2: 314-316. 
1919— See Bot, Absts. 5, Entry 175. 

740. Edson, H. A., and M. Shapovalov. Temperature relations of certain potato-rot 
and wilt-producing fungi. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 511-524. 9 fig. 1920. — Single strains of 
Fusarium coeruleum, F. discolor var. sulphureum, F. eumartii, F. radicicola, F. tricothecioides , 
and a northern and a southern strain of Verticillium albo-atrum were grown on 2 per cent potato 
agar without sugar at temperatures ranging from 1° to 40°. Minimum temperature for all 
forms is around 5°; maximum for F. coeruleum, F. tricothecioides and V. albo-atrum, ("north- 
ern") 30° or slightly less, for F. oxysporum, about 37°, for F. radicicola about 39°, and for the 
remaining, slightly under 35°; optimum for F. oxysporum and F. radicicola about 30°; for the 
remaining about 25°. — A certain degree of correlation exists between the temperature relations 
of these organisms in pure cultures and their geographical distribution and seasonal occur- 
rence. This is particularly striking in the case of the 2 wilt-producing fungi, F. oxysporum 
and V. albo-atrum. — A temperature of about 4° should hold Fusarium tuber rots in check dur- 
ing storage. The susceptibility of V. albo-atrum to high temperatures suggests the possi- 
bility of a heat treatment for seed tubers harboring the fungus. — Temperature tests in certain 
cases may serve as a useful supplementary method for the identification of fungi exhibiting 
contrasting thermal relationships.— D. Reddick. 

741. Ellis, J. H. The stage of maturity of cutting wheat when affected with black stem 
rust. Agric. Gaz. Canada 6: 971. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 20. 

742. Fragoso, Romualdo Gonzalez. Notes and communications at the session of Oct. 
1, 1919. Bol. R. Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat. 19: 429-430. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 646. 

743. Fragoso, R. G. Enfermedades del almendro. [Diseases of the almond.] Bol. R. 
Soc. Espanola Hist. Nat. 19: 458. Oct., 1919. [Review of an article by A. Ballester, pub- 
lished as a leaflet by Dir. Gen. Agric. Spain, in April, 1919.] The reviewer presents critical 
discussion of the publication and takes issue with several statements. Clasterosporium 
carpophilum is reported as a serious parasite, especially in its conidial stage (Corynewn 
beijerinckii) . The following disease producing species omitted by Fragoso are cited : Puccinia 
pruni and P. cerasi, Gloeosporium amygdalinum, Fusicoccum amygdali, and Ccrcospora circum- 
scissa. — 0. E. Jennings. 

744. Gauba, Th. Das Hopfenmissjahr 1918. [An off-year for hops.] Der Bierbrauer 
46: 161-162. 1918. — Very grave losses (30 to 50 per cent) in Austria, Hungary and Germany 
occasioned by early attack of hop aphis followed bj r sooty mold and mildew. [Through abstr. 
of Matouschek in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 193. 1919.] — D. Reddick. 

745. Geschwind, A. Die der Omorikafichte (Picea omarica Pane.) schadlichen Tiere 
und parasitischen Pilze. [Insect enemies and diseases affecting P. o.] Naturw. Zeitschr. 
Forst.- und Landw. 16: 387-395. 1918. — Diseases mentioned are caused by Herpotrichia 
nigra, Lophodermium macrosporum and Trametes pini. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PATHOLOCY 101 

746. Hecke, Ludwig. Die Frage der Bekampfung des Getreiderostes. [The problem of 
controlling cereal rusts.] Nachrichten Deutsch. Landw. Gesell. Osterreich. n. s. 2: 140-142. 
1918. — In wheal regions of Austria the rusts cause damage to cereals in the following order: 
to wheat, yellow rust, brown rust (P. dispersa, I', triticina), black rust ( /'. graminix); to rye 
the same; to oats, black, crown rust (P. coronift ra) ; to barley, dwarf rust (P. simplex), black 
rust, yellow rust. The yellow is the most destructive in rust years; brown rust attacks late. 
Black rust is injurious chiefly in hilly sections. In southern pan, /'. maydia is general and 
injurious. [Through abstr. by Matouschkck in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 210. 1919.]— 
/). Reddick. 

747. Jehle, R. A., and others. I. Control of cotton wilt. II. Control of cotton anthrac- 
nose and improvement of cotton. Bull. North Carolina Dept. Agric. 41 1 (Supplem.) 5-28. 
Pig. 1-6, and 1-5. 1920.— The first part of this report contains the results of field demonstra- 
tions in several counties of the Coastal Plain section of North Carolina, in the control of 
cotton wilt. Dixie Wilt Resistant cotton was successfully grown on infested lands in this 
section. The report, furthermore, includes data on the known distribution of wilt in North 
Carolina and factors favoring its prevalence and spread. — The second part deals with demon- 
strations of the value in cotton anthracnose control, of the selection of disease free seed 
and improvement through breeding of these selected strains. Cleveland Big Boll and Dixie 
Wilt Resistant cotton were employed. — R. A. Jehle. 

748. Krout, Webster S. Common diseases of celery. New Jersey Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Circ. 112. 12 p. 1919. 

749. McCulloch, Lucia. Basal glumerot of wheat. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 543-551. 
PI. 62-68. 1920. — This disease is widespread in U. S. A. and occurs on leaf, head and grain 
of wheat (Triticum) . A dull, brownish black area appears at the base of the glumes, involving 
usually only the lower third but at times extends over nearly the whole surface. Sometimes 
the discoloration is on the inner surface of the glume. Dissection of affected spikelets shows 
more evidence of disease on the inner surfaces than on the outer. The grains inclosed in dis- 
eased glumes vary from nearly perfect to ones in which the germ end varies in color from a 
slight brown to charcoal black. — The disease is caused by Bacterium atrofaciens n. sp., for 
which a technical description is presented. The parasite is a white, polar-flagellated rod 
producing green fluorescence in ordinary culture media. Group number, 221.2322123. — 
Artificial infections were secured on leaf and head, the incubation period being about four 
days. — D. Reddick. 

750. Merino, G. Bud-rot. Philippine Agric. Rev. 12 3 : 92-96. 4 pi. 1919.— A brief 
compilation of data on the budrot of the coconut palm. — E. D. Merrill. 

751. Moore, J. C. Experiments with parasitic fungus on the cacao thrips. Report on 
the Agricultural Department, Grenada, 1917-18. Imperial Department of Agriculture, 
Barbados. 1918. — Spraying experiments on thrips infesting cacao trees with cultures of the 
fungus Sporotrichum globuliferum, parasitic on Heliothrips rubrocinclus, Giard., are here 
noted. Although carried out under difficulties, the following points have been demonstrated: 
(1) The fungus was readily distributed amongst thrips in the field; (2) Under favourable 
conditions of atmospheric humidity the fungus caused death of large numbers of both young 
and adult thrips on the inoculated trees; (3) The fungus spread by natural agencies to trees 
outside the inoculated area. Several considerations of practical importance remain to be 
determined. — J. S. Dash. 

752. Morgenthaler, Otto. Uber die Mikroflora des normalen und muffigen Getreides. 
[Microflora of normal and of musty grain.] Landw. Jahrb. Schweiz. 32: 551-571. 191S. — 
Healthy grain sown in plates shows chiefly bacteria, especially Bad. herbicola, and no fungi. 
Musty grain yields many fungous thalli and few bacteria. Penicillin are abundant but are 
not responsible for the odor. What organism does impart the characteristic odor was not 



102 PATHOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

determined. — Musty grain intended for human consumption should be washed thoroughly 
and the light grains skinned off. [Through abst. by Matous check in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 
29:203-204. 1919.]— D. Reddick. 

753. Muller, K. Die Bekampfung der Rebenperonospora nach der Inkubations-Kalen- 
dermethode. [Control of grape downy mildew by the incubation-period method.] Jahresber. 
Vereinig. Angew. Bot. 16 : 21-28. 1918. — Based on the investigations of Istvanffi and coworkers 
regarding the relation between incubation period and outbreaks of Plasmopara, and telluric 
conditions. Experimental trials made in Baden show that dates of outbreaks can be forecast 
with sufficient certainty to give growers warning in time to make protective treatments. 
[Through abst, by Seeliger in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 205. 1919.]— D. Reddick. 

754. Nowell, W. Bracket fungi of lime trees and the critical period in the development 
of young lime trees. Report on the Agricultural Department, Dominica, 1917-18. 11-14. 
Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — The author, as Mycologist to the 
Imperial Department of Agriculture, reports on the prevalence of smaller fungi, of which Nec- 
tria and Stilbum spp. are the most noticeable, on the dead branches of lime trees. While 
functioning mostly as saprophytes, these fungi may, in certain types of cases, become weak 
parasites affecting principally the wood. Interesting suggestions are given on the treatment 
of lime trees during the critical period of their development, — J. S. Dash. 

755. Paine, S. G., and W. F. Bewley. "Stripe" disease of tomatoes. Jour. Ministry 
Agric. Great Britain 26: 998-1000. 1920. — A brief popular account is given of "stripe" disease 
of tomatoes occurring chiefly in greenhouses, caused by a bacillus closely related to, if not 
identical with, Bacillus lathyri. The disease affects the tissues of the stems, leaves, and 
fruits which become stained a dark brown color. Suggested preventive and remedial measures 
consist in avoiding seed from fruit grown in an infected area, in disinfection of the soil where 
an attack has occurred, in using a balanced fertilizer, in using care in pruning the plants, and 
in altering the temperature and humidity to favor a more hardy development of the plants. — 
M. B. McKay. 

756. Paine, Sydney G., and W. F. Bewley. Studies in bacteriosis. IV. — "Stripe" 
disease of tomato. Ann. Appl. Biol. 6: 183-202. PL 8-9, 5 fig. 1919. — The symptoms appear 
as brown to black sunken areas or stripes on the stem, as yellow to brown blotches on the 
leaves, as brown sunken patches on the fruit, and as brown discoloration of the root cortex. 
Infection appears usually to take place underground, but the disease may be spread from 
plant to plant above ground. A soft rapid growth of the plants renders them more suscep- 
tible to attack.— Macros porium solani may occur as a saprophyte on the lesions. — Lesions 
occur also in the pith and cortex. The disease is assigned to a bacterial growth which advances 
from the root up the stem in the pith, and works outward, causing swelling and browning 
of the cell walls as it passes to the exterior, then spreads upward in the outer cortical layers 
and epidermis. — Bacteriolysis apparently may occur in the plant tissue, since some diseased 
spots seemed to be sterile. — The organism is described, and appears to be identical with 
Bacillus lathyri, differing only in a slightly higher resistance to heat and apparently greater 
ability to reduce nitrates. — An organism apparently identical with Aplanobactcr michiganense 
was also isolated from affected plants, but did not reproduce the disease. [See also next fol- 
lowing Entry, 757.]— G. R. Bisby. 

757. Paine, Sydney G., and H. Stansfield. Studies in Bacteriosis III. — A bacterial 
leaf-spot disease of Protea cynaroides, exhibiting a host reaction of possibly bacteriolytic nature. 
Ann. Appl. Biol. 6:27-29. PI. 2, fig. 8-6. 1919. — The disease is characterized by dome-shaped 
reddish-brown blisters or by sunken spots on the leaves. — The host cells are thought to be able 
to kill and perhaps dissolve the bacteria. There is production of a resin-like substance in 
which the bacteria become imbedded. The host cells become disorganized. A red pigment 
allied to phloro-tannin red was produced in the spots. — The parasite was isolated from but 



No. 1, AtrcusT, 1920] PATHOLOGY 103 

few of the spots. Infection experiments proved the pathogenicity <>f the organism isolal 
— Pseudomelia* proteamaculans n. sp. is given as the cause <>f the di Group numl ei 

221.1313023.) [See also next preced in ,756.] G. R. Bisby. 

758. Pbtch, T. Rubber diseases. Tropic. Agriculturist 52: 27 34. 1919. The 
root disease (Porta hypobrunnea) occurs in Ceylon and Java, in limited areas. The i 
cation of the disease is somewhat difficult but is unmistakable in young trees, where the top 
root bears external mycelium which forms stout, red strands which sometimes unite in' 
continuous red sheet. Internally the strands are white. The mycelium turns bro 
finally black with age. The diseased wood of young trees is somewhat soft and friable and ; 
meated with red sheets which often follow the annual rings. In older trees the entire m; 
lium may be black. — The disease spreads largely from decaying stumps and logs of tree- killed 
by the fungus. It is held somewhat in check by the careful removal of all felled tiers and 
old stumps including all diseased lateral roots. — White stem blight and top canker are 
described briefly. — R. G. Wiggans. 

759. Ramsbottom, J. K. Experiments on the control of narcissus eelworm in the field. 
Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 6S-72. Fig. 18, 19. 1919. — Three series of experiments for the 
control of Tylenchus devastatrix are reported. Applications of sulphate of potash alone and 
in combination with sulphate of ammonia, superphosphate and bone meal did not decrease 
the attacks. The same was true when various chemicals were applied to the soil. Follow ing 
an affected crop of narcissus, rye, oats, clover, lucerne peas, broad beans, r3 r e grass, onions, 
wheat, chives, buckwheat, and potatoes were planted, of which only onions became infested. 
— J. K. Shaw. 

760. Reinking, O. A. Host index of diseases of economic plants in the Philippines. 
Philippine Agric. 8: 38-54. 1919. — A host index is presented, showing diseases of about one 
hundred economic plants in the Philippines. The hosts are arranged alphabetically, and 
under each host are given the organisms (fungi and bacteria) associated with it and the names 
of the diseases. In addition to known parasitic forms, saprophytic organisms are included. 
—S. F. Trclease. 

761. Robson, R. Root-knot disease of tomatoes. Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 31 I 7. 
Fig. 1 4.-17. 1919. — Root-knot of tomatoes (Heterodera radicicola) was controlled by apply- 
ing 1,000 pounds cyanide of sodium (or of potassium) per acre to the subsoil. The application 
of 300 pounds of mercuric chloride also controlled the nematode. The cost of treatment in 
any of the above methods was approximately £50 per acre. No deleterious effect upon the 
growing crops was noted as a result of applying the above compounds at the rates per acre 
given. Mercuric chloride applied at the rate of 775 pounds per acre had a decided stunting 
effect. — H. A. Jones. 

762. Rosexbaum, J., and Charles E. Sando. Correlation between size of the fruit ?.nd 
the resistance of the tomato skin to puncture and its relation to infection with Macrosporium 
tomato Cooke. Amer. Jour. Bot. 7: 78-82. 1920. — As tomatoes grow larger, their resistance 
to infection by Macrosporium tomato greatly increases. This difference in immunity is appar- 
ently not due to chemical differences between young and old fruit. Infection may be obtained 
with fruits of all degrees of maturity when the skin is injured or removed previous to infec- 
tion. Stomata or other natural openings in the skin are absent. As the fruit develops, the 
cuticle increases markedly in thickness. Authors show that coincident ly with this, the skin 
of the fruit becomes more resistant to mechanical puncture with a needle. They suggest 
that ability to resist infection may be due to the ability of the skin to resist puncture by the 
fungous filament. — E. W. Sinnott. 

763. Rumbold, Caroline. The injection of chemicals into chestnut trees. Amer. Jour. 
Bot. 7: 1-20. 7 fig. 1920— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 964. 



104 PATHOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

764. Rumbold, Caroline. Effect on chestnuts of substances injected into their trunks. 
Amcr. Jour. Bot. 7: 45-56. 2 pi. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 965. 

765. Schander, and Fritz Krause. Die Krankheiten und Schadlinge der Erbse. 
[Diseases and insect pests of peas.] Flugbl. Abt. Pflanzenkr. Kaiser Wilhelms-Inst. Landw. 
Bromberg 29-30.— July, 1918. 

766. Schroder, P. Ein flacher Hexenbesen. [A flat witches' broom.] Mitt. Deutsch. 
Dendrol. Gesell. 1918:290. / pi. 1918. — On a spruce tree, 35 years old, growing at Hohen- 
Luckow (Mecklenburg) there is a broom 1.45 m. across and flat in form. [Through absts. by 
Matotjs check in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 200. 1919.]— D. Reddick. 

767. Speare, A. T. Further studies of Sorosporeila uvella, a fungous parasite of noctuid 
larvae. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 399-439. PI. 51-56. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 684. 

768. Spieckermann. Schadigung der Kulturpflanzen durch zu hohen Sauregehalt des 
Bodens. [Injury to cultivated plants through too high acidity of soil.] Landw. Zeitg. Westfalen 
u. Lippe 1918: 255-256. 1918. — Superphosphate and sulfate of ammonia had to be used for 
fertilizer instead of the customary Thomas slag and nitrate of soda. Rye, oats and potatoes 
showed injury. The soil was found high in acidity and the lime content greatly reduced. 
[Through abstr. by Matouschek in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 198. 1919.] — D. Reddick. 

769. Stevens, H. E. Citrus scab. Florida Grower 21 l : 9. 1920. — Description and 
etiology of the disease with recommendations for control by spraying. — H. R. Fulton. 

770. Uzel, H. Rotfaule der Zuckerriibe. [Red rot of sugar beet.] Zeitschr. Zuckerind. 
Bohmen 43: 138-139. 1918.— Red rot (Rhizoctonia violacea) occurs mostly in wet fields. Dis- 
eased plants should be removed and destroyed. Land should be drained and quick lime 
worked in. It should not be planted to sugar beet, fodder beet, alfalfa, red clover, serradella, 
potato, asparagus, or fennochio as these plants are attacked by the fungus. Mycelium from 
rotten beets passes with wash water to compost and back to land. Mycelium also may winter 
in the wash tanks. Rotten beets can not be used for feeding as the fungus persists in manure. 
[Through abstr. by Matouschek in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 29: 213. 1919.]— D. Reddick. 

771. Vincens, F. Maladies de l'Hevea dues au Diplodia. [Diseases of Hevea due to 
Diplodia.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 1: 321-329. 1919. — A general discussion of diseases 
of Hevea caused by Diplodia, with preventive treatment and remedies. — E. D. Merrill. 

772. Winston, J. R., and W. W. Yothers. Bordeaux-oil emulsion. Florida Grower 
23 3 : 9. Jan. 18, 1920. — Directions are given for combining Bordeaux mixture and oil emul- 
sions. Experimental results are reported of the successful use of this combination spray 
against certain insects and fungous diseases of citrus. — H. R. Fulton. 

773. Wormald, H. A phytophthora rot of pears and apples. Ann. Appl. Biol. 6: 89-100. 
PI. 3, 2 fig. 1919. — Phytophthora cactorum was obtained from pears and apples in England. 
The fruit often fell prematurely. Inoculation experiments demonstrated the pathogenicity 
of the fungus. In one case after inoculation the hyphae were found to invade the seeds of 
pear. One experiment suggested that zoospores might cause infection through the uninjured 
skin of the pear. — The sporangia germinated either by germ tubes directly, by zoospores 
which escaped rapidly with the hyaline plug of the sporangium forming a vesicle around them 
at first, or by production of germ tubes by the zoospores within the sporangium. — The zoo- 
spores appeared to utilize the anterior cilium as the organ of locomotion. — Oospores were 
found. Measurements are given of the various spores and sporangia. — The fungus obtained 
from either apple or pear would rot both fruits. — Sanitation and spraying are suggested as 
control measures. — G. R. Bisby. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHARMACOGNOSY L05 

771. Zweigelt, Fritz. Biologische Studien an Blattlausen und ihren Wirtspflanzen. 
[Biological studies of aphides and their host plants. | Verhandl. Zool.-Bot. GeselL Wien 68: 
124-142. 4 fin. 1918. -Pari I. Mechanics of sap extinction by aphides. Pari 2. Anatomy 
and etiology of aphis galls and the r61e of the plant in formation of roll galls. Pari 3. Role 
of the insect information of galls. [Through abstr. byMATOUSCHBK in Zeitschr. Pflanzenkr. 
29:217-219. 1919.]— D. Roddick. 

PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHARMACEUTICAL BOTANY 

Heber W. Youngkkx, Editor 

775. Albertus, Halvar. Bidrag till kannedom om hesperidinliknande kropparsfore- 
komst inom familjen Labiatae. [Contribution to the knowledge of the occurrence of Hesperidin- 
like bodes in the family Labiatae.] Svensk. Farm. Tidskr. 23: G09. 1919. — A microscopic 
study was made of the stems, leaves, and in some cases the flowers of over 100 members of the 
family Labiatae for the presence of hesperidin-like bodies. When found, their solubility in 
caustic soda solution, concentrated sulphuric acid, concentrated ammonia and chloral hydrate 
was determined. — A. M. Hjort. 

776. Anonymous. Production of Pyrethrum flowers in Japan. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88 : 
305. 1919. [From Commerce Reports.] — A short article on the growing of Chrysanthemum 
parthenium, with cost and production statistics. — Chas. H. Otis. 

777. Anonymous. Why the castor-oil plant is called Palma Christi. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 
88:376. 1919. 

778. Babe, E., and Teodoro Cabrera. Clitorina, nuevo reactivo indicador de acidos 
y alcalis. [Clitorina, a new chemical indicator.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 537-539. 
1 fig. 1919. — The name "Clitorina" is given to an indicator made by extracting with 95 per 
cent alcohol the coloring matter from the flowers of a double blue variety of butterfly pea, 
Clitoria tematea L. This was found to be superior to phenolphthalein for detecting minute 
adulterations of milk with potash solutions. It was also found to be superior to phenol- 
phthalein and tincture of cochineal as an indicator in some other reactions. — F. M. Blodgctt. 

779. Ballard, C. W. The identification of gums by the phenylhydrazine reaction. Jour. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 31-38. Fig. 1-15. 1920. — Author has made a study of the character 
of the ozazones prepared from different drugs as althaea, peach kernels, sassafras pith, brown 
mustard, yellow mustard, elm bark, apricot kernels, tragacanth, acacia, quince seed, linseed, 
Indian gum, and bitter almond kernels. Method of application of test is given with sketches 
and description of the ozazones from the various drugs. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

/80. Beal, George D., and Thomas S. Hamilton. The "Shaking-out" method for the 
quantitative estimation of alkaloids. II. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 9-15. 1920. — Lead 
acetate when used as a clarifier for alkaloidal extracts has no harmful effect upon the extrac- 
tion of the alkaloid by immiscible solvents, and that the addition of sodium chloride after 
clarification increases the quantity of alkaloid removed at a single extraction. Employing 
the use of amyl alcohol for morphine determinations a residue of anhydrous morphine could 
be obtained. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

781. Beath, O. A. The chemical examination of three species of larkspur. Wyoming 
Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 120: 55-88. PI. 1-11, 4 fig. 1919.— A bulletin in four parts, dealing with 
the poisonous properties of the three species, Delphinium barbeyi, D. glatice&cens, and D. 
geyeri. Part 1 is general in its scope, dealing with the distribution, a review of the literature, 
losses to stock, toxicity as effected by age, acidity, seasonal variat ions of the poisons, charac- 
teristic symptoms. Part 2 deals with the experimental methods employed including the 
determination of the crude alkaloids, preparation and properties of water extracts, and the 



106 PHARMACOGNOSY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

extractive value of the solvents. Part 3 deals with the chemical analysis of the three species 
at different growth stages and of the principal organs of the plant at each stage. Part 4 
deals with the method of treatment for Larkspur poisoning. A bibliography of the works 
cited is given at the end of the article. — James P. Poole. 

782. Beythiex, A. Gewurze und Gewiirz-Ersatz im Kriege. [Spices and spice substi- 
tutes in war.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs- u. Genussmittei 3S: 24-33. 1919. — Current 
prices of spices and substitutes and composition of latter which include cauliflower-, cabbage-, 
celery- and mushroom-extracts, cinnamon, lemon, almond, and caraway oils, and synthetic 
benzaldehyde and vanilla. Many substitutes found fraudulent.—//. G. Barbour. 

7S3. Buc, H. E. Delicate test for strychnine. Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 
193. 1919.— Method of making the test is given.— F. M. Schcrtz. 

784. Burqtje, L'ABBeF.-X. LTdentite du Poglus. [The identity of Poglus.] Le Natur- 
aliste Canadien 46: 145-148. Jan., 1920. — The author criticizes the determination of the spe- 
cies by Frere Marie-Victorin in the previous monthly issue. He closes an interesting dis- 
cussion by the presentation of evidence that the Indians of the region (the Hurons of Lorette) 
have actually been calling no less than three species of the Umbelliferae by the same name, 
"Poglus," — namely, Archangelica atropurpurea, IAgusticum sp.? and Heracleum sp.? He 
thinks that Archangelica is most likely the beneficial species for influenza. [See also Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 811.]— A. H. MacKay. 

7S5. Chalmers, D. F. Report on the operations of the Department of Agriculture. 
Burma. 1919: 1-15. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 11. 

786. Clair, H. W. Scottish Chamomiles. Chem. and Druggist 91: 1512. 1919.— A 
comparison between the dried flowers of the "single-flowered" variety of Anihemis nobilis, 
known as Scottish chamomile, and the "double-flowered" variety of the same plant, known 
as English chamomile. The Scottish Chamomile, formerly cultivated to a considerable extent 
in the Deeside district of Scotland is more bitter and aromatic than the "double-flowered" 
variety and of greater value as an internal tonic medicine. The "double-flowered" variety 
was not obtained by ordinary cultivation from the "single-flowered" type, but by collecting 
seed from "sport" plants, and by a careful process of selection from these deviating forms 
a strain which retained the habit of producing "double flowers" was obtained. The Scottish 
chamomile is used but slightly outside of Scotland. — E. N. Galhcrcoal. 

787. Clevenger, Joseph F., axd Clare Olix Ewing. Partial analyses of 330 American 
crude drugs. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. S: 1010-1029. 1919. — The examinations of these 
330 crude drugs include scientific and trade names, part employed, color of pow T der, total 
and acid-insoluble ash; total, and volatile ether extracts (with colors and odors) ; and general 
remarks as to cleanliness of sample. [See also next following Entry, 788.] — Anton Hogslad, Jr. 

788. Clevenger, Joseph F., axd Clare Olix Ewaxo. Partial analyses of 330 American 
crude drugs. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 15-30. 1920. — Conclusion of article from Ibid. 
8: 1029. 1919. [See also next preceding Entry, 787.] — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

789. Cushxy, Arthur R. The properties of optical isomers from* the biological side. 
Pharm. Jour. 103: 4S3. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 879. 

790. Dussel, G. B. Kort overzicht over den Landbouw op Curacao. [A short survey of 
the agriculture on Curacao.] Pharm. Weckblad 56: 1512-1514. 1919.— Most of the Curacao 
Aloes comes from the Island of Aruba, but large areas are cultivated on Curacao and Bonaire. 
The cultivation and propagation is very easy and inexpensive. The cuttings of old plants 
are set in rows about 0.5 m. apart, when in due time a short stem and rosettes of leaves will 
be produced, and, after the rains, a flowering stem, which divides into two or more branches, 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHARMACOGNOM ] 07 

develops. In the dry season the leaves are cut off and placed in a \ -shaped container -I ml 
on one side in order to allow the juice to drain. This i.~ i ollected in empty coal-oil . • 
the contents of the cans is then transferred to large copper kettl in which the j . con- 

centrated to the desired consistence; it is then run into lined petroleum boxes or into 

gourds. The plant, which prefers a dry, chalky soil, yields aloes for about 12 ; 
this time it lias to be dug up and the soil is properly manured and replanted. — H. Eng 

791. Escobar, Romulo. La Cicuta. [Cicuta.] icultor Mexicano 36: 6-8. I 
Description of the plant of water hemlock (Cicuta sp.), Bymptoms of the poisoning indu 
in sheep, and methods of eradicating the plant. — John A. St 

792. Ewe, George E. Chinese cantharides. [Mylabris Cichorii.J A worthy candidate 
for admission to the U. S. P. Jour. Anier. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 27)7 -263. 1920. — Upon experimen- 
tation, employing a series of physiological 1 es1 s on horses, it was found that Mylabr > orii 
has a vesicating and rubefacient power equal to the U. S. P. varieties. The cantharidin 
content on the average was found to be 50 per cent greater than the U. S. P. variet 
Author also states that the material is cheaper and more available at the present time. — .1 1 
Hogstad, Jr. 

793. Ewe, George E. The assay of calabar beans and its preparations. Jour. Amcr. 
Pharm. Assoc. 8: 1006-1009. 1919. — Author was unable to obtain satisfactory results with 
the present U. S. P. method for the assay of calabar beans and its preparations. He believes 
the loss to be due partly to incomplete extraction and partly to decomposition of alkaloids 
by numerous manipulations and vigorous heating treatments and by long exposure to light 
required in carrying out the process. Methods of the writer are given for the assay of the 
drug and its preparations. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

794. Ewixg, C. O. White pine bark adulterated with elm bark. Jour. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc. 9: 253. 1920. — Upon examination a shipment of white pine bark collected in Michigan 
was found to contain elm bark. The outer part of the bale, to the depth of about 1 foot, con- 
sisted almost entirely of the rossed outer bark of Ulmusfulva. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

795. Ewing, Clare Olix, and Arxo Viehoever. Acid-insoluble ash standards for 
crude drugs. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 725-730. 1919. — Upon reviewing the analyses 
of a considerable number of domestic and imported crude drugs with regard to their content 
of ash and acid-insoluble ash, authors noted in a number of instances where a striking dis- 
crepancy occurred between the general run of analyses and the U. S. P. and N. F. standards. 
The authors suggest, as an expression of their personal opinion that an extension of ash 
standards including limits for acid-insoluble ash would be very much preferable to present 
standards and that it should not only be included in the U. S. P. but should be extended. 
The authors then discuss the question of ash contents of several drugs, namely asafoetida, 
hydrastis, hyoscyamus, mustard, rhubarb and sassafras, emphasizing the need of acid- 
insoluble ash standards. Simple method of writers included for determining acid-insoluble 
ash content. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

796. Farwell, Oliver A. Cramp bark, highbush cranberry. The Druggist 2: 13. 
1920. — It has been known since 1913 that the commercial Cramp Bark is the product of Acer 
spicatum Lam. and not the true Viburnum Opulus var. americanum, Mill, as required in the 
National Formulary and as stated in the text books. Farwell now produces evidence to show 
that as long ago as 1S70 the Acer bark had displaced the true Viburnum bark. — Wm. B. Day. 

797. Fishlock, W. C. Bay leaves (Pimenta acris). Report on the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, Tortola, 1917-18, 6. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — A ref- 
erence is made here to the existence of "false" or bad varieties of the bay tree whose leaves 
yield an oil of inferior quality for making bay rum. — J. S. Dash. 



108 PHARMACOGNOSY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

798. French, Harry B. Review of the drug market. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 
843-844. 1919. — A general discussion of the effect of the signing of the Armistice on the drug 
market. Writer states that the general tendency of American crude drugs has been to greatly- 
advance in price since the signing of the Armistice and that this tendency will continue for 
the next several months. Chemicals have a tendency to decline and European crude drugs 
will be obtainable at lower prices as soon as they can finance shipments and transportation 
can be arranged. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

799. Fuller, H. C. Report on alkaloids. Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 188-193. 
1919.— It is recommended that in conducting assays for strychnine, reliance be placed on a 
gravimetric determination and not on a determination obtained by volumetric means. — 
F. M. Schertz. 

800. Gather coal, E. N. The permanency and deterioration of some vegetable drugs 
twenty-five years of age. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 711-716. 1919. — Examination of some 
144 crude drugs which were prepared some twenty-five years ago and which had been kept in 
glass-stoppered bottles, showed that most of the drugs were very well preserved and which com- 
pared with the present U. S. P. and N. F. requirements. Among the drugs much depreciated 
were Orange and Lemon peels, Labiatae herbs and a number of leaf drugs (Buchu, Boneset, 
Coltsfoot, Witchhazel, Matico, Gaultheria, and probably Pilocarpus). — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

801. Greig-Smith, R. The germicidal activity of the Eucalyptus oils. Part I. Proc. 
Linnean Soc. New South Wales 44: 72-92. Fig. 1. 1919. — Eucalyptus oil as listed in Materia 
Medica is from E. globulus. Many oils of other origin are sold under this name. The Baker 
and Smith classification of oils is followed in these tests to determine the toxic effect of 40 
to 50 specimens of crude and refined oils. E. polybractea (Blue Mallee), E. cinerea (Argyle 
apple), E. australiana (Narrow-leaf peppermint), and E. dives (Broad-leaf peppermint) are 
at present the chief sources of commercial oils in New South Wales. The test-organisms 
employed to determine the toxicity of the oils were Micrococcus aureus and Bac. coli communis 
from serum suspensions. The activity and quality of the oil was found to vary strikingly 
even within the same tree and also with different specimens of a species. It was affected by 
altitude and growth conditions in general. On the whole these oils had lower toxicity than 
phenol. The results of the tests are given in nine tables. The main constituents seemed 
relatively insignificant with reference to toxic action. Bactericidal power was proportional 
to the acidity of the oil and assisted by although not caused by it alone. The iodide reaction 
was no criterion as to the germicidal value of the oils. The vapors of the oils had decided 
bacterial action. — Eloise Gerry. 

802. Griebel, C, and A. S chafer. Thymus Serpyllum L. als Majoranpulververfal- 
schung. [Wild thyme as imitation marjoram powder.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs- u. 
Genussmittel 38: 141-145. 1919. — The chief morphological characteristics of marjoram and 
of wild and common thyme are compared. — H. G. Barbour. 

803. Grimme, C. Altes and Neues ueber Capsella Bursa pastoris. Mittheilung aus dem 
Institut fuer angeswandte Botanik. [Old and new facts about capsella bursa pastoris. Com- 
munication from the institute for applied botany.] Pharm. Zentralhalle Deutschland 60: 
2:!7-242, 248-251. 1919. — Shepherd's purse has been used since times immemorial as a home 
remedy, as diuretic and antipyretic. Recent investigations have shown that the drug pos- 
sesses strongly hemostyptic properties and can be used as a substitute for the high-priced 
and in Germany unobtainable golden seal. The chemistry of the drug is still to be investi- 
gated but the medicinal value seems to be partly due to mustard oil which is present in all 
parts of the plant, but especially in the seeds. — H. Engelhardt. 

804. Gu£rin, P. [Rev. of :Etienne, P. Etude anatomique de la famille des Epacridees. 
(Anatomic study of the family Epacrideae.) Th6se Doct. Univ. Pharm. Toulouse. 222 p. 116 
fig. 1919.] Bull. Sci. Pharm. 26: 533. 1919.— The author describes the anatomic structure of 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHARMACOGNOSY 109 

the branches and leaves of 26 members <>f tin' family Epacridt ae. The Epcn i id* cu appear to 

take in Oceania (lie place which the k'ricufiac, to which they are nearly related, take in 
South Africa. — //. Engelhardt. 

505. Guerin, P. [Rev. of: Bbbqbb, Mabie-Gaston. Etude organographique, anatom- 
ique et pharmacologique de la famille des Turneracees. (Organographic, anatomic and pharma- 
cologic study of the family Turneraceae.) 270 p., 53 pi. Bigot Freres: l'aris, L919.] Hull. 
Sci. Pharm. 26: 533. 1919. — The six genera of the family Turneraceae can easily be distin- 
guished from each other by their anatomic structure. The author believes thai the Turner- 
aceae must be considered as a special family, but if taken away from the Bixaceae, they should 
be counted to the family Passiflorae. The author further deals with the medicinal use of tl e 
members of this family, and especially of that of damiana (Turnera aphrodisiaca) and with 
the various substitutes offered for this drug. — //. Engelhardt. 

506. Hart, Fanchon. A microscopical method for the quantitative determination of 
vegetable adulterants. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 1032-1034. 1919. — The areas of the va- 
rious tissues present are totalled by the aid of an ocular micrometer used in conjunction with 
a stage micrometer and from these figures the author calculates the percentage of impurities. 
The author gives method of examination for black pepper adulterated with pepper shells and 
checks results obtained by measuring the shells and powdered kernel portions in a 10 minim 
graduate. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

807. Hatcher, Robert A. Standardization of digitalis. A preliminary report. Jour. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 913-914. 1919.— The author reports the results obtained by separ- 
ating the principles of Digitalis into two groups, namely, the chloroform-soluble fraction and 
the water-soluble fraction. The chloroform-soluble fraction was found to be more readily 
absorbed and more lasting in its effects while the water-soluble fraction being more actively 
emetic. Author believes that Digitalis should be assayed in reference to the chloroform- 
soluble fraction and that this fraction may be made available for intravenous use, since it 
mixes perfectly with water. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

808. Jones, J. Bay oil. Report on the Agricultural Department. Dominica, 1918-19: 5. 
Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919.— Two samples of oil from varieties 
of Pimenta acris, namely Bois dTnde and Bois d'lnde Citronelle, grown in Dominica, are 
reported on. The latter variety contains a smaller percentage of Phenols, and has a strong 
odour of citral, and the suggestion is made that it may have some commercial value in the 
manufacture of toilet preparations. — J. S. Dash. 

S09. Jones, J. Camphor. Report on the Agricultural Department, Dominica, 1918-19: 
5-7. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919.— Results of distillations of 
leaves, twigs and prunings from three plots showed that two of them were of true camphor 
trees, yielding both camphor and oil, while the other was not, the material from it producing 
oil only. — J. S. Dash. 

810. Keenan, G. L. The microscopical identification of mowrah meal (Bassia) in insecti- 
cides. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 144-147. Fig. 1-3. 1920.— In the examination of prod- 
ucts designated as ant and worm eradicators, author detected the presence of mowrah meal, 
which he states resembles cocoa powder in general appearance. The powder consists largely 
of the powdered cotyledons and occasional fragments of seed coat. Chloral hydrate reveals 
the presence of yellowish-brown masses occurring separately as isolated fragments and also 
in characteristic group arrangement. The uses of mowrah meal and a morphological 
description of Bassia latifolia are also included. With bibliography.— A nton Hogstad. Jr. 

811. M arie-Victorin, Fr. des E. C. L'identite du Poglus (Heracleum lantatum, Michx\ 
[The identity of Poglus of the Hurons of Lorette.] Le Naturaliste Canadien 46: 121-124. Dec 
1919— The Indians (Hurons) of Lorette, Province of Quebec, have been using the root of 



110 PHARMACOGNOSY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

Poglus with wonderful success against epidemic influenza. M. l'Abbe F.-X. Burque. (Ibid. 
45: 67-70. 1918) had identified it with Angelica atropurpurea L. (Archangelica atropurpurea 
(L.) HofTm.). — The author accompanied by M. Edouard Laurin visited Bastien, the local 
Indian chief, who pointed out a young specimen of Poglus which had not yet its radical 
leaves. The abundant pubescence showed it could not be Angelica. Further examination 
convinced him it was Hcracleum lanatum Michx. (la Berce laineuse). Chief Bastien insisted 
on the powerful febrifuge properties of the plant, and cited extraordinary cases of cures. It 
was believed to be the cause of the protection of the tribe from the epidemic. The Hurons 
collect the root in autumn, and use the infusion. — The author then quotes authorities on 
the properties of Heracleum, notes its distribution, and describes its appearance and habitat. 
[See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 784.]— A. H. MacKay. 

512. Merrill, E. C. Preliminary study of some of the physical and chemical constants 
of balsam Peru. Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 194-197. 1919. —The method for the 
determination of the iodine value of cinnamein by Hanus, as at present employed, is unsatis- 
factory and furthermore may be entirely inadequate as an index of the character of pure Peru 
balsam. The employment of such physical constants as viscosity, surface tension, optical 
rotation and refractometer observation may prove of value in the final interpretation of the 
character of Peru balsam. — F. M. Schertz. 

513. Nelson, E. K. The constitution of capsaicin, the pungent priciple of capsicum. II. 
Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 597-599. 1920. 

814. O'Brien, J. F., and J. P. Snyder. Deterioration of high-test American grown 
Digitalis. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 914-919. 1919. — Assays of the tincture and fluid- 
extract of Digitalis made from American-grown Digitalis from the state of Washington, 
after being kept for a period of two and one half years, under conditions which closely paral- 
leled those of the average drug store, showed that these preparations did deteriorate and that 
the deterioration was practically the same in both preparations. By the guinea pig method 
the loss in activity was from 330 to 175 per cent, a loss of 47 per cent ; the one hour frog method 
the loss in activity was from 264 to 120 per cent, a loss of 55 per cent; by the cat method the 
loss in activity was from 250 to 175 per cent, a loss of 30 per cent. However, all the prepara- 
tions after standing this length of time still retained sufficient activity for them both to be 
considered standard preparations. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

815. Passerini, N. Sul potere insetticida del Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium Trev. coltivato 
a Firenze in confronto con quello di alcune altre Asteracee. [A comparison of the insecticidal 
value of Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium Trev. grown at Florence with other members of the Aster- 
aceae.] Nuovo Gior. Bot. Italiano 26: 30-45. 1919. — Both as regards rapidity of action and 
effectiveness Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium Trev. is superior as an insecticide to other members 
of the Asteraceae. If ground into a fine powder, the heads, foliage, stems and roots of the 
plant are equally effective; however, the most rapid action is obtained from the heads of the 
plant. — Ernst Artschicager. 

816. Petrie, J. M. The occurrence of methyl laevo-inositol in an Australian poisonous 
plant. Proc. Linnean Soc. New South Wales 43: 850-867. 2 fig. 1918.— Heterodendron 
olsaefolium Desf. (Sapindaceae) a large, drought-resistant shrub, endemic to Australia, 
which has been described as a valuable forage plant was suspected of causing fatalities to 
cattle and horses. It was found to be strongly cyanogenetic. It contains the methyl ester 
of laevo-rotary inositol and the method of extraction and characteristics and properties of 
the compound are given in detail. The amount isolated was equivalent to 0.65 per cent of 
the dried (at 100°C.) leaves. It is not optically isomeric with pinite of Maquenne, which is 
the methyl dextro-inositol, possessing a different melting point and optical rotation. It is 
apparently identical with Tanret's quebrachite and has been previously recorded for three 
plants only — Aspidosperma querbracho (Apocyanceae), Hevea brasiliensis (Euphorbiaceae) 



\" 1 A.X gust, L920] PHAB1 .■ iGNOSl 1 1 1 

and Gr 'ill i robusta (Proteaceae). The occurrence of this compound e, in 

contrast to the inactive inositol which e e in most plants. //< 

■Iron also contains a cyanogenetic glucoside. Eloist Gerry. 

S17. Pittenger, Pattl S. Preliminary note on a new pharmaco-dynamic assay method. 
Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: X 1 .):; '.):)(). 1019.— Writer states 'I i1 the goldfish method is un- 
questionably the simplest so far proposed and can be easily carried oul by tho iecially 
skilled in the pharmacodynamic art. A tincture of Digitalis should have a minimum lethal 
dose of 2.85 when assayed by this method. Results of the authors experiments are recorded 
as well as details of methods employed including a list of apparatus necessary for the experi- 
ments. — Anion Hogstad, Jr. 

818. Pittenger, Paul S., and George E. Ewe. The standardization of Piscidia Ery- 
thrina (Jamaica dogwood). Amer. Pharm. Jour. 91 : 575-583. Fig. 1-8. 1919. — The similarity 
between the action of Jamaica dogwood and that of Cannabis, suggested the possibility of 
employing similar methods of standardization. The following tentative standard 
adopted: Fluidextract of Jamaica dogwood should be of such strength that it will produce 
incoordination in dogs in doses of 0.55 mils per kilo weight of animal and should not produce 
incoordination in doses less than 0.5 mils per kilo, the drug being administered by capsule 
after fasting the animal for 12 hours. A series of experiments were conducted to assay Jamaica 
dogwood preparations according to the piscidin content, but on account of the contamination 
with resinous matter it was difficult to obtain the piscidin in a pure state, therefore as the 
authors state we are without a reliable chemical means of accurate standardizing Jamaica 
dogwood preparations, but that they can be accurately standardized by the physiological 
assay method. — Anion Hogstad, Jr. 

819. Reens, Emma. The Coca de Java. [Javanese coca.] Bull. Sci. Pharm. 26: 497-505. 
1919. — A detailed study of the cultivation and propagation of the coca tree is given together 
with data on collecting the leaves, the extraction and purification of the alkaloid. The author 
states that while in South America the leaves of E. bolivianum and E. peruvianum are alto- 
gether used, in the East Indies and especially in Java E. spruccanum or E. novogranatense is 
cultivated. — II. Engelhardt. 

820. Robson, W. Bay trees (Pimenta acris). Report on the Agricultural Department, 
Montserrat, 1917-18: 17. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — A record 
is given of the yield of Bay leaves and oil from a plot for seven consecutive years. The result s 
of 41 distillations during 1917 are given. From these it was found that the average Phenol 
content was 55 per cent, being 5 per cent higher than the average for 1914-16. — J. S. Dash. 

821. Robson, W. Ajowan Plant (Carum copticum). Report on the Agricultural Depart- 
ment, Montserrat, 1917:18: 19-22. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 1919. — 
Interesting cultural and distillation trials are recorded with this plant. The percentage of 
oil in the seed was found to be 3, while the per cent Thymol in the oil is given as 40 to 45. — 
J. S. Dash. 

822. Robson, W. American horsemint (Monarda punctata). Report on the Agricultural 
Department, Montserrat, 1917-18: 22-23. Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 
1919. — Small trials with this plant gave satisfactory results, the oil obtained from distillation 
containing about 44 per cent by weight of Thymol. — J. S. Dash. 

823. Rowe, L. W. Maintaining frogs for test purposes. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 
928-930. 1 fig. 1919.— A description with sketch of a tank for maintaining frogs for test 
purposes. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

824. Rowe, L. W. Digitalis standardization. A consideration of certain methods of 
biological assay. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8 : 900-912. 1919. — Experiments were performed , 
first to determine whether any relationship exists between the results of assays by the cat 



112 PHARMACOGNOSY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

and frog methods; second, to determine the accuracy of the cat method and third to suggest 
certain modifications of the method, in order to make it more practical for commercial assay 
work. Sufficient data was not obtained with cats to absolutely prove that they are as unsatis- 
factory as dogs but from data reported indicates that there is no real consistency between 
the results obtained when using the cat and those obtained with the frog. Author states that 
it seems most logical to conclude that no relationship exists between the minimum lethal 
doses of heart tonic preparations to cats, dogs, and frogs, but that the frog method is the 
most accurate of the three. With bibliography. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

825. Sayre, L. E., and G. N. Watson. Final report on the alkaloids of Gelsemium. 
Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 708-711. 1919. — Investigations by the authors seem to show 
that there does not exist in the drug any such alkaloid as Gelseminine, but that this constit- 
uent (so-called) is a compound body consisting of several alkaloids having different properties. 
Methods are given for the separation of these various substances including Sempervirene, 
Gelsemic acid, Gelsemine and another substance named by the authors "Gelsemidine" — 
not "Gelseminine" — since gelseminine, the name formerly given to the amorphous alkaloids 
of gelsemium, has been proved conclusively to be not a single alkaloid but a mixture of three 
alkaloids. Another substance was also obtained which was strongly alkaloidal in appearance 
and behavior and very much like Lloyd's Emetoidine, which the authors state might be called 
"Gelsemoidine." Physical descriptions of these substances follow. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

826. Sprinkmeyer, H., and O. Gruenert. ttber Vanillinerzeugnisse. [Vanilla prod- 
ucts.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs-u. Genussmittel 38: 153-155. 1919. — Deterioration of 
vanilla and related substances in mixtures. — H. G. Barbour. 

827. Stanford, Ernest E., and Clare Olin Ewtng. The resin of man-root (Ipomoea 
pandurata (L.) Meyer) with notes on two other Convolvulaceous resins. Jour. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc. 8: 789-795. Fig. 1. 1919. — Alcoholic extracts of three Convolvulaceous roots gave 
the following results: Ipomoea pandurata (Man-root) 4.65 per cent of resin; I. batata (Sweet 
potato) 0.56 per cent of resin; I. discoidesperma Donn. Sm. (Yellow morning glory) 6.5 per 
cent of resin. The resin of man-root possessed mild cathartic properties, that of the sweet 
potato failed to demonstrate any cathartic action. The material on hand of the yellow morn- 
ing glory was insufficient for adequate tests. Examination of the extracts of man-root and 
sweet potato with various organic solvents showed them like other Convolvulaceous resins 
to be of complex composition and partly of glucosidal nature. No chemical examination was 
made of the resin of yellow morning glory. Descriptions of the roots are included. With 
bibliography. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

828. Steel, I. Plantago in medicine. Australian Nat. 4: 105-107. 1919. — Its uses as a 
native home remedy. Some references to its properties in English literature. — T. C. Frye. 

829. Stockberger, W. W. Commercial drug growing in the United States in 1918. 
Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 807-811. 1919. — A report on the progress of the cultivation of 
a number of drugs as Belladonna, Cannabis, Digitalis, Calendula, Sage and Henbane. Sum- 
marizing the total production the author states that in the case of Belladonna approximately 
83 tons of herb (including leaves and stems), and 11 tons of root; 60 tons of Cannabis; 9000 
to 10,000 pounds of Sage have been produced in the United States during 1918. No figures 
were given for the production of Calendula. Very little success has been attained in the 
commercial cultivation of Henbane. Digitalis has not been placed on an established commer- 
cial basis as yet. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

830. Stroup, Freeman P. A chemical test to distinguish between caffeine and theobro- 
mine. Amer. Jour. Pharm. 91: 598-599. 1919. — Employing the use of potassium bichromate 
and sulphuric acid, the author states that it is a simple matter to distinguish between caffein 
and theobromin, according to the colors produced. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 



No. 1, August 1920] PHARMACOGNOSY 113 

831. Styoer, Jos. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Umbelliferenfruchte. [Contribution on the 
anatomy of umbelliferous fruits.] Schweiz. Apothcker Zeitg. 57: L99 206, 228 235. 7 fig. 

1919. — A description of the macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of tin' fruits of An 
ica Archangelica, F. Narthex, F. galbaniflua, F. angulata, Pastinaca $ativa, HeraeU van Sjx - 
dylium, Laserpitium Siler, L. marginatum, Opopanax chironeum, and haunts Carota. Angel- 
ica Archangelica is winged and its mesocarp is composed for the most part of loosely arranged, 
porous and reticulately thickened parenchyma with large intercellular-air-spaces; its vittae 
are distributed above the inner epidermis and in the ribs. Ferula Narthex shows B band of 
thick-walled, punctated cells in the inner mesocarp and giant vittae in the mesocarp. /•'. 
galbaniflua is distinguished from F. Narthex by having vittae in the ribs as well as the meso- 
carp. F. angulata possesses vittae in mesocarp and ribs, its outer epidermis and the cell 
layers lying directly beneath are strongly thickened but not woody, and hesperidin crystals 
exist in all the epidermal cell glands. Pastinaca sativa shows vittae alongside vascular bun- 
dles, a sclerenchyma band in the inner mesocarp and finely punctated parenchyma in its 
winged ribs. Herecleum S pondylium has a sclerenchyma band in the inner m'esocarp and finely 
punctated thick-walled parenchyma in the wings outside of the bundles. Laserpitium mar- 
ginatum has elliptical vittae while those of L. Siler are triangular, as viewed in cross section. 
Opopanax chironeum shows cells of epidermis, wings and within vascular bundles with ellip- 
tical punctations; Daucus Carota has delicate spines growing from secondary ribs, and bristle- 
hairs only on primary ribs. [See also next following Entry, 832.] — 11. W. Youngken. 

832. Styger, Jos. Beitrage zur Anatomie des Umbelliferenfruchte. [Contribution on 
the anatomy of Umbelliferous fruits.] Schweiz. Apotheker Zeitg. 57: 243-250. 1919. — An 
analytical key, based upon a pharmacognic system, to the 50 Umbelliferous fruits described 
by the author in preceding pages of this serial. These are placed in 3 main groups, viz. : 
I. Without oil containing elements. II. With secretion sacs. III. With oil reservoirs (vit- 
tae). The first two of these captions have but one representative each, viz.: Conium macu- 
latum and Hydrocotyle vulgaris respectively. The third group includes two subdivisions: 
1. With commissurral vittae only. 2. With dorsal and commissural vittae. Further group- 
ing of these subdivisions is based upon presence of one or more vittae in mesocarp, scleren- 
chyma plates, hairs, strongly thickened and lignified parenchyma elements in mesocarp, sec- 
ondary vittae, and distribution of the vittae in inter-rib and rib regions. [See also next 
preceding Entry, 831.] — H. W. Youngken. 

833. Suttox, Richard L. Ragweed dermatitis. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc. 73: 1433- 
1435. 1919. — The important part played by anaphylaxis in the causation of various eruptions 
has long been recognized. Anaphylaxis has been defined as "a state of hypersusceptibility 
of the organism to foreign substances, which is brought about by the introduction of certain 
foreign substances and their cleavage products." C. Walker has pointed out that certain 
proteins, including those of ragweed pollen may cause dermatitis in predisposed persons. 
The author describes four cases of ragweed dermatitis. In two of them the common ragweed. 
Ambrosia elatior, was the chief offender. The giant ragweed, A. trifolia, the mupwort, A. 
psilostachya, and the bur marsh-elder, Iva xanthifolia, probably occupy lesser roles. All 
have been shown to cause hay fever. Pollen vaccine treatment gave beneficial results. — 
Wm. B. Day. 

834. Thurston, Azor. Oil of sandalwood and its adulteration. Jour. Amer. Phnrm. 
Assoc. 9: 36-37. 1920. — A compilation of the refractive indices and optical rotations of s 

42 samples of commercial sandalwood oils with a few additional notes. With bibliogra: 
— Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

835. Viehoever, Arxo. The pharmacognosy laboratory, its activities and aims. Jour. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 8: 717-725. 1919.— A detailed account of the activities and aims of the 
Pharmacognosy Laboratory, Bureau of Chemistry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, prepared 
in the hope that other workers engaged in pharmaceutical and related research, may be induced 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



114 PHARMACOGNOSY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

to prepare similar statements, sufficiently detailed to indicate the nature of their studies, 
though the work may still be in progress. — Part I is devoted to a discussion of Crude Drug 
Control in which the author discusses various phases of the work, as domestic trade; import 
trade; elimination of inert and objectionable material in crude drugs and spices; extension of 
standardization of purity for drugs; value of volume weight determinations; pharmacopoeial 
work; prevention of waste and utilization of waste crude drug products. — Part II is devoted 
to the investigations of the pharmacognosy laboratory which cover a wide range of pharma- 
ceutical and chemical research. Author also discusses the cooperative work of the laboratory 
with various institutions, laboratories, etc. With bibliography. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

S36. Vierhout, P. Het Winnen van Curacao-Aloe. [The production of Curacao aloes.] 
Pharm. Weekblad. 56: 1510-1512. PI. 1, jig. 3. 1919.— A description of methods of collecting 
aloes in Curacao. — Abstractor. 

837. Wirth, E. H. A study of Chenopodium ambrosioides var. anthelminticum and its 
volatile oil. Jour. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 9: 127-141. 22 fig. 1920. — The author has made a 
study of the oil of Chenopodium which falls under the heading of the "western oils" in order 
to compare same with the Maryland variety, the latter according to general opinion has been 
claimed to be superior to the former. — A detailed discussion as to the composition of the oil 
is given, the western oil agreeing with the Maryland oils, save in the amount of ascaridol 
which is present in the latter from 60 to 80 per cent and in the former the average was 42 to 45 
per cent. Specific gravity of western oil 0.934 compared to a specific gravity of 0.955-0.980 as 
stated in the U. S. P. Upon subjecting an oil with a specific gravity of 0.934 to steam distil- 
lation, one fraction, 70 to 75 per cent had a specific gravity of 0.900 and 25 to 30 per cent had a 
specific gravity of 1.000, thereby showing that the western oil might be fractionated on a 
commercial basis. Experiments found this to be impracticable owing to the waste involved. 
— An exhaustive pharmacognostic study of Chenopodium ambrosioides anthelminticum is 
given, in which the author, by microchemical tests, employing 5 per cent KOH in 95 per cent 
alcohol, shows that the oil is not contained in the seeds but occurs only in the glandular hairs 
and here only in the large thin-walled terminal hairs. The hairs upon the leaves were found 
to contain oil but no glandular hairs were noted on the stems, which thus eliminates using 
stem portions for the production of the oil. Flowers also contain oil, which sets forth the 
value of subjecting the plant to distillation at the time of flowering. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

S38. Wong, Ying C. Opium in China. Amer. Jour. Pharm. 91: 776-784. 1919.— An 
interesting account of this gigantic evil which has cost China billions of dollars and, more 
important than that, has led millions and millions of her strong citizens into wreck and misery. 
Author discusses in detail the history and cultivation of the poppy; interesting synonyms 
and their application to the different grades of opium; opium smoking; suppression of the 
poison. — Anton Hogstad, Jr. 

839. Wunschendorff, M. E. La racine d'Atractylis gummifera. [The root of Atractylis 
gummifera.] Jour. Pharm. et Chim. 20: 318-321. 1919. — The writer gives an account of 
the earlier investigations of the root by Lefranc. He succeeded in isolating about 4 per cent 
of a petroleum-ether soluble resin, which was insoluble in water and alcohol, but gave pseudo- 
solutions with chloroform, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, carbon disulphide, etc. It had 
all the characteristics of caoutchouc and could easily be vulcanized. He further isolated 
tannic acid, several sugars and a substance which probably was identical with Lefranc's 
potassium atractylate. The ash, 14.8 per cent, was rich in silica and iron. — H. Engelhardt. 

810. Yamamoto, R. On the insecticidal principle of Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium. 
Ber. Ohara Inst. Landw. Forsch. 1 : 389-398. 1918. — Pyrethron, the insecticidal principle, is 
a yellow, transparent, neutral syrup, having a saponification value of 216 and iodine value of 
116. It is easily saponified with alcoholic potash and loses its insecticidal power after saponi- 
fication. The power of this pyrethron is reduced either by heating or exposure to the air 
for a long time. Pyrethron has germicidal as well as insecticidal powers. — H. S. Reed. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 1 1 5 

841. Youngken, Heber W. Observations on Digitalis Sibirica. Jour. Amer. I'harm. 
Assoc. 8: 923-928. 14 fig. 1919.— A botanical investigation of Dtgitalu Sibirica Lindley, 
including a description of the plant, histology of leaf, stem and root. Author found that a 
tincture prepared from the dried leaves according to the U. 8. P. method for tincture of 
digitalis and when assayed by the one-hour frog method, showed the tincture to I"- ihree 
quarters over the strength required for the U. S. P. tincture of digitalis.— Anion Hog tad, Jr. 

PHYSIOLOGY 

B. M. Duggar, Editor 
Carroll W. Dodge, Assistant Editor 

GENERAL 

842. Bechhold, H. Colloids in biology and medicine. [Translated from the second 
German edition, with notes and emendations by Jesse G. M. Bullowa.] XV + 404 P-, 54 fig. 
Van Nostrand Co. : New York, 1919. — Proof sheets of the original were received in 1915 and 
1916, but the translation has been brought practically up to date by numerous insertions and 
notes. The work is divided into four parts as follows: I. Introduction to the study of col- 
loids, 127 p. II. Biocolloids, S3 p. III. The organism as a colloid system, 144 p. IV. Toxi- 
cology and pharmacology, microscopical technic, 77 p. — The strictly biological (physiological) 
aspects deal in a larger measure with animal structures and behavior, due largely to the greater 
specialization in such organisms, but the plant material is in nowise neglected. — B. M. 
Duggar. 

843. Haldane, J. S. The new physiology and other addresses. VII + 156 p. Charles 
Griffin & Co., Ltd.: London, 1919. — This small volume embodies six addresses under the 
following titles: (1) the relation of physiology to physics and chemistry; (2) the place of 
biology in human knowledge and endeavour; (3) the new physiology; (4) the relation of 
physiology to medicine; (5) the theory of development by natural selection; and (6) are 
physical, biological, and psychological categories irreducible? Each topic includes some dis- 
cussion more or less directly relating to the field, problems, or development of physiology and 
physiological concepts. Special emphasis is placed upon arguments designed to strengthen 
the claims of biology as an independent science, and with these the distinctive field of 
physiology as a fundamental branch of this science. Despite the accumulation of facts re- 
lating to the "physical and chemical sources and the ultimate destiny of the material and 
energy passing through the body" there is "an equally rapidly accumulating knowledge of 
an apparent teleological ordering of this material and energy." The old "vital force" could 
never become a working hypothesis; on the other hand, physico-chemical explanations of the 
mechanism of such processes as respiration are difficult and disappointing, while such assump- 
tions applied to heredity "make the physico-chemical theory of life unthinkable." Never- 
theless "we need not sit down in despair, for we can look for other working conceptions." — 
B. M. Duggar. 

844. McLean, F. T. Opportunities for research in plant physiology in the Philippines. 
Philippine Agric. 8: 27-31. 1919.— A short article pointing out some of the advantages of 
the Philippine Islands as a place for research in plant physiology. — S. F. Trelease. 

845. Willows, R. S., and E. Hatschek. Surface tension and surface energy and their 
influence on chemical phenomena. 2nd ed. VIII + 115 p., 21 fig. Toxt-books of chemical 
research and engineering. Blakiston's Son & Co.: Philadelphia, 1919. — The new edition 
does not depart from the first in presenting for both biologist and chemist a concise discussion 
of the fundamental laws of surface tension and surface energy without necessarily applying 
these to specific phenomena. An additional chapter deals with complex phenomena including 
such topics as stable emulsions, the theory of dyeing, also tanning. — B. M. Duggar. 



116 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

PROTOPLASM, MOTILITY 

846. Chambers, Robert. Changes in protoplasmic consistency and their relation to cell 
division. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2: 49-68. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 119. 

DIFFUSION, PERMEABILITY 

847. De Vries, O. Verband tusschen het soortelijk gewicht van latex en serum en het 
rubbergehalt van de latex. [The relation between the specific gravity of latex and serum and 
the rubber content of latex.] Arch. Rubbercult. Nederlandsch-Indie 3: 183-206. 1919. — See 
Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 183. 

848. Dixon, H. H., and W. R. G. Atkins. Osmotic pressures in plants. VI. On the 
composition of the sap in the conducting tracts of trees at different levels and at different seasons 
of the year. Sci. Proc. Roy. Dublin Soc. 15: 51-62. 1918.— The aim of this paper is the study 
of sap composition at different levels in the same tree and the examination of similar trees 
during the various seasons of the year. Three trees of Acer macrophyllum, two each of lle.c 
aquifolium and Cotoneaster friyida, and one each of Arbutus unedo and Ulmus campestris were 
employed. — The sap was centrifuged from the fresh conducting wood of the trees. It was 
found to vary greatly in color and in content of both sugars and salts. During the late autumn 
and winter while the trees are dormant the osmotic pressure is small and approximately con- 
stant throughout the wood sap. The upper portions of the stem and the roots have slightly 
greater pressure than the central portions. In the early spring large quantities of sugars 
from the storage cells of the wood parenchyma and the medullary rays are added to the sap. 
This is followed by a marked increase in osmotic pressure from root to crown, the greater in- 
crease occurring in the upper part of the tree. During late spring the concentration of salts 
is very much greater than in early spring. At this time the concentration of sugars is still 
high, being about half the maximum concentration. — In Acer macrophyllum, sucrose is present 
in quantity. In the root this amounts to 0.6 per cent in October and 1 per cent in February. 
In the stem at 10 m. level, where the highest concentrations are recorded, 0.5 per cent sucrose 
is found in October and 5.5 per cent in February. The reducing sugars are not found at all 
or only in minute traces. In the other trees both reducing sugars and sucrose were found, 
the latter usually predominating. In the spring the reducing sugars consisted of the hexoses 
and maltose, at other times the latter is absent. — In the evergreens, Arbutus unedo and Ilex 
aquifolium, and in the sub-evergreen, Cotoneaster frigida, neither great seasonal changes nor 
gradients from roots to crown were observed. At certain seasons the roots may have slightly 
higher concentrations than the stems. — A. E. Waller. 

849. Loeb, Jacques. Electrification of water and osmotic pressure. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 
2: S7-106. 1919. — Experimenting with the amphoteric electrolytes Al(OH) 3 and gelatin 
the author finds that water diffuses through collodion membranes into solutions of metal 
gelatinates or aluminates as if the water were positively charged, and into their acid salts 
as if it were negatively charged. The turning point for the sign of electrification of water 
seems to be near, or to coincide with, the isoelectric points, which is a hydrogen ion concen- 
tration about 2 times 10 -B N for gelatin and about 10~ 7 N for Al(OH) 3 . When diffusing into 
solutions of metal gelatinates the rate is determined by the charge of the cation, the rate 
being approximately 2 to 3 times as great into solutions containing the monovalent cations of 
Li, Na, K, NH 4 as into those of the divalent cations of Ca or Ba at the same concentrations 
of gelatin and hydrogen ions. When diffusing into acid salts of gelatin, water — apparently 
negatively charged — diffuses less rapidly into a solution of gelatin sulfate than into a solution 
of gelatin chloride or nitrate of the same gelatin and hydrogen ion concentrations. "If we 
define osmotic pressure as that additional pressure upon the solution required to cause as 
many molecules of water to diffuse from solution to the pure water as diffuses simultane- 
ously in the opposite direction through the membrane, it follows that the osmotic pressure 
cannot depend only on the concentration of the solute but must depend also on the electro- 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 117 

static effects of the ions present and that tin* influence of ions on the osmotic pressure m 
be the same as that on the initial velocity of diffusion. This assumption was pul to a test 
in experiments with gelatin salts for which a collodion membrane is strictly semipermeable 

;m<l the tests confirmed the expectation." — 0. /•'. Curtis. 

850. Shull, C. A. Permeability. [Rev. of: William.-, M aid. The influence of immer- 
sion in certain electrolytic solutions upon permeability of plant cells. Ann. Botany 32 : 591 690. 
1918. (See Bot. Absts. 2, Entry 304.)] Bot. Gaz. 68: 232. 1919. 

S51. Stiles, Walter, and Franklin Kidd. The comparative rate of absorption of var- 
ious salts by plant tissue. Proc. Roy Soc. London 90 B: 487-504. Tables 1-10, fig. 1-7. 1919. 
— Rate of absorption of various chlorides, sulphates, nitrates, and potassium salts from solu- 
tions 0.02N was measured by the electrical conductivity method, using discs of carrot and 
potato. — Initial absorption was rapid, possibly in proportion to ionic mobility. This is 
followed by a long period of almost logarithmic approach to equilibrium. The final quantity 
absorbed is independent of the initial rate in the case of any given salt. — Initial adsorption 
rates are in the following order: Rations, K (Ca, Na), Li (Mg, Zn), Al; anions, SO\», N0 3 
CI. — The final absorption order is, kations, K, Na, Li (Ca, Mg) ; anions N0 3 , CI, SO*. Mon- 
ovalent ions are at equilibrium in much greater quantity than divalent ions in the cases stud- 
ied. The rate and extent of intake of one ion of a salt may be affected by the nature of the 
other ion. From aluminium sulphate aluminium is rapidly absorbed, and the sulphate ion 
slowly. — It is pointed out that there is essential agreement with other workers. — Paul B. 
Sears. 

852. Thoday, D. The "osmotic hypothesis:" a rejoinder. New Phytol. 18: 257-259. 
1919. — This is an answer to certain criticisms brought forward by Stiles and J0rgensen. — 

1. F. Lewis. 

WATER RELATIONS 

853. Cribbs, James E. Ecology of Tilia americana. I. Comparative studies of the foliar 
transpiring power. Bot. Gaz. 68: 262-286. 13 fig. 1919. 

854. Dosdall, Louise. Water requirement and adaptation in Equisetum. Plant World 
22 : 1-13, 29-34. 5 fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 217. 

855. Flood, Margaret G. Exudation of water by Colocasia antiquorum. Sci. Proc. 
Roy. Dublin Soc. 15 : 505-512. 2 pi. 1919. — An inquiry into the question of whether the water 
exuded from the leaf-tips of Colocasia was conduction water, or whether it was secreted 
from a special gland led to the following considerations: 1. It had been related to transpira- 
tion and called a nocturnal "liquid transpiration" supplanting the diurnal vaporous one. 

2. The drops were sometimes seen to be ejected for short distances, coming through small 
pores. 3. It had been stated that the water was secreted by a hydathode and that the secre- 
tion was simple filtration. 4. Modern observations had shown that the freezing point of the 
exudate differed little from distilled water, and that its electrical conductivity was less than 
that of tap-water. — A colloid (India ink mixed with gelatine) was successfully passed through 
the end pore and up into the canals, after some preliminary experimentation. When the leaf- 
tip was attached to a water reservoir, after severance from the leaf, drops of water continued 
to be exuded. This amounted to 6 cc. in 20 hours. These experiments (and the last-men- 
tioned repeated, substituting a0.3 per cent starch solution) prove that there was no continuous 
membrane between the depression and the water channels. Anaesthetizing the tip did not 
slow up the rate of dropping, showing that the water must be urged forward from below in 
the plant and not exuded by the action of the tip alone. Cutting the leaf-blade anywhere 
results in copious exudation from the veins at every cut. The same occurs when the petioles 
are cut. The conclusions from these observations and experiments, made when the soil about 
the plant was damp and the air saturated, is that no gland or epithem functioning in secretion 
is present in the leaf-tip. The phenomenon must depend upon the normal transfer of water 
through the plant. [See also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1406.]— A. E. Waller. 



118 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

856. Shtjll, C. A. Curing timber. [Rev. of: Stone, Herbert. The ascent of the sap 
and the drying of timber. Quart. Jour. Forest. 12:261-266. 1918.] Bot. Gaz. 68:310. 1919. 
—See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 233. 

MINERAL NUTRIENTS 

857. Espino, Raf. B. Methods in nutrition experiments. [Rev. of: Schreiner, Oswald, 
and J. J. Skinner. The triangle system for fertilizer experiments. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 
10:225-246. 1918.] Plant World 22: 53-54. 1919. 

858. Girard, Pierre. Scheme physique pour servir a l'etude de la nutrition minerale 
de la cellule. [Physical scheme to serve for a study of the mineral nutrition of the cell. | Compt. 
Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 1335-1338. 1919. — The object of this work is to demonstrate in 
vitro the principles which bear on the differential permeability of the plasma membrane. 
By the use of barium chloride combined with various other chemicals, using a gold beater's 
skin, the author finds that differential permeability can be demonstrated. The phenomenon 
is explained on an electrical basis and is attributed to the ionization of the substances in 
solution. — V. H. Young. 

859. Hoagland, D. R. Relation of nutrient solution to composition and reaction of cell 
sap of barley. Bot. Gaz. 68: 297-304. 1919.— The osmotic pressures in the sand and water 
cultures of barley are reflected in the cell sap of the tops and roots. The electrical conduc- 
tivity of the nutrient solution has a marked influence on the conductivity of the sap, both in 
tops and in roots; the conductivity of the sap is from 4 to 50 times greater than that of the 
nutrient solution. The sap from the tops of plants in all cultures had almost the same P H 
value, approximately 6.0. Plants were grown in 6 different soils and in every case the sap 
concentration was much greater than that of the soil solution. Emphasis is placed on the 
dynamic nature of the relation between the soil solution and the plant. — H. C. Cowles. 

860. Le Clerc, J. A., and J. F. Breazeale. Effect of lime upon the sodium-chlorid 
tolerance of wheat seedlings. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 347-356. PI. 88-47. 1920.— The work was 
done with reference to "alkali" soils. Soil, sand, and solution cultures were used, since inert 
material might affect the toxic limits of dissolved salts. It is found that plants in soil and 
sand show higher tolerance to alkali salts than solution cultures. This is not due entirely 
to the physical effect of the presence of solid particles of different degrees of fineness, but also 
to certain soluble substances which are present in very small quantities. — Very small amounts 
of calcium oxide and calcium sulfate overcome the toxic effects of sodium chlorid and sodium 
sulfate. Magnesium sulfate and barium chlorid are slightly antagonistic to sodium chlorid, 
while potassium chlorid, sodium nitrate, sodium phosphate, ferric chlorid, and alum had 
no effect on its toxicity. — The presence of lime did not prevent the entrance of sodium chlorid 
or sodium sulfate into the plant. The antagonistic effect of lime seems to be due to some other 
cause than its effect on permeability. — D. Reddick. 

861. Livingston, B. E. [Under Notes and Comment, no special title.] Plant World 
22: 26-27. 1919. — A discussion of work by F. W. Gericke on a preliminary test of the influ- 
ence of temperature upon the physiological balance of the nutrient solution as related to 
germination in wheat. Stress is laid on the need of quantitative definition of all effective 
conditions in experimental work. — Chas. A. Shull. 

862. Shive, JohnW. Relation of moisture in solid substrata to physiological salt balance 
for plants and to the relative plant-producing value of various salt proportions. Jour. Agric. 
Res. 18: 357-378. 1920. — Three different degrees of moisture were maintained in sand cul- 
tures, 40, 60 and 80 per cent of the water-retaining capacity of the sand. Tests were made 
with 36 different sets of salt proportions of the three salts, monopotassium phosphate, calcium 
nitrate, and magnesium sulfate in solutions with each of the moisture percentages noted. 
The solutions, all having an initial total osmotic concentration of 1.75 atmospheres, were 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 1 [9 

supplied to the sand cultures in such quantities as to produce the differ adardsof mi 

ture. Culture solutions were renewed every third day. Daily water loss was restored 
daily. Wheat was grown for 28 days.— The physiological balance of the uutrienl Bolutiom 

producing the best yields of tops and roots was oo1 altered by variations in the mo con- 

tent of the sand. A slight shifting of the balance, as affecting growth, is indicate, I for the 
growth of 9 high-yielding cultures, as a whole, out of the series of 36, with each increase D 
the moisture content of the cultures, from a position in the series characterized by lower par- 
tial concentration of potassium phosphate to one of higher partial concentration of this salt, 
and correspondingly lower ones of calcium nitrate and magnesium sulfate.— Good physio- 
logical balance and optimum total concentration of a nutrient solution for plants i- qoI done 
sufficient to produce the best growth of which the solution is capable when it is diffused as a 
film on the particles of a solid substratum. An optimum degree of moisture is essential to 
impart to the soil (sand) solution its maximum physiological value. The plant -producing 
value of any fertilizer treatment is thus determined largely by the moisture conditions of the 
substratum. — The lowest percentage of moisture employed corresponds with low yields of 
tops and roots, lowest transpiration rates, and with lowest water requirement ratios. The 
highest moisture content is associated with low yield of tops and roots, with high t ranspiral ion 
rates, and with the highest water requirement ratios. The medium degree of moisture is 
correlated with the highest yields of tops and of roots, high transpiration rates, and medium 
water requirement ratios. — D. Reddick. 

S63. Steinkoenig, L. A. Relation of fluorine in soils, plants and animals. Jour. Indust. 
Eng. Chem. 11: 463-465. 1919. — After reviewing the literature the author reports fluorine 
determinations of 9 soils, using Merwin's determination with modifications, which is given 
in detail. Fluorine occurs in amounts averaging 0.03 per cent. Three soils contained but 
0.01 per cent, and in one case it was not found. Soils carrying stones made up of mica schist 
contain relatively higher amounts, — Hagerstown loam 0.11-0.15 per cent, York silt loam 0.05 
per cent. Fluorine is in the soil in such minerals as biotite, tourmaline, muscovite, apatite, 
fluorite and phlogopite. Plants absorb fluorine and thus it is available for animals, which 
latter may also obtain it from spring water. [See also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1636.] — C. R. Hursh. 

864. Stiles, Walter, and Franklin Kidd. The influence of external concentration 
on the position of the equilibrium attained in the intake of salts by plant cells. Proc. Roy. Soc. 
London 90 B: 448-470. Tables 1-13, 6 fig. 1919.— Salt intake by discs of carrot and potato 
tissue was measured by changes in electrical conductivity of the external solution. The initial 
concentrations used varied from N/10 to N/5000. Carrot is considered more suitable than 
potato because of less exosmosis into distilled water. Toxic salts, e. g., copper sulfate, pro- 
duce greater exosmosis in both distilled water and in solutions. — The ratio between final 
internal and final external concentration is called the absorption ratio. The initial rate of 
absorption is roughly proportional to the concentration of the external solution; but the final 
absorption ratio, at equilibrium, diminishes as concentration of the external solution increases. 
The equation of the absorption ratio is given as p KC m , where y is the final interval and C 
the final external concentration. This happens to be the adsorption equation, but no basis 
was found for postulating the mechanism of salt intake. — Paul B. Sears. 

PHOTOSYNTHESIS 

865. Pulling, H. E. Physiological problems of photosynthesis. [Rev. of: Henrioi, 
Marguerite. Chlorophyllgehalt und Kohlensaure-Assimilation bei Alpen- und Ebenen- 
pflanzen. Verhandl. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel 30: 43-136. 1918.] Plant ^Yorld 22: 123-126. 
1919. 

METABOLISM (GENERAL) 

866. Armstrong, E. Frankland. The simple carbohydrates and the glucosides. 3rd 
ed. IX+239p. Monographs on Biochemistry. Longmans, Green & Co.: London, 1919. — 
No new chapters have been added since the second edition of this work, but much new material 



120 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

has been incorporated. Important among the special advances necessitating the revision 
are (1) the discovery of a third isomeric form of glucose differing from the pentaphane ring 
forms in structure serving to throw new light on the constitution of sucrose, and (2) definite 
data for the characterization of carbohydrates as regards the relationship of optical rotatory 
power to structure. — B. M. Duggar. 

867. Ayers, S. Henry, and Philip Rupp. Simultaneous acid and alkaline bacterial 
fermentations from dextrose and the salts of organic acids respectively. Jour. Infect. Diseases 
23: 188-216. 1918. — The quantitative fermentation of dextrose by Bacillus colt and B. aer- 
ogenes into formic, acetic, lactic, and succinic acids is shown, with the accompanying changes 
in H-ion concentration. The reversion of reaction is explained as the formation of carbonates 
or bicarbonates from the formic acid salts, as the changes in P H agree quite closely with the 
disappearance of the formic acid. Simultaneous fermentations of acid from dextrose and of 
alkali from citrate are shown with the alkali-forming group of bacteria. — W. II. Chambers. 

868. Behrend, Robert, and George Heyer. Uber die Oxydation der Muconsaure. 
Synthese der Schleimsaure. [Concerning the oxidation of muconic acid. Synthesis of mucic 
acid.] Ann. Chem. 418 : 294-316. 1919. — As an average of 12 tests under controlled conditions 
the action of potassium permanganate upon muconic acid yielded, per 100 molecules of the 
acid, 21 molecules of oxalic acid, 11 molecules of tartaric acid, a trace of mucic acid, and un- 
identified products. Oxidation by sodium chlorate and osmic acid yielded, per 100 molecules, 
32 molecules of mucic acid and small amounts of other products. — W. E. Tollingham. 

869. Besson, A., A. Ranque, and C. Senez. Action biochimique des microbes sur les 
sucres et les alcools. [Biochemical action of bacteria on sugars and alcohols.] Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Biol.. 81 : 930-933. 1918. — Fermentation of the common sugars and alcohols by bacteria 
of the colon-typhoid-dysentery group and other organisms is tabulated, with emphasis on 
the constancy of the property of gas production. — W. H. Chambers. 

870. Besson, A., A. Ranque, and C. Senez. Sur la vie du coli-bacille en milieu liquide 
glucose. [On the life of B. coli in liquid glucose-containing media.] Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 
82: 76^78. 1919. — The time relation between growth and fermentation is shown. Gas and 
acid production commenced when multiplication ceased. More than one-half of the acid 
was produced in the first hour. — W. H. Chambers. 

871. Besson, A., A. Ranque, and C. Senez. Sur la vie des microbes dans les milieux 
liquides sucres. [On the life of bacteria in liquid sugar-containing media.] Compt. Rend. 
Soc. Biol. 82 : 107-109. 1919. — The action of different bacteria on glucose is shown to be similar 
to that of Bacillus coli, the cultures becoming sterile in 6 days. The acid and gas production 
of B. coli from different sugars and alcohols is reported. — W. H. Chambers. 

872. Besson, A., A. Ranque, and C. Senez. Sur la vie du coli-bacille en milieu liquide 
glucose. Importance des doses de glucose. [On the life of Bacillus coli in liquid glucose- 
containing media. Importance of amounts of glucose.] Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 82: 164-166. 
1919. — The relation of amounts of glucose to titratable acid, death of the culture, disappear- 
ance of the sugar, and time of gas fermentation is reported. They found reversion of reaction 
with 0.2 per cent or less of glucose, and death of the culture in 6 days with 0.4 per cent or more. 
— W. H. Chambers. 

873. Bourquelot, E., and Bridel. Application de la methode biochemlque a l'etude 
de plusieurs d'Orchidees indigenes. Decouverte d'un glucoside nouveau, la "loroglossine." 
[Discovery of a new glucoside, "loroglossine," in one of the indigenous orchids.] Compt. Rend. 
Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 701-703. 1919. — Preparation and properties of the glucoside "loroglos- 
sine" from Loroglossum hircinum Rich, are described. — F. B. Warm. 



No. 1, August, 19*20) PHYSIOLOGY 1 2 1 

874. Bunker, J. W. M. The determination of hydrogen ion concentration. Jour. Biol. 
Chem. 41: 11-14. 1920. -An electrode and a vessel .tie described which have been in use a 
long time, meeting the requirements of quick, accurate determinations in large numbers. — 
G. B. Rigg. 

875. Church, A. H. The ionic phase of the sea. New Phytol. 18: 239-217. 19J9.— 
This is a discussion of sea water as the "primary source of 'life' "from the standpoint of the 
modern physico-chemist. The ionization of the salt content of sea water is discussed, par- 
ticularly in relation to the ions of carbonic acid. Far-reaching analogies are pointed out 
between living substance and sea water; the latter is even considered to be "the primordial 
material of which protoplasmic units are but individualized particles or segregated centres 
of actions, still more complex, but of the same category." — /. F. Lewis. 

S76. Clevenger, Clinton B. Hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. I. The 
accurate determination of the hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices by means of the hydro- 
gen electrode. Soil Sci. 8: 217-226. 1919. — The apparatus is essentially that described by 
Clark and Lubs with modifications to prevent foaming of the plant juice and to simplify both 
the shaking apparatus and the temperature. To prevent contact between the electrodes 
and plant juice during saturation with hydrogen the juice is placed in dropping funnels at- 
tached to the electrode vessels. To reduce contact potential, contact between the plant 
juice and the saturated potassium chloride solution is made by means of a scratch around the 
cock connecting the two. Duplicate measurements agree within 0.1 millivolt. — William J. 
Robbins. 

877. Clevenger, Clinton B. Hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. II. Factors 
affecting the acidity or hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. Soil Sci. 8: 227-242. 1919. 
— Determinations of acidity should be made as quickly as possible after cutting the plant 
and extracting the juice, as the acidity of plant juice may decrease or increase on standing. 
The roots of cow pea are generally more acid than the leaves and the leaves more acid than the 
stems. The acidity in the roots of cow pea during a 24 hour period is rather constant, being 
higher during the day. In the leaves and stems the acidity drops during the afternoon, 
rising during the night and reaching a maximum in the morning. The acidity of the roots 
of plants appears to be correlated with the reaction of the soil, but the acidity of the tops 
of the plants studied was greater on limed than on unlimed soil. — William J. Robbins. 

878. Colin, H. Utilization du glucose et du levulose par les plantes superieures. [Utili- 
zation of glucose and levulose by higher plants.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 697-699. 
1919. — The proportion of glucose to levulose in green leaves of beet is often less than 1, but 
increases down the midrib and in the petiole. Etiolated leaves of beet, artichoke, and chicory 
showed a larger proportion of dextrose than of levulose, whereas in the storage organs of these 
plants the reverse is true. It is assumed that these two sugars must either be transported 
at unequal rates or that they are utilized in unequal amounts. The author concludes that it 
is more probable that the glucose is oxidized in the cell in preference to levulose, the latter 
playing an essential role in tissue formation. Thus respiration is less intense in the petiole 
than in the blade, and less in etiolated leaves than in green leaves. — F. B. Wann. 

879. Cushny, Arthur R. The properties of optical isomers from the biological side. 
Pharm. Jour. 103: 483. 1919. — The living plant discriminates between laevo and dextro- 
rotatory bodies because it is itself optically active, but no optically active substances have as 
yet been synthetically produced by man. Because of this phenomenon of discrimination by 
the living plant and the fact that an optically active alkaloid, such as cinchonine, can be used 
to separate a mixture of laevo and dextro tartrates, and the further fact that vegetable and 
animal organisms that act upon asymmetric bodies generally destroy the substance that occurs 
in nature but will not destroy the non-natural isomer", the author declares that "until life 
appeared no optically active body existed, and without life and its products there would be 
none today." Further, this optical activity is the most persistent evidence of life, since an 



122 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

optically active alkaloid or acid, centuries after the plant that produced it is destroyed, will 
still retain its activity, and the occurrence of any optically active substance, such as petro- 
leum, proves that it must have been derived from living tissues. — Experiments with hyos- 
cyamine, a laevorotatory substance and its isomer atropine, optically inactive, consisting 
of equal parts of laevo and dextro hyoscyamine, demonstrated that Z-hyoscyamine had the 
same physiological effect on peripheral nerve-endings as twice the quantity of dZ-hyoscyamine 
(atropine) . Again, a comparison, by the effect on blood pressure, indicates that natural adren- 
aline (Z-adrenaline) was twice as powerful as synthetic adrenaline (dZ-adrenaline) and that 
d-adrenaline (obtained from dZ-adrenaline) was without activity. — E. N. Gathercoal. 

880. Haas, A. R. C. The electrometric titration of plant juices. Soil Sci. 7: 487-491. 
1 fig. 1919. — An electrometric apparatus is described for determining the buffer action, 
acid and alkali reserve, and the total and actual acidities of plant juices. Rhubarb juice has 
a greater actual acidity and greater buffer action than that of soy bean tops. — William J. 
Robbins. 

881. Haynes, Dorothy, and Hilda Mary Judd. The effect of methods of extraction 
on the composition of expressed apple juice, and a determination of the sampling error of such 
juices. Biochem. Jour. 13 : 272-277. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 541. 

882. Jones, Harry. Some factors influencing the final hydrogen-ion concentration in 
bacterial cultures with special references to streptococci. Jour. Infect. Diseases 26: 160-164. 
1920. — The composition of the medium, the initial reaction and any other conditions which 
favor or hinder abundant growth of a given organism should be considered in order to obtain 
accurate information regarding its final hydrogen ion concentration. — Sclman A. Waksman. 

883. Knudson, L., and E. W. Lindstrom. Influence of sugars on the growth of albino 
plants. Amer. Jour. Bot. 6: 401-405. 1919.— Albino corn seedlings grown both on agar and 
in water culture were supplied with sugar (sucrose and glucose). On agar, they all lost weight, 
but those supplied with sugar lost considerably less than controls which had no sugar. Re- 
sults with plants grown in the dark were essentially the same as with those grown in the light. 
In water culture the albino seedlings made an appreciable gain when provided with sugar, 
and lived much longer than the controls, but ultimately died. The better growth in water 
culture is explained as probably due to higher concentration of sugar and higher temperatures 
at which the plants were grown. Roots of plants supplied with sugar often continued to 
live for some time after the shoots died. The substitution of asparagin for nitrates in the 
culture solutions caused practically no difference in growth. The authors explain the failure 
of albino plants to thrive when sugar is supplied as due to the inability of the plant to absorb 
sugar rapidly, and to the relatively slow rate of its conduction. — E. W. Sinnott. 

884. Kremers, R. E., and J. A. Hall. On the identification of citric acid in the tomato. 
Jour. Biol. Chem. 41 : 15-17. 1920. — The presence of citric acid in the tomato has been shown 
by means of its triphenacyl ester. — G. B. Rigg. 

885. Meinicke, E. Die Lipoidbindungsreaktion. [The lipoid-fixation reaction.] Zeit- 
schr. Immunitatsforsch. u. Exp. Therapie 27: 350-363. 1918; 28: 2S0-326. 1919.— Antibodies 
are probably globulins, or at least inseparable from them by any known method. In the reac- 
tion between serum and the extract, the colloids of the latter force the NaCl equivalent of 
the serum globulins from solution, probably by removing NaCl. This reaction is stronger 
in positive sera. An immunized organism reacts more quickly and more intensively follow- 
ing a recent addition of antigen than the control. The possibility of a specific, more intensive 
reaction resides not only in the cell but also in the serum itself. The intensity of the reaction 
seems due to the fact that the NaCl equivalent of the most labile substance in the system is 
forced out of solution by the most stable substance present. The various forms of immunity 
reactions are only the expression of the different reagents acting in various combinations in 
such a system, hence it is possible to combine various forms of reactions. In the so-called 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 123 

inactivation of sera the reaction possibilities of the serum globulins are changed in two ways: 
it is separated from the NaCl equivalent with more difficulty; and the salt removal acts on 
the protein molecule itself, as is seen in the closer binding of the salt on warming the sera. — 
C. W. Dodge. 

886. Morishima, Kanichiro. Phenol red-china blue as indicator in fermentation tests 
of bacterial cultures. Jour. Infect. Diseases 26: 43-44. 1920. — An indicator is proposed con- 
sisting of phenol red and decolorized china blue for fermentation tests of bacterial cultures. 
The production of acid causes first a bright green color changing to a deep blue, when too 
much acid is formed. The production of alkali is indicated by a pink color. — Selman A. 
Waksman. 

887. Posternak, M. S. Sur la constitution du principe phospho-organique de reserve 
des plantes vertes. [On the constitution of the phospho-organic principle in the reserve of green 
plants.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 169: 37^12. 1919. — An attempt is made to determine 
whether or not the phospho-organic reserve of plants is or is not a hexa-phosphate of inosite. 
The author plans experiments on the synthesis of this compound to determine whether or not 
3 molecules of water are held as water of crystallization or are an essential constituent of the 
molecule. — V. II. Young. 

888. Sherman, H. C. Protein requirement of maintenance in man and the nutritive 
efficiency of bread protein. Jour. Biol. Chem. 41: 97-109. 1920. — The proteins of wheat, 
corn, and oats appear to be about equally efficient in human nutrition, and need only be sup- 
plemented by small amounts of milk in order to be fully as efficient as the proteins of ordinary 
mixed diets. — G. B. Rigg. 

889. Steenbock, H., and P. W. Boutwell. Fat-soluble vitamine. III. The compara- 
tive value of white and yellow maizes. Jour. Biol. Chem. 41 : 81-96. pi. 2. 1920. — The occur- 
rence of yellow pigment and the growth-promoting property attributed to the presence of 
the fat-soluble vitamine seem to be intimately associated in the maize kernel. — G. B. Rigg. 

890. Willaman, J. J. The function of vitamines in the metabolism of Sclerotinia cinerea. 
Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 549-585. 1920. — The basal medium for these tests was Ctjrrie's 
mineral solution plus asparagin (as a source of nitrogen), plus sucrose. Growth was com- 
pleted in 10 days; sporulation began the third or fourth day. "The amount of vegetation is 
not proportional to the concentration of the juice, the fungus being unable to utilize the 
greater amounts of nutrients in the same degree that it does the lesser." "Reproduction is 
more abundant on the peach juice than on the others," i.e., prune juice and apricot juice. 
"The higher concentrations are not necessarily the optimum for reproduction." The fungus 
can make excellent growth on either asparagine or glycine, providing the growth-promoting 
material of the 2 cc. of prune juice is also present. It was also shown that diammonium 
hydrogen phosphate alone would not produce growth; that wort alone will support growth 
fairly well; and the two together make an excellent medium for growth. The vitamine prep- 
aration served to make the ammonia nitrogen more useful to the fungus. Vitamine B was 
obtained by means of Lloyd's alkaloidal reagent. It adsorbs the vitamine from an acid solu- 
tion and releases it in an alkaline one Pectin interferes with the adsorption of the vitamine. 
65 per cent alcohol, to which a few drops of 1 per cent H2SO4 was added, was used for the prep- 
aration of the vitamine. When pectin has been removed, the vitamine will pass through a 
colloidin sac. — The author presents evidence that two vitamines are concerned in the life 
cycle of Sclerotinia cinerea. One enables vegetative growth to take place and is more readily 
adsorbed by Fuller's earth on an alcohol medium; the other enables the fungus to sporulate 
w T ell and is more readily adsorbed in an aqueous medium. Evidence given shows that the 
shuffling of the nitrogen and sugar constituents of the medium will not of itself determine 
the occurrence or non-occurrence of reproduction in Sclerotinia. Both vitamines must be 
present if reproduction is to occur. Other evidence presented would indicate the presence 
of but one vitamine. — ./. M. Brennan. 



124 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

891. Willamak, J. J. Colorimeter and indicator method. [Rev. of: Duggar, B. M., 
and C. W. Dodge. The use of the colorimeter in the indicator method of H-ion determination 
with biological fluids. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 6: 61-70. 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 
1449.)] Bot. Gaz. 68:232. 1919. 

892. Zellner, Julius. Zur Chemie der hoheren Pilze. XIII. Uber Scleroderma vul- 
gare Fr. und Polysaccum crassipes DC. [Chemistry of the higher fungi.] Akad. Wiss. Wien 
(Monatshefte fur Chemie) 39: 603-615. 1918. — Following the general plan of his earlier studies 
the author reports the presence of mannit, cholin, and viscosin among the substances investi- 
gated in Scleroderma. In Polysaccum it is noteworthy that no mannit occurs. With this 
species special attention was devoted to a tannoid pigment. In neither fungus could the 
author demonstrate either invertase, maltase, or diastase. — B. M. Duggar. 

S93. Zoller, H. F. Quantitative estimation of indole in biological media. Jour. Biol. 
Chem. 41 : 25-36. 1920. — Indole is an important product of the metabolism of certain micro- 
organisms. A simple, rapid, reliable method for its determination has been evolved, requir- 
ing only the reagents and apparatus common to most laboratories. — G. B. Rigg. 

894. Zoller, H. F. Influence of hydrogen ion concentration upon the volatility of indole 
from aqueous solution. Jour. Biol. Chem. 41: 37-44. 1920. — The range of most rapid vola- 
tilization of indole from the aqueous solutions studied is from P H 8.0 to 10.5. Results suggest 
that the practice of steam distillation can be supplanted by direct distillation when the reac- 
tion of the solution is taken into account. — G. B. Rigg. 

METABOLISM (NITROGEN RELATIONS) 

S95. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Lakon, Georg. Der Eiweissgehalt panachierter Blatter, 
gepriift mittels des makroskopischen Verfahrens von Molisch. (The protein content of mottled 
leaves tested by the macroscopical method of Molisch.) Biochem. Zeitschr. 78: 145-154. 1917.] 
Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 251. 1918. — White-variegated leaves of many 
species of plants, especially, Acer ncgundo, furnish suitable material for the macroscopical 
demonstration of the protein reaction according to Molisch. The protein-rich green places 
in the leaves give a very strong color while the protein-poor albescent places are only slightly 
colored. Protein-rich and protein-poor places are directly related to the presence and absence 
of chromatophores, in the leaf. In the case of yellow 'panachierten,' chromatophores are 
found in the leaf tissues and so one finds them rich in protein. The investigation supports 
the views of Molisch in that the principal masses of proteins of the leaves occur in the chro- 
matophores. When submitted to the xanthoproteic reaction leaves which contain anthocya- 
nin first take on a red color when placed in nitric acid solution, because, in spite of the decolor- 
ization, they contain anthocyanin in the colorless isomeric form. — F. M. Schertz. 

896. Berman, N., and L. F. Rettger. Bacterial nutrition: further studies on the utili- 
zation of protein and non-protein nitrogen. Jour. Bact. 3 : 367-388. 1918. — The utilization of 
different brands of commercial peptones by proteolytic and non-proteolytic bacteria is prob- 
ably related to the simpler nitrogen-containing substances. The liquefaction of gelatin was 
not a necessary indication of the proteolytic property of an organism. The availability of 
casein for bacterial use is shown before and after digestion with trypsin. — W. H. Chambers. 

897. Bonazzi, Augusto. On nitrification. III. The isolation and description of the 
nitrite ferment. Bot. Gaz. 68: 194-207. pi. 14- 1919. — This paper presents the results of 
the study of an organism, capable of forming nitrates from ammonia, isolated in a pure state 
from Wooster [Ohio] soil after many unsuccessful attempts. A review is given of the per- 
tinent literature, and the methods are described by which the organism was isolated and its 
cultural characteristics determined. The cultural solution used throughout was the one rec- 
ommended by Omelianski, of the following composition: H2O, 1000 cc. ; FeSO*, 0.4 gram; 
MgSO«, 0.5 gram; K 2 HP0 4 , 1 gram; NaCl, 2 grams; and (NrL^SO*, 2 grams. Solid media 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 125 

used were gypsum block, magnesium carbonate block, magnesium carbonate and ammonium- 
magnesium-phosphate block, ammonium sulphate washed agar, and silicic acid jelly. The 
best results were obtained with Winogradsky's silicic acid jelly. Incubation of all cultures 
was made at 28 to 30°C. At this temperature cultures were obtained which nitrified as much 
as 8.04 mgm. of ammoniacal nitrogen in 26 days of incubation. The organism is not motile. 
Its thermal death point was found to lie between 50° and 55°C, when the vitality of the organ- 
ism, after heating 5.5 minutes at the required temperature, was tested at rest in Omeliansky's 
solution containing basic magnesium carbonate. The organism occurs in a large form ^=1.25 ft 
in diameter and in a small coccus form which the author names (3. He concludes that the meg- 
alococcus isolated by these methods is very similar to that described by Winogradsky from 
South American soils and should be classed as a species of the genus Nitrosococcus. — D. H. 
Rose. 

898. Brackett, R. N., and H. F. Haskins. Report on nitrogen. Jour. Assoc. Official 
Agric. Chem. 3: 207-217. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1003. 

899. Conn, H. J., and J. W. Bright. Ammonification of manure in soil. Jour. Agric. 
Res. 16: 313-350. 1919. — A foreword by Conn refers largely to previous studies of spore-form- 
ers and non-spore-formers. Under the title "What soil organisms take part in ammonifi- 
cation of manure?" Bright shows the predominance of Pseudomonas fluorescens and 
Pseudomonas caudatus in manured soil and gives the results of an investigation of their func- 
tion in Dunkirk silt clay loam. — Fresh horse or cow manure was added to the soil in the ratio 
of 1 : 20. In addition to plate counts direct microscopic examinations were made. Not only 
was the unsterilized material used but also the sterilized to which was added the pure cultures. 
The latter was used both separately and in combination. — In unsterilized soil which was 
kept in pots the data show a rapid increase in non-spore-formers. After 7 days they were 
never less than 92.5 per cent, while in certain cases they were as high as 97 per cent. The 
results from experiments conducted in flasks are not so striking, yet the same relation holds. 
Isolations showed only 2.8 per cent which form spores. — The growth of Ps. fluorescens and 
Ps. caudatus in sterilized manured soil compared with that of a spore-former, Bacillus cereus, 
shows that the spore-former had increased in 7 days only 8.3 times while the two former organ- 
isms had increased respectively 110 and 132 times over the original inoculation. When these 
three organisms were in association Ps. fluorescens and Ps. caudatus rapidly gained the ascen- 
dancy over B. cereus, the latter soon sporulating and remaining in this condition. — A test of 
the ammonia production and cell count in soil of the above three organisms in pure culture 
shows B. cereus to be the most powerful ammonifier. The two non-spore-forming organisms 
gave many times more cells per gram of manured soil. However, when the three organisms 
were grown in association there was no increase in total ammonia formed and in cell counts 
the two non-spore-formers had gained the ascendancy. B. cereus was not found although 2.3 
million per gram were present at the beginning.— The taxonomic study by Conn includes a 
description of Ps. fluorescens, Ps. aeruginosa, Bacterium termo and Ps. putida with a brief 
summary of characters of typical Ps. fluorescens and Ps. caudatus. — J. K. Wilson. 

900. Dakin, H. D. On amino acids. Biochem. Jour. 12: 290-317. 1918.— Some new 
methods are presented for the extraction of amino acids by partially miscible solvents. A 
new amino acid, hydroxyglutanic acid, and a new peptide from caseinogen, isoleucylvaline, 
have been isolated and studied. — W. H. Chambers. 

901. Frear, William, Walter Thomas, and H. D. Edmiston. Notes on the use of 
potassium permanganate in determining nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method. Jour. Assoc. Official 
Agric. Chem. 3 : 220-224. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1005. 

902. Hendrick, Ellwood. Micro-organisms in plant chemistry and nitrogen fixation. 
An account of the development and application of micro-organisms useful to plant growth — fix- 
ation of nitrogen in the soil. Chem. and Mettallurg. Eng. 19: 574-576. 6 fig. 1918.— This is 



126 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

a popular account of the utilization of a muck swamp, and among the products described is 
that designated "inoculant" — a material in which 28 strains of legume bacteria and 5 strains 
of Azotobacter are grown. — G. M. Armstrong. 

903. Hirsch, Paul. Die Einwirkung von Mikroorganismen auf die Eiweisskorper. [The 
action of micro-organisms on proteins.] IX+255 p., 7 fig. Die Biochemie in Einzeldarstel- 
lungen IV [Edited by A. Kanitz]. Gebriider Borntraeger: Berlin, 1918. — This number in 
the above biochemical series is essentially an amino acid reference book and follows naturally 
No. Ill, by M. Siegfried, on partial protein hydrolysis ("Uber partielle Eiweisshydrolyze"). 
This monograph takes up the secondary cleavages of the proteins, the decomposition of the 
amino acids. The first part discusses the chemistry of the amino acids and of their proteol- 
ysis by bacteria and fungi, with one section on ergot. Part 2 gives chemical and biological 
methods for isolating and determining the amino acid cleavage products. Part 3 gives the 
physical and chemical properties of the products and their derivatives, and part 4, the syn- 
thesis of some of them. — W. H. Chambers. 

904. Holm, George E. A modification of the apparatus for the determination of arginine 
nitrogen by Van Slyke's method. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 611-612. 1920. 

905. Levene, P. A. The structure of yeast nucleic acid. V. Ammonia hydrolysis. 
Jour. Biol. Chem. 41 : 19-23. 1920. — On mild hydrolysis with 5-per cent ammonia at a tempera- 
ture of 100°C. yeast nucleic acid is broken up into four nucleotides. Three have already been 
reported. A fourth, crystalline cytidinphosphoric acid, has now been isolated. — G. B. Rigg. 

906. Long, Esmond R. A study in fundamentals of the nutrition of the tubercle bacillus : 
the utilization of some amino acids and ammonium salts. Amer. Rev. of Tuberculosis 3 : 86- 
108. 2 fig. 1919. — The experiments performed are concerned primarily with the growth of 
human tubercle bacilli on media of known chemical composition. The hydrolysis of prote- 
oses and peptones, as also the deaminization of some of the constituent amino acids, is 
reported. Good growth was afforded by glycerol media with urethane, glycocoll, and alanine 
as sources of nitrogen; likewise ammonia, methyl amine, and ethyl amine, as also the acid 
amids, were utilized. Ammonium salts of the dibasic acids oxalic, malonic, succinic, malic, 
and tartaric afforded excellent growth, but the ammonium salts of fatty, ketonic, and hy- 
droxy acids did not permit growth. Between P H 6.4 and P H 7.8 the reaction of a glycerol 
peptone culture medium is unimportant in the growth of this organism. Regarding the course 
of catabolism, it is suggested that "the amino acids (that is, those studied — glycocoll and 
alanine) break up into ammonia and alcohols, perhaps with amines as intermediate stages, 
that hydroxy malonic acid (tartaric acid) is formed in the medium through the oxidation of 
glycerol, and that ammonium malonate and malonic ester, or closely allied compounds, are 
of great importance in the synthesis of the bacillus's organic substance." — B. M. Duggar. 

907. Phelps, I. K., and H. W. Datjdt. Investigations of the Kjeldahl method for the 
determination of nitrogen. Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 218-220. 1919. — See Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 1006. 

908. Trowbridge, P. F. Symposium on the determination of nitrogen in fertilizers. 
Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 217-218. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1007. 

METABOLISM (ENZYMES, FERMENTATION) 

909. Anonymous. Glycerin manufacture by the fermentation of sugar. Sci. Amer. Sup- 
plem. 88: 315. 1919. — [From Engineering, Sept. 5, 1919.] — A method employing yeasts. — 
Chas. H. Otis. 

910. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Biedermann, W. Fermentstudien. 1. Mitteilung. Das 
Speichelferment. (Salivary ferments.) Fermentforschung 1 : 385-436. 1916.] Biedermann 's 
Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 279-280. 1918. — The reviewer credits the author with finding 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 127 

that the time required for 1 he hydrolysis of starch to dextrine under the action of salivary 
ferments is conversely proportional to the quantity of ferment. Saccharification is in no way 
parallel to dextrin formation but remains behind if the quantity of ferment is decreased. It 
is believed that the diastase enzyme consists of two components; an amylase which splits 
the starch molecule to dextrine, and a dextrinasc which can attack only the dextrin group. — 
F. M. Schertz. 

911. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Bijsdermann, W. Fermentstudien. II. Mitteilung. Die 
Autolyse der Starke. (The autolysis of starch.) Wochenschr. Braucrci 34: 1S3-1S0. 1917.] 
Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 280-2X1. 1918. — The reviewer indicates that 
previous work of Biedermann shows the rapid hydrolysis of boiled starch solution by saliva 
ash, which effect is due to a ferment liberated from the starch. It is now shown, according 
to the reviewer, that a similar hydrolysis occurs without adding any ash, if the starch solution 
is made at 70-90°C Boiled solutions are hydrolyzed after a longer period, while extracts 
prepared by grinding starch in water hydrolyze rapidly. The diastatic power of the latter 
extract is similar to that of a very dilute solution of saliva, and completely transforms starch 
into sugar. Of the salivary salts calcium chloride promotes maximum diastatic action. 
The action of salivary ash in promoting the decomposition of starch solutions which have 
been subjected to boiling suggests that this mixture of salts promotes the formation of amylase 
from starch. — F. M. Schertz. 

912. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Jacoby, Martin. Uber Fermentbildung. (Formation of 
enzymes.) Biochem. Zeitschr. 79: 35-50. 1917.] Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 
47: 281-282. 1918. — -Traces of grape sugar were found to greatly increase the activity of en- 
zymes on urea. Search was then made to see what building stones the enzymes used. Ac- 
cording to the reviewer there were then tested a number of materials in relation to their action 
on the decomposition of urea. The formation of urease was greatly stimulated by d-glucose, 
d-galactose, glycerol, dl-glyceric aldehyde, dihydroxy acetone, pyroracemic acid, and lactic 
acid. A stimulatory action of less intensity was shown by d-fructose, d- and 1-arabinose. 
Maltose, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol produced little action, while d-mannose, 
d-sorbose, rhamnose, heptose, the polysaccharides, glucosides, and sugar alcohols had no 
action.— F. M. Schertz. 

913. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Lombbroso, Ugo. Uber die Reversibilitat der Enzym- 
wirkungen. 1. Mitteilung. Spaltung und Synthesis der Fette durch eine Lipase. (Cleavage 
and synthesis of fats by the action of one and the same lipase.) Arch. Pharmacol. Sperim. 14: 
429-459. 1912.] Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 287. 1918.— According to the 
reviewer it is shown that fat hydrolysis begins immediately at 37°C. and can proceed to SO 
per cent of completion. Synthesis does not begin till after 30-40 hours and then does not 
proceed to a very great extent. The presence of bile neither increases nor retards the syn- 
thesis of fat but increases the hydrolysis. Warming at 40°C. for several hours destroys the 
lipolytic properties but the synthetic activities are not affected. The presence of glycerin 
lessens the harmful action of heat while oleic acid has no influence. The synthetic power of 
pancreatic juice is not increased if either glycerin or oleic acid remains in contact with it for 
a long time. Pancreatic juice which possesses synthetic properties has only small lipolytic 
capacities. Addition of fat slows down the synthetic activities but does not inhibit them. 
No synthesis could be demonstrated with the secretion of the small intestine in spite of a 
well developed lipolytic property. — F. M. Schertz. 

914. Anonymous. [Rev. of: Schweizer, Karl. Zur Kenntnis der Desaminierung. 
(Deamination.) Biochem. Zeitschr. 78: 37-45. 1917.] Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agri- 
kulturchem. 47: 282. 1918. — The setting free of ammonia (deamination) in the final stages 
of protein decomposition has been ascribed to the action of deaminases which, however, have 
not been isolated. A hydrolytic action was ascribed to the deaminase. Chodat and Schweizer 
in 1913 showed that tyrosinase possessed deaminizing properties and that deamination may 



128 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

be due to the oxidizing function of this enzyme. The author isolated tyrosinase from the 
potato and studied its action upon the amino acids. He detected formaldehyde, ammonia, 
and small quantities of carbon dioxide as decomposition products. He found that the pres- 
ence of chlorophyll favored the action of tyrosinase. No deamination occurred when the 
oxygen was displaced by hydrogen or carbon dioxide. The author shows that the oxidizing 
ferment tyrosinase has the ascribed properties of the deaminase and so makes the existence 
of a deaminate doubtful. — F. M. Schertz. 

915. Barton, Arthur Willis. The lipolytic activity of the castor and soy bean. Jour. 
Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 620-632. 1920. — The author finds that the lipase from the castor bean 
splits the esters of fatty acids to a greater degree than does the soy bean lipase. Both seeds 
contain the same lipases. When lard or olive oil is used as substrate, ether and alcohol must 
be added before titration. Lipases from both sources act in the same ranges of acidity. — 
J. M. Brannon. 

916. Carnot, P., and P. Gerard. Mecanisme de Faction toxique de l'urease. [Mechan- 
ism of the toxic action of urease.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 169: 88-90. 1919. — There 
are reported experiments in vitro and in vivo using the urease of soy beans, and an explanation 
is given of the toxic action of soy beans on the basis of the action of the urease contained in 
them. — V. H. Young. 

917. Colin, H., and A. Chaudun. Sur la loi d'action de la sucrase. Influence de la 
viscosite sur la vitesse d'hydrolyse. [On the law of action of sucrase: influence of viscosity 
on the rate of hydrolysis.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168 : 1274-1276. 1919. — If saccharose 
is in excess with relation to the enzyme sucrase, the rate of hydrolysis is proportional to the 
viscosity of the solution. — V. H. Young. 

918. H£rissey, M. H. Sur la conservation du ferment oxydant des champignons. [The 
preservation of the oxidizing ferment (oxydase) of fungi.] Jour, de Pharm. et Chim. 20: 241- 
245. 1919. — The oxydases of fungi, especially of Russula delica, can easily be preserved in 
macerations with glycerin (1 part of the sliced fungus and 2 parts of glycerin). They may also 
be obtained by adding ether to the sliced fungus, allowing the mixture to stand for some time 
and then drawing off the lower aqueous liquid and keeping this together with an equal volume 
of ether, water, or glycerin in sealed tubes. The oxydases thus remain intact for more than 
20 years and form a very important reagent for biologic tests. — H. Engelhardt. 

919. Jacoby, M. Uber den vermeintlichen Abbau der Starke durch Formaldehyde. 
[The supposed decomposition of starch by formaldehyde.] Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges. 52B: 558- 
562. 1919.- — Formaldehyde action on starch has no relation to diastatic action; that is, 
formaldehyde is not a "diastase-model." The author disagrees with Woker and agrees with 
von Kauffman and Sallinger on this point. — G. M. Armstrong. 

920. Kopeloff, Nicholas, and S. By all. Invertase activity of mold spores as affected 
by concentration and amount of inoculum. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 537-542. 1920. — Spores of 
Aspergillus Sydowi, A. niger, and Penicillium expansum exhibit invertase activity in sugar 
solutions of concentrations varying from 10 to 70 per cent. Maximum activity occurs in 
concentrations between 50 and 60 per cent. An increase in the number of spores results in 
an increased invertase activity in a saturated sugar solution. About 5000 spores of A. Sydowi 
per cubic centimeter of saturated sugar solution cause inversion; but from 50,000 to 110,000 
spores per cc. of the other two organisms are required. — D. Reddick. 

921. McHargtje, J. S. The significance of the peroxidase reaction with reference to the 
viability of seeds. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 612-615. 1920.— The author thinks that the 
peroxidase reaction can be made use of in seed-testing laboratories for detecting non-viable 
seeds and for distinguishing between seed of high, medium, and low viability. Lettuce, 
alfalfa, and soy-bean seeds contain both oxidases and peroxidases. The peroxidase can be 
used to determine the rate at which seeds lose their viability. — J. M. Brannon. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 129 

922. Myers, R. C, and L. C. Scott. Salivary amylase. I. A preliminary experimental 
study of its stability in saliva. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 40: 1713 ITKi. 1918. Salivary amyl- 
ase, sterilized by being passed through a Berkefeld filter, is relatively stable for one year with 
or without such preservatives as toluene, thymol, and chloroform; nevertheless, the preserva- 
tives mentioned are in a measure destructive, and in the order mentioned, beginning with 
the least destructive. — The causes which lower the stability of salivary amylase are not solely 
organisms and preservatives. The inherent chemical weakness of the enzyme molecule must 
be taken into account. Temperatures from 18 to 30°, light, and certain compounds in the 
saliva increase this weakness. — C. R. Hursh. 

923. Northrup, John H. Combination of enzyme and substrate. I. A method for the 
quantitative determination of pepsin. II. The effect of the hydrogen ion concentration. Jour. 
Gen. Physiol. 2: 113-123. Jig. 1-3. 1919. — The method described for the determination of 
pepsin depends on the change in conductivity of a digesting egg albumin solution. The author 
finds that the amount of pepsin removed from the solution by the substrate does not depend 
on the size of the particles of the substrate. The optimum H-ion concentration for the com- 
bination of enzyme and substrate corresponds to the optimum for digestion. The author 
suggests that the enzyme combines with the ionized protein. — J. M. Brannon. 

924. Sabatier, Paul. Ferments and catalyzers. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88:274-275, 278- 
279. 1919. [Translated from La Revue Scientifique (Paris).] 

925. Sallinger, Hermann. Uber die angeblichen diastatischen Eigenschaften des 
Formaldehyds. [The alleged diastatic properties of formaldehyde.] Ber. Deutsch. Chem. Ges. 
52B: 651-656. 1919. —The author thinks he has added proof to the view that starch is indif- 
ferent to the action of formaldehyde as an "enzyme."— G. M. Armstrong. 

926. Shull, C. A. Physiology of dormancy. [Rev. of: (1) Crocker, William, and 
G. T. Harrington. Catalase and oxidase content of seeds in relation to their dormancy, age, 
vitality, and respiration. Jour. Agric. Res. 15: 137-174. 3 fig. 1918 (See Bot. Absts. 2, Entry 
173); (2) Harrington, G. T., and William Crocker. Resistance of seeds to desiccation. 
Jour. Agric. Res. 14: 525-532. 1918 (See Bot Absts. 1, Entry 1394).] Bot. Gaz. 68: 308-310. 
1919. — A review of the data in these papers is introduced by the statement that this study 
"materially increases our knowledge of the physiology of dormancy and germination of seeds, 
throws much light on the problems of vitality and respiration, and is a general contribution 
of much significance to seed physiology. — H. C. Conies. 

927. Waksman, Selman A. A method of testing the amylolytic action of the diastase of 
Aspergillus oryzae. Jour. Amer. Chem. Soc. 42: 293-299. 1920. — The method used for ob- 
taining pure starch was that developed by Sherman and associates. The author made a 2 per 
cent starch paste. This was divided into 10 cc. portions and brought to a temperature of 
40°C. The proper amount of enzyme was added after this temperature had been reached. 
When the starch had all been hydrolyzed, the solution lost its opaque color and became clear. 
In order to increase the accuracy of determining when hydrolysis was complete the dry starch 
was allowed to absorb a 0.5 per cent solution of neutral red. This evidently aided in determin- 
ing when the solution passed from a colloidal to a clear state. The diastase from Aspergillus 
oryzae produces a good deal of glucose. It differs from malt and pancreatic diastase, as these 
produce chiefly maltose and but little glucose. The author finds that the Lintner method for 
measuring saccharogenic action of different enzymes upon starch should not be used for com- 
parative studies of different enzymes, since the end-products arc not the same in the case of 
the different enzymes. — J. M. Brannon. 

928. Wood, Joseph T. Note on trypsin and a new method of purifying enzymes. Jour. 
Soc. Chem. Ind. 37: 313T-315T. 1918. — The author prepared a very pure enzyme solution 
by soaking Swedish filter paper in the impure trypsin solution, then drying quickly in a cur- 
rent of hot air. When such paper is soaked in water for 15 to 20 minutes, the enzyme is dis- 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



130 PHYSIOLOGY IBot. Absts., Vol. V, 

solved, but proteins are left behind. The pure solution gives no precipitate with safranin, 
contrary to the usual result with impure preparations. A polariscopic examination of the 
relatively pure solution shows no rotation. The solution thus obtained is 2\ times as strong 
as Griibler's trypsin. There is removed by the purification method mentioned about 35 per 
cent of extraneous matter. — G. M. Armstrong. 

METABOLISM (RESPIRATION) 

929. Bertrand, Gabriel. Sur le mecanisme de la conservation des fruits dans l'eau 
froide. [The mechanism of the preservation of fruits in cold water.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
Paris 168: 1285-1288. 1919.— The author has previously described (Compt. Rend. 168: 1162) 
a method for preserving fruits for comparatively long periods in cold water. Later studies 
show that a considerable pressure is generated in sealed flasks containing fruit. It has been 
shown by Regnard that pressure may result in the death of minute animal forms. However, 
it has been shown that yeasts, etc., resisted greater pressures than were generated in the 
experiments performed. Cherries were preserved for eleven months under conditions where 
no pressure developed. It was found that the fruits absorb water and that salts, acids, sugars, 
and enzymes diffuse outward. Acidity incompatible with the growth of most bacteria was 
developed and numerous enzymatic changes resulted in the softening and transformation of 
the fruit. The author considers the most important factor in preservation is the exclusion 
of oxygen and the maintenance of a rigorous anaerobic condition such that even yeasts are 
unable to develop. Tests with guaiacum revealed an action similar to that of laccase. From 
the observations made, the author concludes that the chances of preserving fruit by this 
method depend 1 . 1st, on the number and vitality of the organisms brought with the fruit; 
and 2nd, on the development of acidity and the initiation of biochemical processes resulting 
in the disappearance of O2. Cut fruits were found to have poor keeping qualities due to their 
inability to resist the entrance of organisms. — V. H. Young. 

930. Brooks, Matilda M. Comparative studies on respiration. 8. The respiration of 
Bacillus subtilis in relation to antagonism. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2 : 5-15. 1919. — Suspensions of 
Bacillus subtilis in 0.75 per cent dextrose were subjected to various salt solutions and the rate 
of respiration, as indicated by the evolution of CO2, was determined. NaCl and KC1, at 
concentrations of 0.15 M and 0.2 M respectively, increase the rate of respiration. At higher 
concentrations the rate is decreased, CaCl 2 increases the rate of respiration at a concentration 
of 0.05 M and decreases the rate at somewhat higher concentrations. A marked antagonism 
was observed between NaCl and CaCl 2 and between KC1 and CaCl 2 in their effects on respi- 
ration. Antagonism between NaCl and KC1 is slight and the antagonism curve shows two 
maxima. — Otis F. Curtis. 

931. Gustafson, F. G. Comparative studies on respiration. 9. The effects of antago- 
nistic salts on the respiration of Aspergillus niger. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2: 17-24. 1919. — Low 
concentrations of NaCl (0.125, 0.25, 0.5) and CaCl 2 (0.5 M) caused an increase in respiration 
of Aspergillus niger in the presence of 0.05 per cent dextrose as measured by the evolution 
of C0 2 . Stronger concentrations of these salts (2 M NaCl and 1.25 M CaCl 2 ) decreased the 
respiration, probably through their osmotic effect in decreasing the water content of the 
mycelium. A mixture of 19 cc. of NaCl and 1 cc. of CaCl 2 (both 0.5 M) showed an antagonism, 
in that the respiration was normal, whereas each salt alone caused an increase. The effect 
of a substance on growth may differ from its effect on respiration, for, in the presence of 0.05 
per cent dextrose, 0.5 M NaCl inhibited spore germination of Aspergillus niger, while 0.5 M 
CaCl 2 and various mixtures of the two salts did not inhibit spore germination.— Otis F. Curtis. 

932. Osterhout, W. J. V. Comparative studies on respiration. 7. Respiration and 
antagonism. Introductory note. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2: 1-3. 1919.— The author briefly re- 
views the literature dealing with the effect of antagonistic salts on respiration and states that 
he has found pronounced antagonism between NaCl and CaCl 2 in their effects on this process. 
— Otis F. Curtis. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 131 

ORGANISM AS A WHOLE 

933. Child, C. M. A study of susceptibility in some Puget Sound algae. Publ. Puget 
Sound Biol. Sta. 2: 249-267. 1919. — About 19 algae were used in the experimental work. 
These were tested from the standpoint of axial susceptibility, in respect to a few toxic agents. 
In all these the most actively growing regions were the most susceptibile to the poisons used. 
While differences in the permeability of the outer portions of cells may account for differences 
in susceptibility to certain poisons, they cannot account for all, since neutral red and certain 
other vital dyes probably kill from within the cell. — In Ptilota pectinata the differences in 
susceptibility of the different apical regions and axes enable one to picture the relative 
physiological conditions in the different parts, and make it possible to interpret to some 
extent the growth form in physiological terms. Apparently the inhibiting influence of a more 
actively growing tip is effective through a greater distance in the plant, than that of a less 
active tip. This is shown by the presence of alternate branching in the more active tips, and 
opposite branching in the less active ones. Thus activity and branch arrangement are corre- 
lated. — Experiments with a species of filamentous diatom, whose filaments are composed of 
bundle of gelatinous tubes in which are growing a Navicula type of diatom, show that this a 
pseudothallus is also most susceptible at the tips. Therefore either physiological correlation 
must exist between the tips and the other parts as in ordinary plants; or else growth and divi- 
sion are gradually inhibited by the gelatinous envelope, so that the individual diatoms at 
the tips of the pseudothallus are most active because they are in the most favorable situations. 
The pseudothallus reacts like a plant rather than like a colony. — T. C. Frye. 

934. Gail, Floyd W. Hydrogen ion concentration and other factors affecting the distri- 
bution of Fucus. Publ. Puget Sound Biol. Sta. 2 : 287-306. 1919. — The hydrogen ion concen- 
tration of the sea water is an important factor in distribution. The most favorable P H is 
8.0-8.2. At P H 8.8 all growth ceases except the germination of oospores. Likewise in sea- 
water of P H 6.6 (and lower exponents) growth is insignificant or wanting, except in young 
plants, especially in temperatures above 17°C. Temperature is therefore another determin- 
ing factor. Of the ranges tried, the lowest, 10.5° to 13°C. was the most favorable. When 
the temperature was permitted to rise to 30°C. for a part of the time, the growth was almost 
or wholly stopped. In the presence of much Ulva the P H of the surrounding water is raised 
too high for Fucus. In tide pools the extremes of both temperature and P H are too great. 
Both desiccation and light are also important factors. — T. C. Frye. 

935. Garner, W. W., and H. A. Allard. Effect of the relative length of day and night 
and other factors of the environment on growth and reproduction in plants. Jour. Agric. Res. 
18:553-605. PL 64-79. 35 fig. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 22. 

936. Harris, J. E. G. Contributions to the biochemistry of pathogenic anaerobes. VIII. 
The biochemical comparison of micro-organisms by quantitative methods. Jour. Path, and 
Bact. 23: 30-49. Fig. 1-2. 1919. — A comparison was made from strictly quantitative data, 
(1) of the proteolytic and sugar-splitting properties of two anaerobes, Bacillus sporogenes 
and the Reading bacillus, and (2) the oxygen concentrations which permit or inhibit growth 
of these organisms. The two organisms are morphologically, and in cultural reactions, closely 
related. — Experimental methods are described for carrying out a comparison of the reactions of 
these organisms. Details are given of the apparatus used for fermentation experiments and 
of the methods for obtaining values for gas production, ammonia and amino-acid formation, 
production of volatile acids, and changes in hydrogen ion concentration and sugar content. — 
A simple method is described for determining the degree of oxygen toleration of organisms 
for routine purposes. It is suggested that results should be expressed in the form of the "aero- 
bic index," which is defined. — The results are given in terms of fermentations of 5 different 
media and of determinations of the aerobic indices both of spores and young organisms on 
liquid and solid media. — From the results it is concluded that these two organisms are of the 
same race, but show small differences possibly acquired, In their biochemical behaviour 



132 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

towards the five media used they are remarkably similar, but they show a somewhat striking 
difference in their powers of growing in the presence of oxygen. — The use of methods, such as 
those described, for investigations of the biochemical properties of bacteria in general is 
discussed, and a means is suggested for using these methods with aerobic organisms. — W. W. 
Bonus. 

937. Hawkins, Lon A., and Rodney B. Haevey. Physiological study of the parasitism 
of Pythium debaryanum Hesse on the potato tuber. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 275-297. PL 85-S7. 
1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1298. 

938. Rosenheim, O. Biochemical changes due to environment. Biochem. Jour. 12: 
283-289. 1918. — Only one-fourth the amount of chromogenic substance, probably flavone, 
was produced in the inflorescence of "Edelweiss" in London as in the native Alps. The differ- 
ence is attributed to biochemical adaptation, possibly placing the flavones in a protective role 
against ultraviolet light. — W. H. Chambers. 

939. Tevis, May. Symbiotes or benevolent microbes and vitamines. Sci. Amer. Sup- 
plem. 88: 282-283. 1919. — This paper is in the main a review of the theories and experiments 
of M. Paul Portier. According to these views, there are no simple organisms except bacteria, 
all higher organisms being in reality twofold — the organism itself and the microorganisms 
distributed throughout its tissues. The mitochondria, a definite number of which exist in 
each cell, are believed to be symbiotes, that is, polymorphic forms of bacteria. The cell 
apparently limits the number of symbiotes. — It is held that certain wasting diseases, such as 
scurvy, beri-beri, etc., are not due to the lack of vitamines, but are caused rather by a defici- 
ency of symbiotes. — Chas. H. Otis. 

GROWTH, DEVELOPMENT, REPRODUCTION 

940. Anonymous. Vertikales Wachstum der Baume. [Rev. of: Cambage, R. H. The 
vertical growth of trees. Jour, and Proc. Roy. Soc. New South Wales 52 : 377-384. 1919. See 
Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 943.)] Naturwissenschaften 7: 354. 1919. 

941. Buchanan, R. E. Life phases in a bacterial culture. Jour. Infect. Diseases 23: 
109-125. 1918. — The growth of a culture of bacteria from initiation until death is divided 
into 7 phases, and mathematical formulae are presented to express the relation of the growth 
curve to time for each phase. — W. H. Chambers. 

942. Budington, R. A. Influence of certain ductless gland substances on the growth of 
plant tissues. Biol. Bull. [Woods Hole] 37: 188-193. Fig. 1. 1919.— The growth of root-tips 
of Allium is retarded by the presence in their fluid nutrient environment of thyroid gland 
material, retradation being approximately proportional to the amount of thyroid substance 
present. The growth of the early leaves is not modified. Iodine, used as KI, in amounts 
equivalent to that in thyroid substances provoking marked modifications of growth, had no 
appreciable effect on growing root-tips. Pituitary substances up to two grains of the desic- 
cated gland, and supra-renal substances up to one grain of the desiccated gland, in 120 cc. of 
nutritive solution had no effect on the growing root-tips. The experiments, which were lim- 
ited to a single form, indicate that thyroid constituents may influence the role of protoplasmic 
action in cells other than those of animal tissues. — J. E. Weaver. 

943. Cambage, R. H. The vertical growth of trees. Jour, and Proc. Roy. Soc. New 
South Wales 52: 377-384. 1919. — Vertical growth in the trees studied is practically limited to 
the terminal shoot, and it is very probable that when once definite branches are developed 
the portion of the axis below these increases in diameter but not in length. — B. M. Duggar. 

944. Hibbard, R. P. The condition of fruitfulness. [Rev. of: Kraus, E. J., and H. R. 
Kraybill. Vegetation and reproduction with special reference to the tomato. Oregon Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 149. 90 p., 22 fig. 1918.] Plant World 22: 23-24. 1919. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 133 

945. Stalfelt, M. G. Uber die Schwankungen in der Zellteilungsfrequens bei den 
Wurzeln von Pisum sativum. [Variations in the frequency of cell division in the roots of Pisum 
sativum.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm] 13: 61-70. 1919. — In experiments on the action 
of weak electric currents on roots of Pisum sativum the author observed a periodicity in cell 
divisions. The number of dividing cells was counted in 10 sections from each root. Since 
nuclear division is sensitive to external conditions these experiments were carried out in dark- 
ness at a constant temperature. The frequency of cell division in each root is periodic. The 
intensity of division shows distinct maxima and minima. The rhythm is independent of daily 
periodicity and therefore not synchronous in different roots. Periods of active division are 
succeeded by rest periods. The duration time of the phases of cell division is estimated in 
percentages of the total time required for division as follows: prophase, 32.78 per cent, meta- 
phase, 36.96 per cent, anaphase 19.39 per cent, telophase, 10.95 per cent. — Pea roots of the 
same age and length were placed in a spiral of fine silver wire which carried 3 milliamperes at 
low potential. Roots were left in spirals 1 to 10 hours and examined for frequency of cell 
division. Roots so treated showed the maximum number of dividing cells. The maximum 
rate of division continues for several hours after stimulation. The author believes that the 
passage of the current acts as a stimulus which breaks the autonomous period of cell division. 
— R. B. Harvey. 

946. Stout, A. B. Intersexes in Plantago lanceolata. Bot. Gaz. 68: 109-133. 2 pi. 
1919— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1517. 

MOVEMENTS OF GROWTH AND TURGOR CHANGES 

947. Cocks, E. Making a plant tie itself into a knot. Sci. Amer. 121:579. 1 fig. 1919. 
— A geotropic response. — Chas. H. Otis. 

GERMINATION, RENEWAL OF ACTIVITY 

948. Andronescu, Demetrius Ion. Germination and further development of the embryo 
of Zea Mays separated from the endosperm. Amer. Jour. Bot. 6: 443^52. 1 pi. 1919. — 
Embryos of corn (with their scutella) were separated from their endosperms and germinated 
in water and in various culture media, of which 1 and 2 per cent sucrose solutions produced 
the best results. The young plants thus obtained were considerably smaller than those pro- 
duced by whole kernels, but were otherwise identical with them. When the scutellum as 
well as the endosperm was removed, growth was very much reduced and the seedlings were 
unable to develop far.— Seedlings grown from embryos only and those grown from whole 
kernels were transplanted into soil and the plants obtained were essentially similar, except 
that the former were somewhat smaller than the latter. The author concludes that in germi- 
nation and development the presence of endosperm is not essential, but is beneficial. — E. W. 
Sinnott. 

949. Anthony, Stephen, and Harry V. Harlan. Germination of barley pollen. Jour. 
Agric. Res. 18: 525-536. PI. 60-61. 1920.— The pollen of barley (Hordeum) germinates readily 
within a period of 5 minutes when proper moisture and temperature conditions are afforded. 
The moisture relation is extremely critical. In the experiments, moisture was supplied from 
a fragment of green leaf tissue placed in a dry mount of pollen in a Van Tieghem cell. Slight 
drying of pollen causes collapse of the cell wall and free moisture causes rapid swelling and 
bursting. — In field experiments the receptivity of the stigma was found to extend over several 
days. Pollen used in 8 successive stages of development (from immature to that obtained 2 
days after dehiscence of the anther) gave satisfactory percentages of fertilization only when 
taken from anthers that were dehiscing or had only very recently opened. — No satisfactory 
means was found of storing barley pollen. A "study of the conditions governing fertilization 
in nature shows that conditions unfavorable to fertilizations are also unfavorable to progress 
in the development of pollen and vice versa. In this way natural fertilization is secured." — ■ 
D. Reddick. 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 1 



134 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

950. Kondo, M. Ueber Nachreife und Keimung verschieden reifer Reiskorner (Oryza 
sativa). [After-ripening and germination of rice seeds in various stages of maturity.] Ber. 
Ohara Inst. Landwirtsch. Forsch. 1 : 361-387. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2805; 5, Entry 
36. 

951. Russell, E. J. Report on the proposed electrolytic treatment of seeds (Wolfryn 
process) before sowing. Jour. Ministry Agric. Great Britain 26: 971-981. 1920. — See Bot. 
Absts. 5, Entry 59. 

952. SkArman, J. A. O. Ett bidrag till fragan om temperaturens betydelse for fronas 
groning hos Geranium bohemicum L. [A report on the question of the importance of tempera- 
ture for the growth of seed of Geranium bohemicum.] Svensk. Bot. Tidskr. [Stockholm) 13: 
93-97. 1919. — The author has observed that seeds of Geranium bohemicum are capable of 
withstanding very high temperatures and of remaining viable for many years. They also 
seem to require special conditions including exposure to considerable heat to bring about 
germination, as shown by their occurrence only on burned over land. — W. W. Gilbert. 

953. Stormer. Keimungshemmungen bei blauen Lupinen. [A case of arrested germina- 
tion in blue lupines.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 12. 1919. — See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 63. 

RADIANT ENERGY RELATIONS 

954. Daniel, Lucien. Recherches sur le developpement compare de la laitue au soleil 
et a l'ombre. [Development of lettuce in sun and shade.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 
168: 694-696. 1919. — The author reports the effect of shade on the development of lettuce 
plants and discusses in a general way the relation of illumination to the duration of species, 
giantism, and dimorphism. — F. B. Wann. 

955. Schanz, F. Effect of light on living organism. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 179. 1919. 
[Translated from Meteorolog. Zeitschr. (Braunschweig).] 

956. Tsuji, T. The action of ultra-violet rays on sugar-cane, pineapple and banana in 
Hawaii. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 87: 327. 1919. [From Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manu- 
facturer.] — Investigations on the connection between the action of ultra-violet rays and the 
formation of carbohydrates, acids, and other compounds. — Chas. H. Otis. 

TEMPERATURE RELATIONS 

957. Edson, H. A., and M. Shapovalov. Temperature relations of certain potato-rot 
and wilt-producing fungi. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 511-524. 9 fig. 1920. — See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 740. 

958. Potter, George F. An apparatus for automatically changing the temperature of a 
chamber. Amer. Jour. Bot. 7: 39-43. 3 pi. 1920. — In order to obtain a uniform and known 
rate of temperature fall for experiments dealing with the injury of plant tissues by low tem- 
peratures, the author has devised a cooling chamber in which the rate of temperature change 
is automatically controlled by clockwork. This apparatus is described in detail. — E. W. 
Sinnott. 

959. Siireve, Edith Bellamy. A thermo-electrical method for the determination of 
leaf temperature. Plant World 22 : 100-104. 2 fig. 1919. — A method of determining leaf tem- 
peratures without wounding the tissues is described. The apparatus consists of a pair of 
thermocouples and a portable galvanometer sensitive to 0.1°C., with damping key, arranged 
compactly on a board supported on a camera tripod. A reading can be made in a fraction of 
a second. — Charles A. Shull. 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 135 

TOXIC AGENTS 

960. Kidd, Franklin. Laboratory experiments on the sprouting of potatoes in various 
gas mixtures. (Nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide.) New Phytol. 18: 248-252. 1919. — The 
following conclusions are reached: "1. Oxygen is harmful to the potato tuber in concentra- 
tions above 5-10 per cent. Oxygen 80 per cent kills in 4 to 5 weeks. Oxygen 5-10 per cent is 
the optimal concentration for sprouting. 2. The harmful action of oxygen is increased in 
the presence of carbon dioxide. 3. Carbon dioxide inhibits sprouting in a concentration of 
20 per cent. This concentration is at the same time to some extent harmful. 4. Higher 
concentrations of carbon dioxide cause marked injury and death." — I. F. Lewis. 

961. Kryz, Ferdinand. Ueber den Einfluss von Ultramarin auf Pflanzen. [On the 
effect of ultramarine on plants.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenkrankh. 29: 161-166. 1919. — Referring to 
his earlier experiments with soils containing graphite, the author recapitulates his results 
as follows. Seeds planted in soil containing a considerable amount of graphite are retarded 
in germination. Plant growth was retarded and arrested, while transpiration in sunflowers 
grown in graphite was increased. Since graphite is a chemically indifferent substance, the 
author raises the question as to whether the action of other indifferent substances would be 
similar in effect. He chooses ultramarine, describing it as a substance nearly indifferent 
chemically; stable in air, light, and alkalies; insoluble in water; and only slowly decomposed 
by acids and acid salts. — His observations are: germination of seeds does not occur very 
readily in soil containing ultramarine ; growth is retarded ; but there is no disturbance of trans- 
piration; and neither a "poisonous" nor fatal effect is exerted by this substance. Intense 
spraying of leaves with ultramarine in water suspensions causes wilting and drying. — //. T. 
Gussow. 

962. Richter. [Rev. of: Fallada, O. Zur Riibensamenbeizung mit Schwefelsaure. 
(Germination of beet seed after corrosion with sulphuric acid.) Osterreich.-Ungar. Zeitschr. 
Zuckerindust. und Landw. 46: 22-34. 1917.] Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 
324-325. 1918. — A table is given showing the results of treatment of 100 beet seeds with sul- 
phuric acid. Unsoaked seeds were treated as follows: with concentrated sulphuric acid; 
with sulphuric acid of 53°Be\ and for comparison some which were not treated with acid. 
Soaked (6 hours) seed were also treated as those above. The poorest germination was shown 
by the unsoaked seed treated with concentrated acid, and the best germination was shown 
by seed soaked for 6 hours and then treated with acid of 53°B6. The seed and acid were heated 
for 20 to 25 minutes with steam and then the acid was allowed to act for two and one half 
hours. The number of seed germinated after 2, 3, 4, 6, and 14 days was recorded. — F. M. 
Schertz. 

963. Richter. [Rev. of: Greisenegger, Ignaz K. Versuch mit Samenriiben unter 
Verwendung von Mangansulfat als katalytischen Diinger. (Experiments on seed beets using 
manganese sulfate as a catalytical manure.] Osterreich.-Ungar. Zeitschr. Zuckerindust. und 
Landw. 46: 13-21. 1917.] Biedermann's Zentralbl. Agrikulturchem. 47: 320-323. 1918. — 
Pot experiments in sand and peat were conducted using Knop's nutrient solution for watering. 
Fifteen pots were used, placed in 3 groups. Group 1 had no manganese, group 2 had a small 
quantity of manganese (0.1773 grams or 25 kilograms per hectare), and group 3 had 4 times as 
much manganese as group 2. The yield of seed per pot was as follows : group 1 , 56.3 grams ; 2, 
57.2 grams; 3, 69.8 grams. The stem yield was greatest in group 1 and least in group 2. In 
regard to the capacity for germination, 100 seed balls of group 1 produced 149 seedlings; 100 
of group 2 produced 139 seedlings, and group 3 produced 131 seedlings. The seed of the above 
3 groups were then planted in plots and fertilized (manganese lacking). The seed from the 
above group 1 produced 10S.7 grams of sugar per beet; from group 2 the yield was 112.2 grams 
per beet; and from group 3, 94 grams. The yield per plot respectively was 4.54, 4.55 and 4.03 
kgm. The average weight of each beet was respectively 578, 599, and 512 grams. Other 
data were worked out for the respective groups. — F. M. Schertz. 



136 PHYSIOLOGY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

964. Rumbold, Caroline. The injection of chemicals into chestnut trees. Amer. Jour. 
Bot. 7 : 1-20. 7 fig. 1920. — Injection experiments were carried on in 1913 with 156 young Para- 
gon chestnut trees grafted on native stock. Water, twenty-five inorganic substances (in- 
cluding three colloidal metals), twenty-five organic substances (including extracts of normal 
and of diseased bark), and five stains were injected. Various concentrations were used, and 
the amount entering the tree was measured in each case. In general, solutions were absorbed 
more readily than water, organic compounds more readily than inorganic ones and true solu- 
tions more readily than colloidal ones. The more concentrated the solution, the more 
rapidly it was absorbed. The rate of injection was most rapid in June and next in July, May, 
August, September, October, and April, respectively. The rate was more variable in the 
spring than in the summer or autumn, and was dependent to a considerable extent upon the 
rate of transpiration. — Previous literature on plant injection is reviewed at some length. — 
E. W. Sinnott. 

965. Rumbold, Caroline. Effect on chestnuts of substances injected into their trunks. 
Amer. Jour. Bot. 7 : 45-56. 2 pi. 1920. — The author has injected a large number of substances 
into Paragon chestnut trees, as reported previously (see entry next preceding). The present 
paper describes the course of injected solutions in the tree, their effect on the tissues, and their 
influence on the parasitic fungus Endothia parasitica. Solutions travel usually in last annual 
ring of wood and were found to pass downward into the roots and upward into the leaves, 
and in one case even into the fruit. They are confined to a path but little wider than the diam- 
eter of the injection hole. The effect on the tree varied with the dilution of the solution and 
with the season at which injection was made. Certain substances, notably water, the alkali 
metals, colloidal metals, most organic compounds, certain dyes, and the water extract of 
normal bark, were without noticeable effect on the tree. A few, particularly weaker dilutions 
of alkali metals, apparently acted as slight stimulants. A third group, including the heavy 
metals, water extract of blight canker, and some others, were detrimental, causing the death 
of part or all of the tree. Particular solutions were often specific in their detrimental effects. 
Results as to the effect of injected solutions upon the blight fungus were very inconclusive. 
A little evidence is brought forward, however, which indicates that dilute solutions of lithium 
salts injected in the spring months may check somewhat the growth of the fungus canker. — 
E. W. Sinnott. 

966. Stoklasa, J., in collaboration with J. Sebor, W. ZdobnickT, F. Tymich, O. Horak, 
A. Nemec, and J. Cwach. Influence of aluminum ions on seed germination. Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 87: 318-320. 1919. [Translated from Biochem. Zeitschr. 91: 137-223. fig. 1-15. 
1918.] 

967. Wyeth, J. F. S. The effect of acids on the growth of Bacillus coli. Biochem. Jour. 
12: 382-401. 1918. — Initial and final H-ion concentrations of Bacillus coli under varying con- 
ditions are determined, and it is found that the final reaction of the culture solutions depends 
on the initial H-ion concentration of the media, the buffer effect of the media, and the nature 
of the acid. There is a critical point in the H-ion concentration beyond which growth is com- 
pletely inhibited. — W. H. Chambers. 

ELECTRICITY AND MECHANICAL AGENTS 

968. Baines, A. E. Electrical conditions of the earth and atmosphere. Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 88: 290-291. 1919. — This article deals in part with plant life. The author believes 
that everything growing in the soil is charged or electrified by the earth, — the roots, stems, 
and veins being negative terminals, while the parts of the leaves between the veins act as 
aerolae, taking their charge from the positive air. An ordinary electrical current passes 
from air to earth and back again to air through the plant. If the soil is not moist to the root- 
depth, or if it does not contain electrolytes other than water, the plant is deprived of its sup- 
ply of current and must suffer injury. It is claimed that if about 1 per cent of ferro sulphate 



No. 1, August, 1920] PHYSIOLOGY 137 

or other suitable electrolyte is mixed with the soil, or the ground is well watered with the min- 
eral in solution, much of the water ordinarily required by plant life may be dispensed with. 
Potted plants so treated were kept alive in a warm greenhouse, exposed to the sun's rays, for 
three months without water. When vegetable life is said to be "resting" during the late 
autumn and winter months, it is probably due to lowered electrification. — Chas. II. Olis. 

PHYSIOLOGY OF DISEASES 

969. Anonymous. Disease resistance in plants. Gard. Chron. 65: 192. 1919. — This 
editorial is a popular consideration of the phenomenon of resistance in varieties of plants, 
suggesting briefly an explanation based on the presence and absence of certain chemical 
factors. The author suggests that the present status of the mechanism of immunity in ani- 
mals may be a source of encouragement to plant pathologists. — C. R. Hursh. 

970. Paine, Sydney G., and H. Stansfield. Studies in Bacteriosis. III. — A bacterial 
leaf-spot disease of Pro tea cynaroides, exhibiting a host reaction of possibly bacteriolytic nature. 
Ann. Appl. Biol. 6: 27-29. PI. 2, fig. 3-6. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 757. 

971. Rose, D. H. Infection as related to humidity and temperature. [Rev. of: Laurit- 
zen, J. T. The relation of temperature and humidity to infection by certain fungi. Phyto- 
path. 9: 1-35. 1919.] Bot. Gaz. 68: 66-67. 1919. 

MISCELLANEOUS 

972. Anders, J. N. Growing plants as health-giving agents. Sci. Monthly 10: 63-69. 
1920. — This is a popular presentation of the subject. — L. Pace. 

973. Bobilioff, W. De inwendige bouw der schorselementen ven Hevea brasiliensis. 
[The structure of cell elements in the bark of Hevea brasiliensis.] Arch. Rubbercult. Neder- 
landsch-Indie 3 : 222-231. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 546. 

974. Gagnespain, F. Vegetable "plethora." Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 220, 232. 1 fig. 
1919. [Translated from La Rousse Mensuel (Paris), April, 1919.] — Results of "over-feeding" 
of plants and differences in habitat between individuals of the same species. — Chas. H. Otis. 

975. Glover, G. H., T. E. Newson, and W. W. Robbins. A new poisonous plant, the 
whorled milkweed Asclepias verticillata. Colorado Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 246. 16 p. IS fig. 
1918. — Serious losses of stock particularly sheep, are reported from southwestern Colorado 
due to Asclepias verticillata. The plant appears to be poisonous at all stages of growth and 
when dry. The symptoms of the affected animals are described. Death may result within 
S hours. The poisonous compound was not identified. — C. R. Hursh. 

976. Harvey, R. B. A thermo regulator with the characteristics of the Beckman ther- 
mometer. Jour. Biol. Chem. 41 : 9-10. PI. 1. 1920. 

977. Hibbard, R. P. Preparation of seed potatoes. [Rev. of : Appleman, C. O. Physio- 
logical basis for the preparation of potatoes for seed. Maryland Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 212: 
79-102. Fig. 1-11. 1918.] Plant World 22 : 91-92. 1919. 

978. Nagel. Kartoffellagerungsversuche. [Potato storage experiments.] Illustrierte 
Landw. Zeitg. 39: 6. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 46. 

979. Weimer, J. L. Some observations on the spore discharge of Pleurage curvicolla 
(Wint) Kuntze. Amer. Jour. Bot. 7: 75-77. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 695. 



138 SOIL SCIENCE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

SOIL SCIENCE 

J. J. Skinner, Editor 
F. M. Schertz, Assistant Editor 

GENERAL 

9S0. Anonymous. The value of lupins in the cultivation of poor, light land. Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 88:265. 1919. [Abstract of paper read before Agricultural Section, British Assoc. 
Adv. Sci., by A. W. Oldershaw. (See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 47.)] Reprinted in Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 88: 321. 1919. 

981. Bear, Firman E., and J. R. Royston. Nitrogen losses in urine. Jour. Amer. 
Soc. Agron. 2 : 319-326. 1919. — The paper gives the results of losses of nitrogen from urine 
which has been stored under various conditions. Urine exposed to the air lost over 92 per 
cent of its nitrogen during 8 weeks when the average temperature was 38°C. When urine was 
not exposed to the air practically no losses took place. Litter allowed to dry out and remain 
dry lost 20 per cent of its nitrogen content while litter which was kept moist by daily additions 
of water lost over 97 per cent of its nitrogen. Samples protected with kerosene lost approxi- 
mately 6 per cent of their nitrogen in 8 weeks. — F. M. Schertz. 

982. Clevenger, Clinton B. Hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. I. The ac- 
curate determination of the hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices by means of the hydrogen 
electrode. Soil Sci. 8: 217-226. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 876. 

983. Clevenger, Clinton B. Hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. II. Factors 
affecting the acidity of hydrogen-ion concentration of plant juices. Soil Sci. 8: 227-242. 1919. 
—See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 877. 

984. Conner, S. D. The effect of zinc in soil tests with zinc and galvanized iron pots. 
Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12 : 61-64. 1920. — The author found that acid soils when placed in 
zinc or galvanized pots, unless limed sufficiently, acted upon the zinc of the pots which were 
insufficiently protected by the granulated paraffine coating. The water-soluble Zn salts 
which were found in the soil caused the crops to fail the second season. The action of acid 
soils on Zn is evidence that soils contain true acids. No good protective coating for the pots 
was found. — F. M. Schertz. 

985. Frear, William, and C. L. Goodling. I. Cost of burning lime in the stack or 
heap. II. Supplementary report upon the limestone resources of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania 
Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 157. 23 p., 4 fig. April, 1919. 

986. Hepner, Frank E. Wyoming forage plants and their chemical composition. Wyo- 
ming Agric. Exp. Sta. Rept. 28: 117-128. 1917-18— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 26. 

987. Hoagland, D. R. Relation of nutrient solution to composition and reaction of cell 
sap of barley. Bot. Gaz. 68: 297-304. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 859. 

988. Kelley, W. P., and E. E. Thomas. The effects of alkali on citrus trees. Cali- 
fornia Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 318: 305-337. 1920. 

989. Martin, J. C, and A. W. Christie. Effect of variation in moisture content on the 
water-extractable matter of soils. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 139-143. 1919. — The water-soluble 
constituents of two soils of very different types have been studied at four moisture contents. 
The moisture contents approaching the air dry condition show a decided tendency to depress 
the nitrates and potash in both soils and the sulfates in the silty clay loam only. These de- 
pressions are reflected in the total dissolved material. The excess water in the sandy loam 



No. 1, August, 1920] SOIL SCIENCE 130 

soil causes a disappearance of nitrates and also decidedly depresses the potassium, calcium 
and magnesium, these losses also being reflected in the total solids extracted. Considerable 
variations in moisture contents of soils, provided the saturation point is not reached, do not 
appreciably modify the results obtained by the water-extraction method. — F . M. Schertz. 

990. Russell, E. J. Soil making. Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 1-12. 1919.— This is 
a popular discussion of soils, soil changes and soil management, based largely on experiments 
at Rothamsted. — J. K. Shaw. 

991. Shedd, O. M. Effect of oxidation of sulphur in soils on the solubility of rock phos- 
phate and on nitrification. Jour. Agric. Res. 18: 329-345. 1919. — Compost experiments of 
rock phosphate, sulfur, soil and manure show after 24 months time, that about 17 and 84 
per cent of the total phosphorus had been converted into a water-soluble and ammonium- 
citrate-soluble form, respectively. Sulphofication did not proceed as rapidly as when an 
inoculation was made with the sulphofying organism, and when this was done the time of 
the sulphofication may be considered to be reduced nearly one third. Composting under the 
same conditions but omitting the sulfur also showed favorable results in rendering the soil 
phosphate or that added in rock sulphate soluble, but not to the same extent as when sulphur 
was present. Nitrification was found to proceed to a certain extent regardless of the acid 
formed by the sulphur oxidation. The amounts of nitrogen found to be nitrified amounted 
to approximately 20 per cent of the total originally present. Sulphofication was found to 
take place in all of the soils examined but varied somewhat according to the type. When 25 
and 50 mgm. of sulphur were added to 100 grams of soil, about the same percentage of the total 
was oxidized in a given time. Inoculation of mixtures of rock phosphate and sulphur was 
not sufficient to promote rapid sulphofication. It required in addition, soil or soil water. 
That the production of soluble phosphate was caused by the presence of sulphuric acid gen- 
erated by the oxidation of the sulphur is demonstrated by the parallel rise in acidity and sul- 
phate. The best conditions to promote the reaction are initial inoculation, high temperature, 
thorough aeration, and a fair moisture content. Other contributing factors are the propor- 
tions of the different ingredients and probably their mass. The acid phosphate made by this 
procedure has just as good a physical condition as the commercial product and would be 
cheaper if the time and labor involved in its manufacture are disregarded. — F. M. Schertz. 

992. Shull, C. A. Soil fertility. [Rev. of: Van Alstine, E. The movement of plant 
food within the soil. Soil Sci. 6: 281-308. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 2, Entry 1341.)] Bot. Gaz. 
68:312. 1919. 

993. Takahashi, R. On the fungous flora of the soil. Ann. Phytopath Soc. Japan 1 ! ; 
17-22. 1919. See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 688. 

994. Watts, Francis. The liming of soils. West Indian Bull. 16: 332-341. 1918.— 
Compiled information. — C. V. Piper. 

INFLUENCE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS 

995. Barthel, Chr., and N. Bengtsson. The influence of lime on the nitrification of 
barn-yard manure — nitrogen in arable soil. Soil Sci. 8 : 243-258. 1919. Manure or ammonium 
sulfate was added to limed and unlimed neutral and acid soils. Weekly determinations of 
the ammonia and nitrates were made. Lime stimulated the nitrification of the ammonium 
sulfate but exerted no favorable action on the nitrification of stable manure or in cases where 
the supply of lime was large impeded the nitrification. — William J. Robbins. 

996. Hills, T. J. Influence of nitrates on nitrogen assimilating bacteria. Tropic. Agri- 
culturist 52 : 44-45. 1919. — Two lines of investigation, one on the influence of nitrate on azoto- 
bacter and the other on the influence of nitrate on B. radicicola in the soil, were briefly sum- 
marized without details of procedure. Full report given in Bull. Internat. Inst, of Agric, 
Sept., 1918.— R. G. Wiggans. 



140 SOIL SCIENCE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

997. Jones, D. H., and F. G. Murdock. Quantitative and qualitative bacterial analysis 
of soil samples taken in fall of 1918. Soil Sci. 8: 259-267. 1919. — A surface and sub-surface 
sample of 46 soils representing 17 soil types in eastern Ontario were examined for total bac- 
terial and mold counts on Brown's albumen agar, liquefier counts on a nutrient gelatine and 
Azotobacter, Ps. radicicola and Nocardia counts on a modified Ashby's agar. Only 3 samples 
had a very low total count. Azotobacter were found in 9 out of the 17 soil types and were 
absent in the light sandy soils and peat muck and shale types. Every soil type except yellow 
sand had fairly high numbers of Ps. radicicola and the sub-surface samples had a higher 
content than the surface samples. Molds were fairly uniform in numbers in all soils except 
a sandy clay loam and sand}' clay shale in which they were absent. Nocardia were least 
numerous in sand but much alike in numbers in loams, peat mucks and shales. — William J. 
Robbins. 

998. Waksman, Selman A. Cultural studies of species of Actinomyces. Soil Sci. 8: 
71-215. 4 pl- 1919. — The morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical features of 
41 species of Actinomyces are described and compared. A note is given on the habitat of 
each species. The cultural characteristics for each species include those on 13 or 14 different 
solid and liquid media. The utilization of different carbon or nitrogen compounds is also 
included in some cases. The biochemical features include nitrite formation, proteolytic 
action, change of reaction, inversion of sugar, diastatic action and growth on cellulose. 
Nearly all the Actinomyces studied reduce nitrates to nitrites and show diastatic and proteo- 
lytic activities. Most of the species studied grow on cellulose and half of them invert sugar. 
A key for the identification of the species based chiefly on biochemical characteristics is 
presented. — William J. Robbins. 

FERTILIZATION 

999. Calvino, M. La fertilidad de la tierra y los abonos. III. El estiercol y los otros 
abonos organicos. [Manure and other organic fertilizers.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 
540-543. 1 fig. 1919. — Largely a translation of an article by Gino Beccabi of the University 
of Pisa.— F. M. Blodgett. 

1000. Calvino, Mario. La fertilidad de la tierra y los abonos. [The fertility of the soil 
and fertilizers.] Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 501-503. 1919. 

1001. Jones, Joseph. Manurial experiments with cacao in Dominica. West Indian Bull. 
16:342-353. 1918. — Reports results of plot experiments with various fertilizers. — C. V. Piper. 

1002. Sampson, H. C. Some factors which influence yield of paddy in comparative manur- 
ial experiments at the Manganallur Agricultural Station. Agric. Jour. India 14: 739-746. 
1919. — Experimental errors in field experiments are discussed, and the advantages and dis- 
advantages of 1 year and long time fertilizer experiments given. No experimental data is 
given. — /. /. Skinner. 

METHODS 

1003. Bbackett, R. N., and H. F. Haskins. Report on nitrogen. Jour. Assoc. Official 
Agric. Chem. 3 : 207-217. 1919. — In the zinc-ferrous sulf ate-soda method for nitrates the re- 
sults of the different workers are too variable. The chief difficulty in the method lies in the 
distillation with the use of glass wool in the neck of the flask. Further work was recommended 
in the case of water-insoluble organic nitrogen. The Jones and Street method has been shown 
to be useful for distinguishing between good and bad organic ammoniates. Some difficulties 
in the method however are yet to be overcome. Results obtained with the Kjeldahl-Gunning- 
Arnold method using copper sulfate in lieu of oxide of mercury and with oxide of mercury 
alone, were very satisfactory, there being a good agreement and practically no difference in 
the averages. The oxide of mercury seems to be a little more effective and rapid in its cata- 



No. 1, August, 1920] TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS 141 

lytic action than copper sulfate and perhaps the digestion in the case of copper should be more 
prolonged than with mercury. The use of sodium sulfate in the place of potassium sulfate 
in the Gunning method and its modifications is to be studied. — F. M. Scherlz. 

1004. Fippin, Elmer O. The truefast test for sour soil. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 
65-68. 1920. — The paper describes the chemical principles employed by the truefast test 
and points out the special features of the outfit. The manner of using the outfit is given. — 
F. M. Schertz. 

t 

1005. Frear, Willham, Walter Thomas, and II. D. Edmiston'. Notes on the use of 
potassium permanganate in determining nitrogen by the Kjeldahl method. Jour. Assoc. Official 
Chem. 3: 220-224. 1919.— Results of the authors show that for the fertilizer mixtures repre- 
sented the addition of permanganate caused a distinct loss of nitrogen. The loss depended 
somewhat upon the amount of permanganate but chiefly upon the time of the addition. If 
the addition was delayed for two minutes after removal from the flame no loss in nitrogen 
was observed. — F. M. Schertz. 

1006. Phelps, I. K., and H. W. Daudt. Investigations of the Kjeldahl method for the 
determination of nitrogen. Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3 : 218-220. 1919. — The hydrol- 
ysis of certain organic compounds of various constitutions was studied. In the presence of 
0.7 gram of mercuric oxide, 10 grams of K 2 SO< and 25 cc. of H 2 S0 4 , weights of the compound 
varying from 0.2 to 0.4 gram were hydrolyzed completely by 2.5 hours of boiling. — F. M . 
Schertz. 

1007. Trowbridge, P. F. Symposium on the determination of nitrogen in fertilizers. 
Jour. Assoc. Official Agric. Chem. 3: 217-218. 1919. — The paper gives the answers of 3S sta- 
tion chemists and 17 commercial chemists, to a questionnaire on methods of determining nitro- 
gen in fertdizers. Twenty-one chemists use a gram sample. Either mercury oxide or mercury 
is used by 41. Thirty-two do not use potassium permanganate at the close of the digestion. 
Sulphuric acid as standard is used by 31 chemists and 2S use sodium hydroxide to titrate the 
excess of acid. Cochineal is used as indicator by 42 chemists. Others use methyl red, methyl 
orange, congo red, sodium alizarin sulphonate, alizarin red and lacmoid. NH 4 OH was com- 
pared with NaOH for titrating and out of 203 samples of fertilizer analyzed at different times 
105 samples gave 0.01 per cent higher results with NaOH. — F. M. Schertz. 

TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS 

J. M. Greenman, Editor 
E. B. Payson, Assistant Editor 

SPERMATOPHYTES 

1008. Aellen, Paul. Neue Bastardkombinationen im Genus Chenopodium. (New 
Hybrid-combinations in the genus Chenopodium.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 177-179. 1918. [Rep. 
Eu. & Med. 1: 257-259.] — The following new hybrid-combinations and new varieties are 
published: X Chenopodium leptophylliforme (C. album X leptophyllum) , X C. leptophylliforme 
Aellen var. glabrum,X C. pseudoleptophyllum (C. hircinum X leptophyllum) and X C. Bin- 
zianumv&r. obtusum, X C. basileense[(C. hircinum X striatum) X album=C. HaywardiaeX 
album]. — E. B. Payson. 

1009. Arthur, J. C. New names for species of Phanerogams. Torreya 19: 48-49. 1919. 
— In listing the hosts of Uredinales for the North American Flora, the author makes the 
following new combinations: Seniles Harlwegi (Zeugites Hartwegi Fourn.), Sanguinale pru- 
riens Trin. {Panicum pruriens Trin.), [Corrected (Torreya 19: S3. 1919) to read Syntherisma 



142 TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

pruriens (Trin.) Arthur, nom. nov.], Nymphoides Grayanum (Limnanthemum Grayanum 
Griseb.), Aureolaria virginica (Rhinanthus virginicus L.) , Dasystephana spathacea (Gentiana 
spathacea HBK.) , and D. Menzesii (Gentiana Menzesii Griseb.). — J. C. Nelson. 

1010. Balfour, Bayley. Some late-flowering gentians. Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edin- 
burgh 27: 246-272. 1918. — The author discusses several species of Asiatic gentians belonging 
to the section Frigida Kusnezow. Detailed descriptions of the species with synonymy are 
given and exsiccatae cited. The species treated are: Gentiana Farreri Balf. f., G. Lawrencei 
Burkill, G. sino-ornata Balf. f., G. Veitchiorum Hemsl., G. oraata Wall., and G. prolata Balf. f. 
— J. M, Greenman. 

1011. Balfour, Bayley. The genus Nomocharis. Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edinburgh 27: 
273-300. 1918. — This article presents a consideration of the liliaceous genus Nomocharis 
of China and the Himalayas. The genus now embraces some 13 species of which the following 
are new: Nomocharis Forrestii, N. saluenensis, N. tricolor, and N. Wardii. — J. M. Greenman. 

1012. Bitter, Georg. Solanaceae quattuor austro-americanae adhuc generibus falsis 
adscriptae. [Four South American Solanaceae hitherto ascribed to the wrong genera.] Rep. 
Sp. Nov. 15: 149-155. 1918. — Solanocharis is described as a new genus and to it assigned S. 
albescens (Poecilochroma albescens Britt.). The following new combinations are also made: 
Jochroma Lehmannii (Poecilochroma Lehmanni Damm.) , Vassobia dichotoma (Cyphomandra 
dichotoma Rusby) and Solanum Laulerbachii (Cyphomandra Lauterbachii Hub. Winkl.). — E. 
B. Payson. 

1013. Black, J. M. Additions to the flora of South Australia. Nos. 13, 14. Trans. Proc. 
Roy. Soc. South Australia 42: 38-61, pi. 5-8, 168-184, pi. 15-18. Dec. 24, 1918.— Important 
data are recorded concerning the flora of South Australia and the following plants are de- 
scribed as new: Melaleuca quadrifaria F. v. M., Spyridium eriocephalum Fenzl. var. adpres- 
sum, Limnanthemum stygium, and Dicrastylis verticillata, Stipa scabra Lindl. var. auriculata, 
Muehlenbeckia coccoloboides , Atriplex crassipes, A. campanulatum Benth. var. adnatum, Acacia 
rivalis, Frankenia foliosa, F. muscosa, F. cordata, F. serpyllifolia Lindl. var. eremophila, and 
Minuria rigida. — /. M. Greenman. 

1014. Bois, D. Nothopanax Davadii. Revue Horticole [Paris] 91 : 212-213. Fig. 67-68. 
Jan., 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1526. 

1015. Brown, William H., and Arthur F. Fischer. Philippine bamboos Bur. For- 
estry, Dept. Agr. & Nat. Resources. [Manila.] Bull. 15. 32 p. PI. 1-23. 1918.— This 
paper deals primarily with the bamboos as a minor forest product of the Philippine Islands; 
nevertheless it is of interest to the taxonomist, since the authors include keys to the genera 
and recognize 30 or more species several of which are described and illustrated. — J. M. 
Greenman. 

1016. Cardot, J. Le cognassier de Delavay. [The quince of Delavay.] Revue Horticole 
[Paris] 90: 131-133, fig. 45~47. 1918. — Pirus Delavayi Franchet (Docynia Delavayi Schneider) 
is transferred to the genus Cydonia as C. Delavayi Card. — Adele Lewis Grant. 

1017. Challinor, R. W., Edwin Cheel, and A. R. Penfold. On a new species of Lepto- 
spermum and its essential oil. Jour. Proc. Roy. Soc. New South Wales 52 : 175-180. Sept. 18, 
1918. — ■ Leptospermum flavescens var. citratum Bailey & White is raised to specific rank. Speci- 
mens on which this species is based were first collected at Copmanhurst, New South Wales, 
in 1911. — J. M. Greenman. 

1018. Correvon, H. Les Cyclamens sauvages. [The wild cyclamens.] Revue Horticole 
[Paris] 90: 180-183, 196-198. 1918. — The author gives the results of several years of experience 
in growing various wild species of Cyclamen. A key by M. R. Buser to the cultivated species 
of this genus is included in which 24 species are listed. — Adele Lewis Grant. 



No. 1, August, 1920] TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS 143 

1019. Dammer, U. Zwei neue Solanaceen, Iochroma (Euiochroma) Weberbaueri und 
Cacabus multiflorus aus Peru. [Two new solanaceous plants, Iochroma (Euiochroma) Weber- 
baueri and Cacabus multiflorus from Peru.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 266-267. 1918. — The following 
species are described as new to science: Iochroma Weberbaueri and Cacabus multiflorus. — 
E. B. Payson. 

1020. Dammer, U. Eine neue Liliacee, Triocyrtis parviflora, aus Japan. [A new Liliaceous 
plant, Tricyrtis parviflora, from Japan.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 2G7-268. 1918. — Tricyrtis parvi- 
flora is described as a species new to science. — E. B. Payson. 

1021. Dammer, U. Neue Arten von Lachemilla aus Mittel- und Siidamerika. [New 
species of Lachemilla from Central and South America.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 362-365. 1918. — 
The following species from Mexico, Costa Rica and Colombia are described as new to science: 
Lachemilla Tonduzii, L. costaricensis , L. Purpusii, L. laxa, L. Uhdeana, L. Moritziana, and 
L. columbiana. — E. B. Payson. 

1022. Dinter, K. Index der aus Deutsch-Sudwestafrika bis zum Jahre 1917 bekannt 
gewordenen Pflanzenarten. II. [Index to the species of plants known from German Southwest 
Africa to the year 1917. II.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 340-355. 1918.— This alphabetical list, 
chiefly of flowering plants, includes a limited citation of synonyms and exsiccatae. The fol- 
lowing new specific and varietal names or combinations are included: Arctotis karasmontana , 
Asclepias filiformis Behth. & Hook. var. Buchenaviana, Alriplex sarcocarpus, Barbacenia 
minuta (Vellozia minuta Baker), Caralluma ausana Dtr. & Brgr., Cassia obovata Collad.var. 
pallidiflora. — E. B. Payson. 

1023. Engler, A. Hieronymusia Engl., eine neue Gattung der Saxifragaceen. [Hierony- 
musia, a new genus of the Saxifragaceae.] Notizblatt Konigl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 7: 
265-267. Oct. 1, 1918. — Hieronymusia is described and illustrated as a new genus of the 
Saxifragaceae. The genus is monotypic and is based on Saxifraga alchemilloides Griseb. 
(Suksdorfia alchemilloides (Griseb.) Engl.) a native of South America. — /. M. Greenman. 

1024. Erikson, Johan. Platanthera bifolia X montana i Blekinge (one of the southern 
provinces of Sweden). (In Swedish.) Bot. Notiser 1918: 59-62. 1918.— P. A. Rydberg. 

1025. Fraser, James. A new grass, Koeleria advena Stapf. Trans. Proc. Bot. Soc. Edin- 
burgh 27: 302-303. 1918. — Koeleria advena Stapf is described as a new species of grass from 
specimens collected in the neighborhood of Edinburgh. The new grass appears to have been 
introduced into Scotland from eastern Spain or northwest Africa. — J. M. Greenman. 

1026. Gamble, J. S. Flora of the Presidency of Madras. Part III. Leguminosae-Caes- 
alpinioideae to Caprifoliaceae. \2\ X 18| cm. P. 391-577. Adlard & Son & West Newman: 
London, 1919. — The present part begins with the subfamily Caesalpinioideae and continues 
through the Caprifoliaceae to the Rubiaceae in substantial accord with the Bentham and 
Hooker arrangement of families. The following new names and new combinations are in- 
cluded: Delonix elata {Poinciana elala L.), Mimosa Prainiana, Rubus Wightii (R. rugosus 
Wt., not Sm.), Photinia Lindleyana W. & A. var. tomentosa, Jambosa Mundagam {Eugenia 
Mundagam Bourd.), J. Rama-Varma {Eugenia Rama-Varma Bourd.), J. occidentalis {Eugenia 
occidentalis Bourd.), J. Beddomei {Eugenia Beddomci Duthie), Syzygium Myhendrae {Eugenia 
Myhendrae Bedd.), S. Benthamianum {Eugenia Benthamiana Wt.), S. microphyllum {Eugenia 
microphylla Bedd.), S. montanum {Eugenia montana Wt.), S. Chavaran {Eugenia Chavaran 
Bourd.), S. malabaricum {Eugenia malabarica Bedd.), S. operculatum {Eugenia operculata 
Roxb.), S. Stocksii {Eugenia Stocksii Duthie), S. Jambolanu?n DC. var. axillare, Sonerila 
versicolor Wt. var. axillaris {S. axillaris Wt.), Trianthema triquetra Rottl. var. oblongifolia, 
Heracleum rigens Wall. var. mulliradiatum, II. rigens Wall. var. elongatum, H. courtallense 
{H. rigens Wall. var. Candolleana C. B. Clarke, in part), H. Candolleanum {H. rigens Wall, 
var. Candolleana C. B. Clarke, in part), Schefflera micrantha {Heptapleurum rostratum var. 



144 TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

micrantha C. B. Clarke), S. Roxburghii (Aralia digitata Roxb.), S. venulosa Harms var. obli- 
quinervia, and Alangium salvifolium var. hexapetalum Wang. (A. hexapetalum Lamk.). — 
J. M. Greenman. 

1027. Harms, H. Araliaceae andinae. Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 245-254. 1918.— From the 
Andes of South America are described the following species as new to science or hitherto 
unpublished with a diagnosis: Schefflera lasiogyne, S. Sodiroi, Oreopanax gnaphalocephalus , 
0. pariahuancae , 0. Ruizii Decne., 0. Sodiroi, 0. brachystachyus Decne, 0. brunneus Decne., 
0. ischnolobus, 0. stenodactylus, 0. Moritzii, O. mucronulatus , 0. malacotrichus, 0. palamo- 
phyllus, 0. Trianae Decne., Aralia? Weberbaueri. — E. B. Payson. 

1028. Hassler, E. Solanacea paraguariensia critica vel minus cognlta. Rep. Sp. Nov. 
15: 113-121. 1918. — The first of two articles on solanaceous plants occurring in Paraguay 
gives critical notes on eight species of Solanum together with extensive citation of synonyms 
and exsiccatae. The following varieties new to science and new varietal combinations occur: 
Solanum nudum HBK. var. pseudo-indigoferum, S. nudum HBK. var. micranthum (S. micran- 
thum W.), S. verbascijolium L. var. typicum, S. Ipomoea Sendt. var. ipomoeoide (S. ipomoe- 
oides Chod. & Hassler), S. Ipomoea Sendt. var. macrostachyum, S. malacoxylon Sendt. var. 
genuinum, S. malacoxylon Sendt. var. subvirescens. Several new forms and subforms are 
also included. — E. B. Payson. 

1029. Hassler, E. Solanacea paraguariensia critica vel minus cognita. II. Rep. Sp. 
Xov. 15: 217-245. 1918. — Critical notes, synonyms and citations of exsiccatae are given of 
38 species, principally of the genus Solanum. The following new names and combinations in 
groups of specific and varietal rank as well as varieties new to science are published : Solanum 
hirtellum (Atropa hirtella Spreng.), S. hirtellum (Spreng.) Hassler var. diminutum Bitt., S. 
verruculosum (Cyphomandra verrucuolsa Hassler), S. citrifoliumW. var. typicum, S. citrifolium 
W. var. ochandrum (S. ochandrum Dun.), S. citrifoliumW. var. leucodendron (S. leucocendron 
Sendt.), S. violifolium Schott. var. asarijolium (S. asarifolium Kth. & Bouche), S. pseudo- 
capsicum L. var. typicum^ S. pseudocapsicum L. var. Sendtnerianum, S. pseudocapsicum L. 
var. hygrophilum (S. hygrophilum Schlechtd.), S. pseudocapsicum L. var. ambiguum, S. torvum 
Sw. var. genuinum, S. torvum Sw. var. lanuginosum (forma lanuginosum Sendt.), £. bonariense 
L. var. paraguariense (S. paraguariense Chod.), *S. lycocarpum St. Hil. var. genuinum, S. 
lycocarpum St. Hil. var. paraguariense, S. lycocarpum St. Hil. var. macrocarpum (S. grandi- 
florum var. macrocarpum Hassler), S. Balansae (S. Brownii Chod.), S. Balansae Hassler var. 
typicum, S. Balansae Hassler var. lyratifidum, S. Balansae Hassler var. ambiguum, S. Bal- 
ansae Hassler var. genuinum, S. Balansae Hassler var. aureomicans, S. Balansae Hassler 
var. subinerme, S. robustum Wendl. var. laxepilosum, S. robustum Wendl. var. concepcionis, 
S. viridipes Dun. var. intermedium, Lycium chilense Bert. var. normale, L. chilense Bert. var. 
heterophyllum, L. Morongii Britt. var. typicum, L. Morongii Britt. var. indutum, Capsicum 
microcarpum DC. var. glabrescens. Many new subspecies, forms and subforms are included 
or new combinations in these subspecific groups occur. — E. B. Payson. 

1030. Herter, W. Itinera Heteriana I. Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 373-381. 1918.— [Rep. Eu. & 
Med. 1: 309-317.] — I. Cruciferae mediterraneae. The author presents an alphabetical list of 
Cruciferae collected by himself in regions adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea with complete 
data for each collection. II. Umbelliflorae mediterraneae. A list, similar to the above, in- 
cludes certain members of the families Araliaceae, Umbelliferae and Cornaceae. — E. B. Payson. 

1031. Javorka, S. Kisebb megjegyzesek es ujabb adatok. VI. [Minor observations and 
new data. VI.] Bot. Kozlemenyek. 17: 52-60. 1918. — Notes are recorded concerning sev- 
eral flowering plants of Hungary and one new form is characterized, namely Draba Simon- 
kaiana Jav. f. retyezdtensis. — J. M. Greenman. 



No. 1, August, 1920] TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS 145 

1032. J0rgensen, E. Ajuga pyramidalis X reptans. Bergens Museum Aarbok 1917-1918. 
Naturvidenskabelig raekke 5: 1^. 1918. — A hybrid between Ajuga pyramidalis and A. 
reptans L. is recorded and its important characters contrasted with those of the parent 
species. — J. M. Grecnman. 

1033. Knuth, R. Geraniaceae Novae. I. Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 135-138. 1918.— The 
following species native to South Africa are published as new to science: Pelargonium union- 
dalensc, P. grandicalcaratum, P. rungvense, P. Palersonii, Monsonia stricta, M. alexandra- 
ensis, and M. Rudatisii. — E. B. Payson. 

1034. Koorders, S. H., and Th. Valeton. Atlas der Baumarten von Java. [Atlas of the 
species of trees of Java.] Roy. 8vo. 1: PI. 1-200. 1913; 2: PI. 201-400. 1914; 3: PI. 401-600. 
1915; 4: PI. 601-800. 1918. P. W. M. Trap. Leiden.— This work in four volumes of four 
numbers each, illustrates nearly 800 species of Javanese trees in detail. Many habit sketches 
and a few reproductions of photographs showing the general appearance of the trees are given. 
Ormosia incerta Krds. is described as new to science. Aside from this, descriptions are not 
given, but references are made to works in which descriptions do occur. The present atlas, 
although a complete work in itself, is intended to supplement previous publications of the 
same authors, especially the "Bijdragen tot de Kennis der Boomsoorten van Java" [Con- 
tributions to the knowledge of the tree species of Java]. [See also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 1735]. 
— E. B. Payson. 

1035. L6veill£, H., and A. Thellung. Oenothera argentinae spec. nov. Rep. Sp. Nov. 
15: 133-134. 1918. — This species published previously with an insufficient diagnosis is here 
completely characterized. Its place of origin is perhaps the Argentine. — E. B. Payson. 

1036. Maiden, J. H. The tropical acacias of Queensland. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 
30: 18-51. PI. 1-7. 1918. — The author gives an annotated list of 60 recognized species of 
Acacia from Queensland, including the following which are described as new to science: 
Acacia Bancrofti, A. curniveria, A. Whitei, A. argentea, and A. Armitii (A. deliberata F. v. 
M., not A. Cunn.). — J. M. Grecnman. 

1037. Mez, Carl. Sacciolepis, Mesosetum, Thrasya, Ichnanthus genera speciebus novis 
aucta. Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 122-133. 1918. — The following species are described as new to sci- 
ence: Sacciolepis longissima, S. micrococcus, S. delicatula, S. Karsteniana, Mesosetum peni- 
cillatum, M agropyroides, Thrasya trinitensis, Ichnanthus lancifolius, I. Weberbaueri, I. 
lasiochlamys, I. verticillatus , I. montanus (Panicum inconstans var. montanum Trim), I. peru- 
vianus, I. trinitensis, I. polycladus , I. drepanophyllus , I. longiglumis, I. venezuelanus and I. 
Gardneri. — E. B. Payson. 

1038. Mottet,S. NoveauxTrollius. [NewTrollius.] Revue Horticole [Paris] 90: 102-103. 
1 pi. 1918. — Two plants of this genus are described and illustrated. The first, Trollius 
Ledebourii Rchb. comes from Siberia while the second, T. pumilus var. yunnanensis Hort. 
is described as new and was grown from seed sent from Yunnan, China. — Adele Lewis Grant. 

1039. Mottet, S. Un Nouveau Columnea Hybride. [A new Columnea hybrid.] Revue 
Horticole [Paris] 90: 168-170. 1 pi. and 1 text fig. 1918. — The author describes and illustrates 
a new hybrid, C. vedrariensis Hort., resulting from a cross between C. Schiedeana Schlecht. 
and C. magnifica Oersted. — Adele Lewis Grant. 

1040. Mottet, S. Neillia, Physocarpus et Stephanandra. Revue Horticole [Paris] 91 : 
236-23S. Fig. 77. Feb., 1919.— See Bot, Absts. 3, Entry 1544. 

1041. Mottet, S. Nouveaux Viburnum de la Chine. [New Viburnum of China.] Revue 
Horticole [Paris] 91: 262-264. 1 pi. {colored). Apr., 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1548. 



146 TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1042. Porto, P. Campos. O Cambuci (Paivaea Landsdorffii Berg.]. 21 X 27| cm. 14 p. 
9 fig. Estabelecimento Graphico de Steele & C. Rio de Janeiro, 1920. — This pamphlet, pub- 
lished by the Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro, illustrates and gives a detailed account of 
Paivaea Langsdorffii Berg, with particular reference to its edible fruit. — J. M. Greenman. 

1043. Pritzel, E. Basedowia, eine neue Gattung der Compositen aus Zentral-Australien. 
[Basedowia, a new genus of the Compositae from central Australia.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges- 
ellsch. 36: 332-337. PI. 12. Oct. 18, 1918. — Basedowia helichrysoides is described and illus- 
trated as a new genus and species of the Compositae. It is placed under the Helichryseae 
and is related to Cassinia and to Helichrysum. — J. M. Greenman. 

1044. Pritzel, E. Species novae ex Australia centrali. Rep. Sp. Nov. IS: 356-361. 1918. 
— 'The following species and varieties new to science are characterized: Triodia Basedowii, 
Crotalaria Strehlowii, Indigofera Basedowii, I. leucotricha, Swainsona phacoides Benth. var. 
erecta, Petalostyles spinescens, Heterodendron floribundum, Eremophila castelli Arminii, E. 
Leonhardiana, E. Strehlowii, Canthium lineare, Olearia arida, Rutidosis panniculata. — E. B. 
Pay son. 

1045. Rogers, R. S. Notes on Australian orchids, together with a description of some 
new species. Trans. & Proc. Roy. Soc. South Australia 42: 24-37. PI. 2-4 . Dec. 24, 1918.— 
The author presents a synopsis with critical notes of several genera of orchids. The follow- 
ing species are new to science: Calochilus cupreus, Pterostylis pusilla, and Prasophyllum 
regium. — J. M. Greenman. 

1046. Rubner, K. Ein neues Epilobium (E. Graebneri) aus Westrussland. [A new Epi- 
lobium (E. Graebneri) from western Russia.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 179-180. 1918. [Rep. Eu. 
& Med. 1 : 259-260.] — Epilobium Graebneri is characterized as a species new to science. — E. B. 
Payson. 

1047. Schlechter, R. Die Gattung Aganisia Ldl. und ihre Verwandten. [The genus 
Aganisia Ldl. and its relatives.] Orchis 12 : 24-42. PL 2-5. 1918. — The present article, which 
is continued from a previous number of this magazine (12: 6-16, pi. 1. 1917), includes a syn- 
optical revision of Koellensteinia Rchb. f., Paradisianthiis Rchb. f., Warreella Schltr., and 
Otostylis Schltr. n. gen. The following new species and new names are recorded: Koellen- 
steinia peruviana from Peru, K. eburnea (Cyrtopodium eburneum Barb. Rodr. from Brazil, 
K. Roraimae from Guiana, K. boliviensis from Bolivia, Paradisianthus neglectus from Brazil, 
P. micranthus (Zygopetalum micranthum Barb. Rodr.) from Brazil, Otostylis lepida (Aganisia 
nisia lepida Lind. & Rchb. f.), 0. brachystalix (Zygopetalum brachystalix Rchb. f.), and O. 
venusta (Zygopetalum venustum Ridl.). — J. M. Greenman. 

1048. Schlechter, R. Die Gattung Restrepia H. B. u. Kth. [The genus Restrepia 
HBK.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 255-270. 1918. — Barbosella, a new genus, is proposed for a number 
of Central and South American orchids formerly included under Restrepia. The following 
combinations result: Barbosella australis (Restrepia australis Cogn.), B. Cogniauxiana (Re- 
strepia Cogniauxiana Speg. & Kranzl.), B. crassifolia (Restrepia crassifolia Edwall), B. 
cucullala (Restrepia cucullata Ldl.), B. Dusenii (Restrepia Dusenii Sampaio), B. Gardneri 
(Pleurothallus Gardneri Ldl.), B. Kegelii (Restrepia Kegelii Rchb. f.), B. Lofgrenii (Restrepia 
Lofgrenii Cogn.), B. microphylla (Restrepia microphylla Rodr.), B. Miersii (Pleurothallus 
Miersii Ldl.), B. Porschii (Restrepia Porschii Kranzl.), B. prorepens (Restrepia prorepens 
Rchb. f.), B. rhyncantha (Restrepia rhyncantha Rchb. f. & Warsc), B. varicosa (Restrepia 
varicosa Ldl.). The author also gives a synopsis of the genus Restrepia with critical notes 
on each of the 21 recognized species. Three new sectional names are given as follows: 
Pleurothallopsis, Eurestrepia and Achaetochilus. The new name Pleurothallus Edwallii 
Dusen & Schltr. (Restrepia pleurothalloides Cogn.) is proposed. — E. B. Payson. 



No. 1, August, 1920] TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS 147 

1049. Schlechter, R. Die Gattung Sigraatostalix Rchb. f. [The Genus Sigmatostalix 
Rchb. f.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 15: 139-148. 1918. — The species previously assigned to the genus 
Sigmatostalix are found to be very diverse structurally and from them have been segregated 
the new genera Petalocentrum and Roezliella. The three genera are compared critically and 
under each is given a key to the species properly assigned to them. Besides the new generic 
diagnoses the following species new to science and new combinations are included: Petalo- 
centrum pusillum (Sigmatostalix pusilla Schltr.), P angusti folium, Roezliella dilalala (Sig- 
matostalix dilatata Richb. f.), R. Wallisii (Sigmatostalix Wallisii Rchb. f.), R. reversa (Sigmato- 
stalix reversa Rchb. f.), R. malleifera (Sigmatostalix malleifera Rchb. f.), R. Lehmanniana 
(Sigmatostalix Lehmanniana Kranzl.), Capanemia brachycion (Sigmatostalix brachycion 
Griseb.), C. Jucrgensiana (Rodriguezia Juergensiana Kranzl.) and C. pygmaea (Rodriguezia 
pygmaea Kranzl. ). — E. B. Payson. 

1050. Schlechter, R. Mitteilungenuber einige europaische und mediterrane Orchideen. 
I. [Contributions concerning some European and Mediterranean Orchids. I.] Rep. Sp. 
Nov. 15: 273-302. 1918. [Rep. Eu. & Med. 1: 274-302.]— I. The genera Aceras, Himanto- 
glossum and Anacamptis are discussed in the light of their taxonomic history and present 
interpretation. Under each genus are listed the species and varieties belonging to it and 
critical notes are given. II. Orchis persica, a species new to science, is characterized. III. 
Steveniella, a new genus, is described and to it is referred 1 species, S. satyrioides (Orchis 
salyrioides Stev.). IV. Gennaria Parlat. is confirmed as worthy of generic rank. Specimens 
are cited for its single species, G. diphylla (Lk.) Parlat. V. Plalanthera parvula is described 
as new to science. — E. B. Payson. 

1051. Schlechter, R. Odontioda X Fiirstenbergiana Schltr., ein neuer bigenerischer 
Orchideenbastard. [Odontioda X Fiirstenbergiana Schltr., a new bigeneric orchid-hybrid.] 
Orchis 12: 19, 20. 1918. — This new bigeneric hybrid is the result obtained from crossing 
Cochlioda vulcanica Benth. with Odontoglossum Eduardi Rchb. f. — J. M. Greenman. 

1052. Schlechter, R. Orchidaceae novae et criticae. Decas LI-LIU. Rep. Sp. Nov. 
15: 193-209. 1918. — The following Guatemalan plants, chiefly from the collections of Ber- 
noulli and Cario, are described as new to science: Plalanthera guatemalensis , Habenaria 
dipleura, H. latipetala, H. quinquefila, H. spithamaea, Pogonia debilis, Ponlhieva pulchella, 
Pelexia guatemalensis, Spiranthes pulchra, Physurus humidicola, P. luniferus, P. trilobulatus , 
Microstylis acianthoides , M. lepanthi flora, Masdevallia guatemalensis, Stelis Bernoulii, S. 
Carioi, S. cleistogama, S. oxypetala, S. tenuissima, Pleurothallis Bernoullii, P. Carioi, 
P. lamprophylla, Epidendrum aberrans, E. lucidum, E. piestocaulos , E. verrucipes, Notylia 
guatemalensis, Leochilus major, Ornilhocephalus tripterxis. Decas LIV. ibid. 210-217. — 
Caloglossum, a new genus of Madagascar orchids is described and to it are assigned the 
following new and transferred species: C. flabellatum (Limodorum flabellatum Thou.), C. 
Humblotii (Cymbidium Humblotii Rolfe), C. magnificum, C. rhodochilum (Cymbidium rhodo- 
chilum Rolfe). Additional new combinations in other genera are proposed as follows: Pla- 
tanthera Komarovii, Chloraea reticulata, Stelis ovatilabia, Dendrobium Casuarinae, Otostylis 
paludosa (Zygopetalum paludosxim Cogn.), Oncidium Spegazzinianum (Leochilus Spegazzini- 
anus Kranzl.), O. Waluewa (Waluewa pulchella Regel), Solenidium mattogrossense (Leochilus 
?natlogrossensis Cogn.), Erycina diaphana (Oncidium diaphanum Rchb. f.), Pachyphyllum 
muscoides (Orchidotypus muscvides Kranzl.), P. cyrtophyllum (P. falcifolium Schltr.). — E. 
B. Payson. 

1053. Schlechter, R. Orchidaceae novae et criticae. Decas LV-LVII. Rep. Sp. Nov. 
15: 324-340. 1918. — The following new species and varieties of Madagascan orchids are de- 
scribed: Benthamia elata, Habenaria Ferkoana, Cynosorchis diplorhyncha, C. Laggiarae, C. 
Laggiarae var. ecalcarala, Dispersis Afzelii, Goodyeara Afzelii, Plalylepis margaritifera, 
Bulbophyllum Afzelii, B. brachyphyton, B. Ferkoanum, B. Laggiarae, B. melanopogon, B. 
mirificum, B. sarcorhachis, B. xanthobulbum, Lissochilus Laggiarae, Gussonea auranliaca, 



148 TAXONOMY OF VASCULAR PLANTS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

Aerangis crassipes, A. pumilio, A. venusla, Jumellea cyrtoceras, J. Ferkoana, Angraecum 
conchoglossum, A. Ferkoanum, A. dasycarpum, A. Laggiarae, A. melanostictum , A. mirabile, 
A. sarcodanthum, A. tenuispica. — E. B. Payson. 

1054. Schlechter, R. Orchidaceae novae, in caldariis Horti Dahlemensis cultae. [New- 
orchids cultivated in the Garden at Dahlem.] Notizblatt Konigl. Bot. Gart. Mus. Berlin 7: 
268-280. Oct. 1, 1918. — The following new species of orchids are described: Masdevallia 
paranaensis, Stelis diaphana, S. fragrans, S. Porschiana, S. robusta, S. thermophila, Pleuro- 
thallis lamproglossa, P. margaritifera, P. microblephara, P. mirabilis, P. paranaensis, P. 
Petersiana, P. rhabdosepala, Octomeria rhodoglossa, Encyclia laxa native of Brazil, Dendro- 
bium dahlemense from Sumatra, Polystachya fulvilabia from Kamerun, Maxillaria phaeo- 
glossa and M. xanthorhoda native country unknown, and Vanda Petersiana from Burma. — 
J. M. Greenman. 

1055. Schlechter, R. Ueber einige neue Cymbidien. [On some new Cymbidiums.] 
Orchis 12: 45-48. 1918. — The following new species and new hybrids are described: Cymbid- 
ium Hennisianum from India, Cymbidium X Fiirstenbergianum (C. Traccyanum X erythro- 
styluyri), and Cymbidium X magnificum (C. erythrostylum X Lowianum). — J. M. Greenman. 

1056. Schlechter, R. Vanda X Herziana Schltr. n. hybr. Orchis 12: 88, 89. 1918 — 
Vanda X Herziana is described as a new hybrid between Vanda coerulea and V. suavis Ldl. 
— J. M. Greenman. 

1057. Schlechter, R. Zwei neue Hybriden (Brassocattleya X Paulae Schltr. und Lae- 
liocattleya X pulchella). [Two new hybrids.] Orchis 12:87. 1918. — Brassocattleya X Paulae 
was obtained by crossing Catlleya aurea with Brassavola Perrinii Rchb. f. and Laeliocatlleya 
X pulchella was obtained by crossing the natural hybrid Laelio X Craivshayana with Cattlcya 
velutina Rchb. f. — J. M. Greenman. 

1058. Schneider, Camillo. Weitere Beitrage zur Kenntnis der chinesischen Arten der 
Gattung Berberis (Euberberis). [Further contributions to the knowledge of the Chinese species 
of the genus Berberis (Euberberis).] Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 66:313-326. 1916. Ibid. 67: 15-32, 
135-146, 213-228, 2S4-300. 1918. — In this series of articles the author presents a revision of 
the Chinese species of Berberis recognizing 85 species and several varieties grouped in 10 sec- 
tions. The following new species and new combinations are included: Berberis phanera, 
B. Grodtmannia, B. Collettii, B. Willeana, B. Fabcri, B. microtricha, B. Franchetiana, B. 
kansuensis, B. oritrepha, B. Wilsonae Hensl. var. subcaulialata (B. subcaulialata Schn.), and 
B. Wilsonae Hemsl. var. Stapfiana (B. vulgaris var. Stapfiana Voss). — J. M. Greenman. 

1059. Schulz, O. E. Sisymbrium septulatum DC, eine bisher nicht geniigend bekannte 
Art. [Sisymbrium septulatum DC, a species previously insufficiently known.] Rep. Sp. Nov. 
15: 369-372. 1918. [Rep. Eu. & Med. 1: 306-308.]— This species, described from incomplete 
material and confused by synonymy has been variously misinterpreted. A complete specific 
description is given and specimens are cited. The following new varieties are characterized: 
*S. septulatum DC. var. trichocarpum, S. septulatum DC. var. dasycarpum, S. septulatum DC. 
var. lasiocarpum. — E. B. Payson. 

1060. Small, James. The origin and development of the Compositae. 8vo. xi + 834 V-> 
6 pi., 79 text-fig. William Wesley & Son: London, 1919. [Reprinted from the New Phytolo- 
gist, Vols, xvi-xviii. 1917-1919.]— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1142. 

1061. Vierhapper, F. Was ist Trifolium Pilczii Adamovic? [What is Trifolium Pilczii 
Adamovi6?] Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 67: 252-264, 328-337. PI. S. 1918.— The author presents 
the results of a critical study of Trifolium Pilczii Adamovic, and discusses its relationship 
to T. eximium Steph. and T. allaicum Vierh. — ./. M. Greenman. 



No. 1, AuausT, 1920] UNCLASSIFIED PUBLICATIONS 149 

1062. Viguier, R. Les Araliacees cultivees. [Cultivated Araliaceae.] Revue Horticole 
[Paris] 91 : 228-229. Feb., 1919. 

1063. Viguier, R. Les Araliacees cultivees. [Cultivated Araliaceae.] Revue Horticole 
[Paris] 91: 250-252. Mar., 1919. 

1064. Von Wettstein, R. Moltkea Dorfleri Wettstein und die Abgrenzung der Gattung 
Moltkea. [Moltkea DSrfleri Wettstein and the demarcation of the genus Moltkea.] Oesterr. 
Bot. Zeitschr. 67 : 361-368. PI. 3, 22 fig. 1918.— The author describes in detail and illustrates 
Mvltkea Dorfleri Wettst., discusses the relationship of the genus Moltkea to allied genera, and 
enumerates with the bibliography and synonymy eight species recognized under the above 
generic name. — J. M. Green-man. 

1065. Wagner, Rudolf. Erlauterungen zu Plunders Abbildung der Anechites lappulacea 
(Lam.) Miers. [Explanations to Plumier's illustration of Anechites lappulacea (Lam.) Miers.] 
Oesterr. Bot, Zeitschr. 67: 337-345. 3 fig. 1918. 

MISCELLANEOUS UNCLASSIFIED PUBLICATIONS 

Burton E. Livingston, Editor 

1066. Anonymous. Palatability for sheep of certain New Zealand forest plants. New 
Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 293-294. 1919. 

1067. Anonymous. Lac cultivation in India. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88:280. 1919. [From 
Jour. Roy. Soc. of Arts.] 

106S. Anonymous. Utilization of marine plants. Sci. Amer. 121 : 557. 1919. 

1069. Anonymous. Peat fuel for locomotives. Sci. Amer. 121: 566. 1919. 

1070. Baldwin, J. F. Germination of grains. Sci. Amer. 121: 626. 1919. — Reports of 
germination of grains of cereals found wrapped up with ancient Egyptian mummies are claimed 
to be fictitious. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1071. Bussy, P. Le latanier du Sud-Annam et sa fibre. [The Bourbon palm of southern 
annam and its fiber.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 1: 377-380. 1919. — A discussion of the 
fibers produced by the palm Corypha lecomtei Becc. — E. D. Merrill. 

1072. Caballero, A. La Chara foetida A. Br., y las larvas de Stegomyia, Culex y Anoph- 
eles. [Chara foetida A. Br. and the larvae of Stegomyia, Culex and Anopheles.] Bol. R. Soc. 
Espanola Hist. Nat. 19: 449-455. Oct., 1919. — In the botanical laboratory of the University 
of Barcelona it was noticed that an aquarium containing Chara foetida appeared not to breed 
mosquitoes as did other aquaria containing other aquatics (Polamogelon fluitans , P. pectinatus, 
Elodea canadensis, and Apium nodiflorum). Experiments were undertaken which indicated 
that a sufficient quantity of Chara foetida, probably not much more than one-eighth of the 
total volume of the container, caused the death of mosquito larvae by asphyxiation. The 
larvae of Stegomyia appeared somewhat more resistant than those of the other genera. The 
cultivation of Chara foetida is stated to be easy and economical and its use in tanks, ponds, 
etc., is recommended for preventing the development therein of mosquito larvae. — O. E. 
Jennings. 

1073. Clarkson, Edward Hale. The irresistible charm of the ferns. Amer. Fern 
Jour. 9: 109-115. PI. 7-8. 1919. 

1074. Freund, Hans. Ueber Kork-Ersatz. [Substitutes for Cork.] Pharm. Zentralhalle 
Deutschland 60: 183-187. 1919. — The scarcity of cork in Germany necessitated the use of 
substitutes for this commodity. The author describes the various barks, piths, etc., used 
for this purpose. — H. Engelhardt. 



150 UNCLASSIFIED PUBLICATIONS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1075. Fuehner, H. Goldregen Tabak. [Cytisus laburnum tobacco.] Pharm. Zentral- 
halle Deutschland 60: 336-337. 1919. — The leaves of Cytisus laburnum, when subjected to a 
proper fermentation, furnish a product which can be used as a substitute for tobacco. The 
smoke does not smell disagreeable, does not irritate the mucous membranes and acts on the 
central nervous system in exactly the same way as tobacco. — H. Engelhardt. 

1076. Griebel, C. Beitrage zum mikroskopischen Nachweis von pflanzlichen Streckungs- 
mitteln und Ersatzstoffen bei der Untersuchung der Nahrungs- u. Genussmittel. [Microscopic 
demonstration of vegetable substitutes in food investigation.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs- 
u. Genussmittel 38: 129-141. 1919. — Histological description of substitutes for bread and 
meal, preserves, spices, and coffee. — H. G. Barbour. 

1077. Haberlandt, G. Food value of alfalfa used as a table vegetable. Sci. Amer. 
Supplem. 88: 298, 312. 1919. [From Die Nahirurissenschaften (Berlin).] 

1078. Herter, W. Zur quantitativen Mikroanalyse der Nahrungs- und Futtermittel. 
[Quantitative micro-analysis of food.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs- u. Genussmittel 38: 
65-82. 1919. — Thorough theoretical discussion with numerous examples. — H. G. Barbour. 

1079. Howe, H. E. Research and cotton. Sci. Amer. 121 : 606. 1919.— A brief resume" of 
what investigation has done in the past for this branch of the textile industries. — Chas. H. 
Otis. 

1080. Howe, H. E. Using vegetable seeds. Sci. Amer. 121: 554. 1919. 

1081. Krafft, K. Ergebnisse der Untersuchung von Ersatzmitteln im Jahre 1918 und 
Januar bis April 1919. [Investigation of food substitutes.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs- u. 
Genussmittel 38: 213-221. 1919. — Substitutes for baking-powder and accessories, eggs, spices, 
extracts, flavorings, honey, preserves, fulminating powder, tea and coffee, tobacco, fruit 
juices, beer, and sausages. — H. G. Barbour. 

1082. Smith, E. Philip. Pollinosis ("Hay-Fever"). Jour. Botany 58: 40-44. 1920.— 
A condensed account is given of the symptoms of hay fever. It is noted that the problem of 
treatment has heretofore been approached from the standpoint of the immunologist. The 
earliest work was that of Dunbar and Pratjsnitz, and their experiments were elaborate. A 
list is given of the plants found by these authors to cause hay fever. The present author adds 
various conifers to the list. He thinks the toxalbumen theory of Dunbar is scarcely tenable 
because the contents of the pollen grain are separated from the nasal membrane by the wall 
of the grain. Mechanical irritation or the production of substances on the surface of the 
pollen are the only alternatives left. The author finds mechanical irritation insufficient to 
account for the symptoms. On the other hand the grains are coated with tapetal debris 
often in the form of an oily substance. The oil was extracted by ether from the pollen of 
Hibiscus and was found to produce a blister when applied to the unbroken skin of the fore- 
aim. Very similar results were obtained with the pollen of Plantago. The cases of Primula 
obconica and sinensis are cited to show that such irritating oils are produced by plants. If 
this theory of the cause of hay fever is correct it will throw a new light on the whole problem 
and bring it into line with well-known cases of plant-dermatitis which cover quite a wide 
range of plant organisms. — K. M. Wiegand. 

1083. Stuart, G. A. D., and E. J. Butler. Report of the Director. Sci. Rept. Agric. 
Inst. Pusa 1918-19: 1-10. 1919. — A summary of the more important scientific work for the 
year at the Pusa Institute (India). — Winfield Dudgeon. 

1084. Vernet, G. Sur les causes de la coagulation naturelle du latex d'Hevea brasiliensis. 
[On the causes of natural coagulation of the latex of Hevea brasiliensis.] Bull. Agric. Inst. 
Sci. Saigon 1 : 342-347. 1919. 

1085. Wall, A. The pronunciation of scientific terms in New Zealand, with special refer- 
ence to the terms of botany. Trans, and Pror. New Zealand Inst. 51: 409-414. 1919 



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I'.NTKIES 1086-242G 



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CONTENTS 

Entry nos. 

Agronomy 1086-1233 

Bibliography, Biography and History 1234-1259 

Botanical Education 1260-1264 

Cytology 1265-1269 

Forest Botany and Forestry 1270-1418 

Genetics 1419-1702 

Horticulture 1703-1877 

Morphology, Anatomy and Histology of Vascular Plants 1878-1914 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Bryophytes 1915-1924 

Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria and Myxomycetes 1925-1977 

Paleobotany and Evolutionary History 1978-2000 

Pathology 2001-2122 

Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy ■. . 2123-2135 

Physiology 2136-2256 

Soil Science 2257-2335 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants 2336-2402 

Miscellaneous, Unclassified Publications 2403-2426 

BOARD OF EDITORS FOR 1920 

AND ASSISTANT EDITORS 
Editor-in-Chief, Burton E. Livingston 

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore 

Associate, Lon A. Hawkins 

U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, D. C. 

EDITORS FOR SECTIONS 



Agronomy. C. V. Piper, U. S. Bureau of Plant Indus- 
try, Washington, D. C. — Assistant Editor, Mart R. 
Burr, U. S. Bureau of Plant Industry, Washington, 

n c. 

Bibliography, Biography and History. Lincoln W. 
Riddle, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Botanical Education. C. Stuart Gager, Brooklyn 
Botanic Garden, Brooklyn, New York. — Assistant 
Editor,' Alfred Gundersen, Brooklyn Botanic 
Garden, Brooklyn, New York. 

Cytology. Gilbert M. Smith, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wisconsin. — Assistant Editor, Geo. S. 
Bryan, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Ecology and Plant Geography. H. C. Cowlf.s, The 
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. — Assistant 
Editor, Geo. D. Fuller, The University of Chicago, 
Chicago, Illinois. 

Forest Botany and Forestry. Raphael Zon, U. S. Forest 
Service, Washington, D. C. — Assistant Editor, J. V. 
Hofmann, U. S. Forest Service, Wind River Ex- 
periment Station, Stabler, Washington. 

Genetics. George H. Shull, Princeton University, 
Princeton, New Jersey. — Assistant Editor, J. P. Kelly, 
Pennsylvania State College, State College, Penn- 
sylvania. 

Horticulture. J. H. Gourley, New Hampshire Agri- 
cultural College, Durham, New Hampshire. 

Miscellaneous, Unclassified Publications. Burton E. 
Livingston, The Johns Hopkins University, Balti- 
more, Maryland. 

Morphology, Anatomy and Histology of Vascular Plants. 
E. W. Sinnott, Connecticut Agricultural College, 
Storrs, Connecticut. % 



Morphology and Taxonomy of Algae. E. N.Transeau, 
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 

Morphology ana Taxonomy of Bryophytes. Alexandeb 
W. Evans, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut. 

Morpholcgy and Taxonomy of Fungi, Lichens, Bacteria 
and Myxomycetes. H. M. Fitzpatrick. Cornell 
University, Ithaca, New York. 

Paleobotany and Evolutionary History. Edward W. 
Berry, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, 
Maryland. 

Pathology. G. H. Coons, Michigan Agricultural Col- 
lege, East Lansing, Michigan. — Assistant Editor, C. W. 
Bennett, Michigan Agricultural College, East Lans- 
ing, Michigan. 

Pharmaceutical Botany and Pharmacognosy. Heber W. 
Youngken, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
Science .Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.— Assistant Ed itor,. 

E. N. Gathercoal, University of Illinois, Urbana, 
Illinois. 

Physiology. B. M. Duggar, Missouri Botanical Garden, 
St. Louis, Missouri. — Assistant Editor, Carroll W. 
Dodge, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. 

Soil Science. J. J. Skinner, U. S. Bureau of Plant 
Industry, Washington, D. C. — Assistant Editor, 

F. M.Schertz, U. S.Bureau of Plant Industry, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. J. M. Greenman, Mis- 
souri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. — 
Assistant Editor, E. B. Payson, Missouri Botanical 
Garden, St. Louis, Missouri. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY COMMITTEE FOR 19-0 

J. R. Schramm, Cliairman. Cornell University, Ithaca, New York. 

H. O Buckman L. Knudson 

W. H. Chandler E. G. Montgomery 

A. J. Eames D. Reddick 

R. A. Emerson L. W. Sharp 

H. M. Fitzpatrick K. M. Wiegand 
R. Hosmer 



BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS 

A monthly serial furnishinp; abstracts and citations of publications in the international field of 

botany in its broadest sense. 

UNDER THE DIRECTION OF 

THE BOARD OF CONTROL OF BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, INC. 

Burton E. Livingston, Editor-in-Chief 
The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 

Vol. V SEPTEMBER, 1920 No. 2 

ENTRIES 1086-2426 



AGRONOMY Library 

C. V. Piper, Editor 
Mary R. Burr, Assista?it Editor 

1086. Alway, F. J. A phosphate-hungry peat soil. Jour. Amer. Peat Soc. 13: 108-143. 
1920. — Some Minnesota bogs are found to have a sufficient supply of lime and available nitro- 
gen for the production of all crops suitable to the region. Phosphates, however, are very 
scant.— G. B. Rigg. 

1087. Anonymous. Elephant-grass in elevated localities. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31: 84. 1920. — Treats of Pennisetum purpureum. — L. R. Waldron. 

1088. Anonymous. The department and elephant-grass. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31: 143. 1920. — Treats of Pennisetum purpureum. — L. R. Waldron. 

1089. Anonymous. Coffee in New South Wales. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 133. 
1920. — This crop (Coffea spp.) would be unsuited to New South Wales. — L. R. Waldron. 

1090. Anonymous. Liming, cultivation and manurial experiments at Margam, Australia. 
Australian Sugar Jour. 11: 679-681. 1920. 

1091. Anonymous. Further reports on elephant grass. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31:244. 1920. 

1092. Anonymous. Rice culture in New South Wales. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 
232. 1920. — Results so far not encouraging but further trials are advised. — L. R. Waldron. 

1093. Anonymous. Weed seeds. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1:316. 1920. — Popular. — Chas. 
H. Otis. 

1094. Anonymous. Paper from bagasse. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1 : 283. 1920. [Review of 
a paper in The Technical Engineering News. Feb., 1920.] — Describes the process for com- 
mercially making a special paper from bagasse, which is sugar cane from which the juice 
has been extracted. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1095. Anonymous. Home-made syrup from sugar beets. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1 : 285-286. 
1920. — This appears to be a brief of a paper by Ort and Withrow in the Journal of Industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry. Feb., 1920. — Chas. H. Otis. 

151 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 2 



152 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1096. Anonymous. El zaca ton como material prima para papel. [Zacaton as a paper-making 
material.] Revista Agric. [Mexico] 4: 107-111. 1 fig. 1919.— A popular account based on: 
U. S. Dept. Agric. Bull. 309. 1919.— John A. Stevenson. 

1097. Anonymous. Origen, cultivo e industria del cacahuate. [Origin, cultivation and 
commercial aspects of the peanut.] Jalisco Rural [Mexico] 2: 81-86. 1920. — Copied from El 
Boletin de la Camara Agric. de Leon [Mexico]. — John A. Stevenson. 

1098. Atkinson, Esmond. Weeds and their identification. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 
19 : 232-234. 1 fig. 1919. — This is a continuation of a series of articles interrupted by the war 
in 1916. Plants known as "winter annuals" are under discussion. Spurrey (Spergula arven- 
sis) is described in detail at various stages of growth. It is reported as a useful plant in 
some countries, but it can be considered only as a noxious weed in New Zealand. Its posi- 
tion as a weed, and possible control measures are discussed. — N. J. Giddings. 

1099. Aumuller, F. Nutation und Feinheitsgrad der Spelzen bei zweizeiliger Gerste. 
[Nutation and the degree of fineness of the glumes in two-rowed barley.] Illustrierte Landw. 
Zeitg. 39 : 430-431. Fig. 332- 333. 1919. — The heads of varieties having fine glumes are shown 
by measurements to stand more nearly upright than those having coarser glumes. The 
former varieties are of higher quality but the latter are more productive. — John W. Roberts. 

1100. Bancroft, Wilder T. [Rev. of: Peters, Charles A. The preparation of sub- 
stances important in agriculture. 3rd. ed. 19 x 14 cm., vii + 81 p. John Wiley and Sons, 
Inc.: New York, 1919. $0.80.] Jour. Phys. Chem. 23: 444. 1919. 

1101. Ban6, Jose de. Dos cosechas de avena por una. [Two crops of oats for one.] Rev. 
Agric. [Mexico] 4: 154-156. 2 fig. 1919. — A ratoon crop secured under favorable weather 
conditions at small labor cost. — John A. Stevenson. 

1102. Barber, C. A. The growth of sugar cane. Internat. Sugar Jour. 22: 198-203. 1920. 
— The fifth article of a series on the growth of sugar cane deals with the rate of maturing of the 
cane plant as a whole, the rate of early development, the average length and thickness of 
the mature joints, and the richness of the juice in branches of different ages. [See next 
following Entry, 1103.]— #. Koch. 

1103. Barber, C. A. The growth of sugar cane. Internat. Sugar Jour. 22 : 76-80. 1920. 
— The fourth article of a series on the growth of sugar cane deals with the formula for the 
branching of the cane plant. [See next preceding Entry, 1102.] — E. Koch. 

1104. Barber, C. A. Progress of the sugarcane industry in India during the years 1916 
and 1917. Agric. Res. Inst. Pusa Bull. 83. 46 p. 1919. — The cane varieties in general use 
are poor, and the cultural practices and methods of handling the product primitive. The 
Department is endeavoring to introduce improvements along these lines, and the reports 
cover some of this work as carried out in the various provinces. Reports are given for Madras, 
Travancere, Mysore, Bombay, Central Provinces, Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, United Prov- 
inces, Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, Assam, and Burma. — -N. J. Giddings. 

1105. Besson, M. A., and Adrian Doane. Darso. Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
127. 20 p. Fig. 1-6. 1919. — Darso is a new grain sorghum of unknown origin, possessing 
superior drouth resisting qualities. It is a dwarf variety of very uniform size, early maturing, 
leafy, red-seeded. The forage has a higher total sugar content than kafir or feterita. The 
feeding value of the seed is less than that of black-hulled white kafir. It is recommended as a 
grain sorghum in the drier regions of Oklahoma, Texas, and Kansas, but not in the more 
humid regions where other grain sorghums and corn make satisfactory yields. — John A, 
Elliott. 

1106. Beverley, J. Maize notes. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 242-243. 1919. 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 153 

1107. Bollky, II. L. Official field crop inspection. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 
1919: 22-31. 1919. — -Author believes "that the first step in cereal crop improvement rests in 
further extension of our state seed and weed laws and in the activity of the forces represented 
by them, to include proper control of seed crop production and of seed and grain distribu- 
tion." Seed inspection laws alone have failed to insure seed and crop improvement since 
they inspect in the bin or bag after the goods has left the farm. Proposes for "every cereal 
producing state a law authorizing seed, field crop inspection, seed certification, seed stand- 
ardization and seed sales lists" under the supervision of a competent officer, also providing 
for educational emphasis together with means for demonstrations and field work with seed 
plots. — -V. T. Munn. 

110S. Breakwell, E. Popular description of grasses. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 
2 1 -28. Fig. 1-3. 1920. — -Habits of growth and seed production, palatability, behavior under 
irrigation and commercial possibilities are given for the genus Danthonia as found in New 
South Wales. Danthonia longifolia, D. bi partita and D. pallida, are figured. The Danthonias 
constitute 90 per cent of the grass herbage on the tablelands and slopes in New South Wales, 
and are common in western districts. Seed habits are fairly good. The Danthonias will be 
valuable in pastures in the future. — L. R. Waldron. 

1109. Breakwell, E. A remarkable fodder plant. Shearman's clover. (Trifolium fra- 
giferum var.) Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 245-250. 4 fig- 1920. — This report is given 
by the agrostologist. This clover was propagated vegetatively from an individual plant 
found growing alone several years previously. A taxonomic study indicates it to be unique, 
but closely allied to strawberry clover, T. fragiferum. The author suggests that it may have 
resulted from a cross between T. fragiferum and T. repens or T. medium or even between the 
t wo latter. Although under observation for over 20 years it has not been observed to produce 
viable seed. Compared with T. fragiferum, it is said to spread three times as quickly and to 
produce six times the amount of feed. Its palatability and nutritive quality are stated to be 
of the highest order. It thrives on marshy and slightly saline soils. It is not killed by 
frost. Chemical analyses are given. — L. R. Waldron. 

1110. Breakwell, E. Trials of Wimmers rye-grass. (Lolium subulatum.) Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales 31: 107-110. 2 fig. 1920. — Conclusions as given are unfavorable to 
the grass both as to cultural results and palatability. — L. R. Waldron. 

1111. Breakwell, E. Bokhara Clover on the southern table-lands. Agric. Gaz. New 
South Wales 31: 67. 1920.— Treats of Melilotus alba.—L. R. Waldron. 

1112. Breasola, M. La devitalizzazione dei semi di Cuscuta. [The killing of Cuscuta 
seeds.] Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 52: 193-207. 1919. — This is a continuation of work which was 
reported upon in 1913. The purpose of the investigation was without screening to find a 
method of killing the seeds of Cuscuta in a lot of leguminous seeds. It was found that 
due to the different sizes of the seeds of C. arvensis and C. Trifolii screening would not 
separate the former from seeds of Trifolium. The method devised w r as that of heating 
the lot; incidentally it was found that the seeds of Mcdicago saliva, Trifolium pratense, Tri- 
folium repens and Lotus corniculatus did not lose their vitality when exposed to the temper- 
atures of experiment, i.e., 65°C. for one and two hours, 70°C. for one hour and 75 P C. for one 
hour. In fact it was found that the number of seeds of these leguminosae germinating was in 
some cases greater after the treatment. The striking advantage was also found that the 
seeds of Cuscuta most easily screened out of seeds of the legume was the one that seemed 
to resist heat a little better (C. Trifolii) while the other (0. arvensis) was most easily killed. 
When tried in soil, the germinability of the two was found to decrease from 43.6 per cent to 
ll.S per cent in C. Trifolii and from 55.6 per cent to 0.2 per cent for C. arvensis Avhen heated 
for one hour at 75 °C. — A. Bonazzi. 



154 AGRONOMY [Box. Absts., Vol. V, 

1113. Brown, Edgar. Voluntary labeling by seedsmen. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Ana- 
lysts 1919: 41^12. 1919. — Following a suggestion made by the Department of Agriculture, 
many large seed houses and firms pledged their support to the proposal that seedsmen label 
all farm seeds sold, giving on each lot of 10 pounds or more, purity, germination, and date 
when tested, and if imported, the country of origin. A series of purchases of seeds from seed 
dealers throughout the country showed that 78 per cent of the samples were not labeled, 
however, "a larger percentage of the seedsmen who specifically agreed to label their seeds 
were found to comply with the agreement than was the case with seedsmen who did not so 
express themselves." — M. T. Munn. 

1114. Brown, W. H. Philippine fiber plants. Forestry Bur. Philippine Islands Bull. 19. 
115 p., 28 pi. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1304. 

1115. Brunol, Gil Morice. Algunos pastos naturales de Mexico. [Natural pastures in 
Mexico.] Rev. Agric. [Mexico] 4 : 58-62. 1 fig. 1919. — Outlines the different types of pasture 
grasses in Mexico. — John A. Stevens. 

1116. Burgess, J. L. Relation of varying degrees of heat to the viability of seeds. Proc. 
Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919: 48-51. 1919. — The author conducted experiments with 
corn, wheat, oats, rye, cowpeas, soy beans, and garden beans — seeds most liable to injury 
by insect pests, with a view of ascertaining the critical temperature above which the viability 
of each species is affected. The results of the experiments are given in tabular form. — 
M. T. Munn. 

1117. Call, L. E. Director's report. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. 1917-18. 63 p. 1918.— 
See Bot. Absts. 5, Entries 1466, 2024. 

1118. Chambliss, Charles E. Prairie rice culture in the United States. U. S. Dept. 
Agric. Farmers Bull. 1092. 26 p., 13 fig. 1920. 

1119. Clayton, W. F. The tea industry in South Africa. I. South African Jour. 
Indust. 3: 112-120. PI. 1-2. 1920.— Brief history of the tea industry in Natal, and of the 
cultural methods employed. — E. M. Doidge. 

1120. Cockayne, L. An economic investigation of the Montane tussock grassland of New 
Zealand. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 343-346. 2 fig. 1919.— This is the fourth of a series 
of articles dealing with the Montane tussock grassland. The California thistle, C'nicus 
arvensis, is reported as becoming firmly established in some areas which were bare from over- 
grazing. It seems to be palatable to some animals, and may help to establish other useful 
plants, in which case it should not be considered a weed. — N. J. Giddings. 

1121. Cowgill, H. B. Cross pollination of sugar cane. Jour. Dept. Agric. and Labor 
Porto Rico 3 : 1-5. 1919.— See Bot .Absts. 5, Entry 1478. 

1122. Crevost, C, and C. Lemarie. Plantes etproduits filamenteuxet textiles del'Indo- 
chine. [Fiber- and textile-producing plants of Indo-China.] Bull. Econ. Indochine 22: 813- 
837. PI. 2. 1919. — A continuation of the general paper on this subject, covering the 
families Asdepiadaceae, Ulmaceae, Urtricaceae, Scitamineae, Bromeliaceae, Amaryllidaceae, 
Liliaceae, and Pontederiaceae. — E. D. Merrill. 

1123. Crocker, William. Optimum temperatures for the after-ripening of seeds. Proc. 
Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919 : 46-48. 1919. — The author made a study of freshly harvested 
seeds of species of Crataegus, American linden, sugar maple, peach, and two species of 
Ambrosia. These seeds are typical of those having dormant embryos. The changes that go 
on and lead up to their normal germination are spoken of as after-ripening of the embryos. 
The embryos of these seeds must go through certain fundamental physiological changes 
before they sprout normally, since the embryos will not grow at all or only abnormally when 



No. 2, September. 1920) AGRONOMY 155 

they are naked and given all ordinary conditions favorable to germination. The optimum 
temperature for the process of after-ripening lies in the region of 4 to 5°C, and a constant 
temperature in these limits is very much more favorable than alternations between it and 
higher or lower temperatures. At freezing temperatures, after-ripening of these embryos 
progresses very slowly if at all, while temperature periods above 10°C. are especially detri- 
mental to the process. The facts disclosed by the invest igation raise the question whether 
nurserymen who layer their seeds to produce after-ripening would not do better to put the 
seeds in cold storage houses at optimum temperatures of 4 to 5°C., which would lead to a 
much more rapid and complete after-ripening than is attained in layering under fluctuating 
temperatures. It is the belief of the author that such methods should give returns in a 
greater percentage of seeds producing plants and in the general high vigor of the plants 
resulting from completed after-ripened embryos. — M . T. Munn. 

1124. Cross, W. E. The Kavangire cane. Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer 
63 : 397-399. 1 Jig. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2113. 

1125. Day, James W. The relation of size, shape and number of replications of plats to 
probable error in field experimentation. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12 : 100-105. 1920. — Varia- 
tion is reduced by increasing the size of the plat to one-twentieth of an acre or over. Most 
accurate results are obtained from plats that are long and narrow and extend in the direction 
of greatest variation of the soil. An increase in the number of replications of a plat of given 
size increases the accuracy of the results. — F. M. Scherlz. 

1126. Deem, J. W. Pasture top-dressing test in Waipukuraw county. New Zealand Jour. 
Agric. 19: 295-296. 1919. — Sheep were used in these experiments and the results for two 
seasons indicate that it is well worth while to top-dress. — N. J. Giddings. 

1127. Descombes, Paul. Le reboisement et le developpement economique de la France. 
[Reforestation and the economic development of France.] M6m. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Bordeaux 
VII, 2: 103-217. 2 fig. 1918. 

1128. Descombes, Paul. Installation d'exp6riencesprolongeessurleruissellement. {Pro- 
tracted experiments upon stream-flow.] Mdm. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Bordeaux VII, 2: 17-35. 
2 fig. 1918. 

1129. Doblas, Jose Herrera. El trigo tremesino. [Three-months wheat.] Bol. Assoc. 
Agric. [Espafia] 12 : 47-52. 1919. — Discusses a variety of wheat known as "Tremesino" (three- 
months) secured by selection from the common fall type planted in Spain. Yields were much 
less than with the fall variety and it is not recommended for planting except where planting 
at the usual time has been impossible. The variety yielded in four experiments an average 
of 10.75 hectoliters per hectarea. — John A. Stevenson. 

1130. Doblas, Jose Herrera. Estudio sobre el cultivo de la almorta. [Studies in the 
cultivation of the grass pea (Lathyrus sativus).] Bol. Assoc. Agric. [Espafia] 11: 665-674. 
1919. — Botanical classification, uses, varieties, cultivation and yields of Lathyrus satimif 
(grass pea). — John A. Stevenson. 

1131. Duncan, J. Noxious weeds. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 366-368. 1919. — It is 
urged that more attention be given to the destruction of noxious weeds. Weeds should be 
destroyed before seeding and the assistance of the public should be enlisted to destroy weeds 
as soon as they are observed. Methods of weed dissemination are discussed and means of 
prevention are indicated. It is suggested that in sowing to pasture the best of seed and 
plenty of it should be used in order to obtain a good close sod. This tends to choke out and 
prevent growth and spread of weeds. Farmers should not admit thrashing machines to their 
farm9 until the machines have been thoroughly cleaned. — N. J. Giddings. 



156 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1132. Duysen, F. Ueber die Keimkraftdauer einiger landwirthschaftliche Wichtiger 
Samen. [Concerning the vitality of certain agriculturally important seeds. ] Illustrierte Landw. 
Zeitg. 39: 282-283. 1919. — As the result of germination experiments it was found that the 
seeds of wheat, rye, barley and oats possess greater vitality than is generally supposed. 
Seeds of wheat 8 years old were 80 per cent viable and those of 14 years old 10 per cent viable. 
Nearly 100 per cent of wheat seeds from 1 to 7 years old germinated. Similar results were 
obtained with seeds of rye, barley and oats. — John W. Roberts. 

1133. Earle, F. S. Varieties of sugar cane in Porto Rico. Jour. Dept. Agric. and Labor, 
Porto Rico 3: 15-55. 1919. — One of the principal objects of this paper is to show that sugar 
cane varieties may be described, classified, keyed out and determined by ordinary methods of 
descriptive botany or taxonomy. Heretofore, remarkably few descriptions of the cane 
varieties have been published that would enable one to identify a variety. The cultural 
value and characteristics of the numerous varieties grown in Porto Rico are described in detail. 
A key for identification and a taxonomic description of a number of varieties is also contained 
in the article. — Anthony Berg. 

1134. Evans, L. A. Annual report of the acting-director of agriculture. Tasmania Agric. 
and Stock Dept. Rept. 1918-19: 1-6. 1919. — -Report giving statistics on production of prin- 
cipal crops. District reports are included. — D. Reddick. 

1135. Fawcett, G. L. The identity of canes grown in Argentina. Internat. Sugar Jour. 
22 : 135-136. 1920. — -The botanist of the Agricultural Experiment Station at Tucuman states 
that Java 36 is the true P. O. J. 36 as it is grown in Java today. The probable source of this 
incorrect designation is the description by Noel Deerr in his "Cane Sugar." Another inac- 
curacy is calling the variety J 228 (P. O. J. 228) by two names — its own and J 139, when in 
reality Java 228 is meant. Correspondence with the Java station and shipments of cane show 
that the Argentina canes of Javanese origin are identical with the varieties of corresponding 
names as grown in Java. — E. Koch. 

1136. French, G. T. Organization, development and activities of the Association of 
Official Seed Analysts of North America. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919: 15-20. 
1919. 

1137. Fruwirth, C. Die Anspriiche der zur Kornergewinnung gebauten Lupinearten an 
Boden und Klima . [The soil and climate requirements of lupine species grown for yield of seed. ] 
Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 199-200. 1919. — The soil and climate requirements of the 
following species are discussed: Lwpinus luteus, L. angustifolius , L. dibits, L. cruikshanksii, 
L. mutabilis, L. hirsuhis. — John W. Roberts. 

1138. Fruwirth, C. Zur Frage des Verpflanzens der Luzerne. [Concerning the question 
of transplanting alfalfa.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39:226. 1919. — Results obtained through 
three years of experimentation indicate that greater yields of forage and seed may be expected 
from a field in which the seed has been drilled in than from one in which a stand has been 
obtained by transplantation. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are dis- 
cussed. — John W. Roberts. 

1139. Gajon, Carlos. Cultivo del chicharo de vaca. [Cultivation of the cowpea.] Rev. 
Agric. [Mexico] 5 : 26-34. 5 fig. 1919. — Explains the value of a green manure crop, the manner 
of fixation of nitrogen by legumes and outlines the culture of cowpeas, a green manure crop 
well adapted to Mexican conditions. — John A. Stevenson. 

1140. Gammie, G. A. Report of the imperial cotton specialist. Sci. Rept. Agric. Res. 
Inst. Pusa 1918-19: 115-124. 1919. — The report summarizes the qualities of some of the var- 
ious varieties of cotton grown in India, and outlines experiments either in progress or contem- 
plated to improve the cotton yield.— W infield Dudgeon. 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 157 

1141. Gardner, II. A. Research in the paint industry. Sci. Ainer. 122: 89. 1920. — 
Observations on the growing of soya beans and manufacturing of soya oil used in mixing 
paints. — Chas. II. Otis. 

1142. Gillette, L. S., A. C. McCandlish, and II. H. Kildek. Soiling crops for milk 
production. Iowa Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 187: 33-59. 1919.— This build in 1 rents of the utili- 
zation of soiling crops for milk cows, discussing in this connection alfalfa, red clover, alsike, 
sweet clover, field peas, cowpeas, soy beans, maize, oats, rye, foxtail millet, sweet sorghum, 
Sudan grass, and the following mixtures: oats and peas, oats and vetch, barley and peas, rye 
and hairy vetch, cowpeas and corn, cowpeas and sorghum, clover and timothy. A resume^ 
of work by other investigators is added. — C. V. Piper. 

1143. Goss, W. L. Greenhouse and germination-chamber tests of crimson clover seed 
compared. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919: 04. 1919. — The results of 104 compara- 
tive and simultaneous germination tests of crimson clover seed, made between folds of blotting 
paper and in the greenhouse in soil gave results as follows : ' 'The average of these 104 samples 
in the germinator was 50 per cent. The average germination of these same samples tested 
in soil in the greenhouse was 42 per cent." — M. T. Munn. 

1144. Griffiths, David. Prickly pear as stock food. U. S. Dept. Agric. Farmers' Bull. 
1072. U p. 8 fig. 1920. 

1145. Guthrie, F. B., and G. W. Norris. Note on the classification of wheat varieties. 
Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 243-244. 1920. — Classification based on milling values. — 
L. R. Waldron. 

1140. Hadlington, James. Poultry Notes. February. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31 : 137-141. 1920. — Notes on growing alfalfa, Medicago sativa. — L. R. Waldron. 

1147. Hansen, W. Degeneration und Saatgutwechsel. [Degeneration and seed variation.] 
Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 558-500. 1919. — The writer discusses the degeneration in the 
yield and quality of various field crops and strongly advises seed selection as a remedy there- 
for. — John W. Roberts. 

1148. Harrington, Geo. T. Comparative chemical analyses of Johnson grass seeds and 
Sudan grass seeds. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919: 58-04. 1919. — A brief account 
of the results of comparative microchemical and permeability studies, also, gross chemical 
analyses of the seeds of these two closely related grass plants are given. These studies were 
made to determine whether there are any differences in their chemical nature, which might 
serve as a basis for explaining their marked difference in dormancy, germinating and after- 
ripening. — M. T. Munn. 

1149. Harrison, W. H. Report of the Imperial Agricultural Chemist. Sci. Rept. Agric. 
Res. Inst. Pusa 1918-19: 35-45. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2271. 

1150. Haywood, A. H. Elephant, Para, and Guinea grasses at Wollongbar. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales 31: 0. 1920. — Growth results given for Pennisctum purpureum, Panicum 
muticum and P. maximum, respectively. Elephant grass gave largest bulk of feed, was 
drought resistant and stimulated milk yields. Para grass covered the ground forming suc- 
culent, feed, which remained green throughout the winter. — L. R. Waldron. 

1151. Heiduschka, A., and S. Felser. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Fettsauren des Erd- 
nussoles. [Fatty acids of peanut oil.] Zeitschr. Untersuch. Nahrungs.- u. Genussmittel 38: 
241-205. 1919. — The composition of the fatty acids of the peanut oil examined was: Ara- 
chidic 2.3 per cent, Lignoceric 1.9 per cent, Stearic 4.5 per cent, Palmitic 4.0 per cent, Oleic 
79.9 per cent, Linoleic 7.4 per cent. — H. G. Barbour. 



158 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1152. Helweg, L. Sale of Danish root seed with guarantee for genuineness. Seed World 
7 3 : 24-26. 1920. — This article deals with the Danish methods of growing seeds of carrots, 
mangels, rutabagas, and turnips and the guaranteeing of the genuineness of the varieties and 
strains, a method now adopted by nine of the important seed dealers. — M. T. Munn. 

1153. Hilgendorf, F. W. Methods of plant breeding. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 
354-358. 1919. — The work of several investigators is briefly reviewed and the conclusion 
drawn that simple selection for the improvement of self fertilized plants, such as wheat, is 
not considered as very hopeful. — N. J. Giddings. 

1154. Hillman, F. H. Rhode Island bent seed and its substitutes in the trade. Proc. 
Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919:64-68. 1919. — In this paper the author reports recent 
investigations which show that there are certain seed characteristics peculiar to each of the 
species, by means of which the kinds of seed may be distinguished and to a certain extent their 
true proportions in a mixture determined. The source of the seed, shown or indicated by the 
kinds of weed seeds and extraneous crop seeds present, is also an aid in determining the kind 
of seed and liability of mixture due to condition of growth and trade practice. Attention iB 
directed by the author to detailed and illustrative descriptions of the seeds of bent grasses 
found in Bulletin 692, Professional Series, U. S. Department of Agriculture. — M. T. Munn. 

1155. Hite, Bertha C. Forcing the germination of bluegrass. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed 
Analysts 1919: 53-58. 1919. — Experiments designed to ascertain the effect of light, tempera- 
ture, and nutrient solutions on the germination of Kentucky bluegrass and Canada bluegrass 
are discussed. The experiments lead to the conclusions that: A complete viability test of 
Kentucky blue grass can be obtained in the dark with an exact 20°-30°C. alternation, lender 
constant temperature conditions this grass gives a higher germination in the light. — An alter- 
nation of 20°-30°C. in a dark chamber does not give a complete viability test of Canada blue- 
grass. — Direct sunlight or diffuse light a few hours each day with approximately a20°-30°C. 
alternation gives a complete viability test of both Canada blue grass and Kentucky bluegrass. 
— Nutrient solutions with 20°-30°C. alternation in the dark give a complete viability test of 
both Kentucky bluegrass and Canada bluegrass. — So far we have not been able to find an alter- 
nation of temperature alone that would give a complete viability test of all samples of Canada 
bluegrass. — M. T. Munn. 

1156. Hodson, Edgar A. Upland long staple cotton in Arkansas. Arkansas Agric. Exp. 
Sta. Circ. 49: 1-4. 1920. — The conditions under which upland long staple cotton varieties 
may be expected to produce a profitable crop are given together with a map showing the 
regions suited to the culture of long staple, intermediate, and short staple cottons. — John A . 
Elliott. 

1157. Hodson, Edgar A. Cotton Club manual. Arkansas Agric. Exp. Circ. 84: 1-26. 
// fig. 1920. — A popular manual covering the history, physiology, histology, culture, and! 
use of the cotton plant. — John A. Elliott. 

1158. Hodson, Edgar A. Lint frequency in cotton with a method for determination. 
Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 168: 1-12. 1920. — Lint frequency was determined for 100 
seed samples from 10 plants each of 25 varieties of cotton under test. The length of lint was 
determined, also the percentage of lint by weight. The seed was delinted with sulphuric aciil 
and the volume determined by displacement in alcohol. The weight of lint of a uniform length 
of 25 mm. was calculated to give an accurate comparison of weight of lint produced per squaio 
centimeter of seed surface. The lint index for a plant represents the average amount of lint 
produced on one seed. Six tables are given showing the lint index, lint percentage, lint length, 
and lint frequency of the varieties studied. — "High lint frequency is closely correlated with 
short lint, therefore, it is necessary in making selections for high lint frequency to consider 
length and per cent of lint." — John A. Elliott. 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 159 

1159. Howard, A., avd G. L. C. Report of the Imperial Economic Botanist. Sci. Rept. 
Agric. Res. Inst. Push 1918-19 : 46-67. PI. 5-6. 1919. — The report includes a summary of the 
progress of investigations during the year under report, a program for 1919-20, and a list of 
literature published. Improved wheats (Trilicum vulgarc) "Pusa 4" and "Pusa 12" have 
produced yields of 3350 pounds and 3000 pounds respectively per acre, under good cultivation, 
in contrast with the very low yields of ordinary Indian wheats under Indian methods of culti- 
vation. These improved wheats are being sent to other countries for trial. Other work in- 
cludes methods of culture and improvement of indigo (Indigo/era tinctoria); sun-drying of 
vegetables; methods of packing fruit for shipment; pollination of Indian crop plants; and soil 
drainage. Poor drainage in the Gangetic Plains during the monsoon interferes with proper 
root development and promotes excessive denitrification. Actual crop production under 
improved methods of cultivation indicate that with small expenditure of organic fertilizer 
the fertility of alluvial soils may be maintained or improved. — Winfield Dudgeon. 

1160. Howe, II. E. The future of the cotton industry. What organized research promises 
to do for grower and manufacturer. Sci. Amer. 122 : 300. 1920. 

1161. Hutchinson, C. M. Report of the Imperial Agricultural Bacteriologist. Sci. Rept. 
Agric. Res. Inst, Pusa 1918-19: 106-114. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2282. 

1162. Hyde, W. C. Orchard cover-crop experiments on the Mountere Hills. New Zea- 
land Jour. Agric. 19: 364-365. 1 fig. 1919. — This is the final report of a 4-year series of ex- 
periments. Oats made a good growth and oats with partridge peas were particularly good. 
Blue lupine was the best of the legumes and it made much the strongest growth on limed 
area. — N. J . Giddings. 

1163. Jones, Earl. Northern grown seed wins in Massachusetts. Potato Mag. 2 9 : 24, 
29. 1920. 

1164. Jordan, W. H., and G. W. Churchill. An experience in crop production. New 
York Agric. Exp. Sta. [Geneva] Bull. 465. 20 p. 1919. — An account of an experiment in which 
a 4-year rotation of crops (corn, oats, wheat, and hay) was carried through four rotations 
on plats fertilized in different ways — with farm manure, a complete chemical fertilizer, a par- 
tial chemical fertilizer, and no fertilizer. On some plats the hay crop was red clover; on 
others, timothy. The total amount of dry matter produced w T as somewhat greater on plats 
treated with farm manure than on plats receiving a complete chemical fertilizer; and about 
56 per cent greater than on unfertilized plats. Especially noteworthy is the fact that crop 
production was maintained as efficiently on the timothy plats as on clover plats. The results 
of a series of soil analyses made in connection with the experiment show the unreliability of 
soil analysis as a means of measuring soil fertility. — F. C. Stewart. 

1165. Jo vino, S. Osservazioni sull'aridocoltura italiana. [Observations upon dry farm- 
ing in Italy.] Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 52: 69-121, 125-192. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2328. 

1166. Kellogg, James W. Seed report, 1918. Bull. Pennsylvania Dept. Agric. 2 3 : 1-29. 
5 pi. 1919. — The bulletin includes a table giving standards of purity for various seeds; re- 
sults of tests on special samples; average purity of official samples; results of inspection and 
analyses in tabular form; and illustrations of the noxious weed seeds found in farm seeds. — 
C. R. Orion. 

1167. Kellogg, James W. Seed report, 1920. Bull. Pennsylvania Dept. Agric. 3 4 : 1-28. 
1920. — Standards of purity established by the Seed Law for 20 kinds of seeds are given; also 
the results of special samples tesfed for purity; the average purity of official samples and the 
results of inspection are discussed and the data arranged in tabular form. — C. R. Orton. 

1168. Kerle, W. D., and R. N. Makin. Farmers' experiment plots. Winter fodder 
trials, 1919. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 77-83. 1920.— In the Upper North Coast dis- 



160 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

trict, trials of cereals and legumes with and without fertilizers were carried out by a number 
of farmers. Results showed the practice to be successful. In the South Coast district cereals 
were tried without manures, with success. — L. R. Waldron. 

1169. Killer, J. Uber die Bewertung der Centaurea solstitialis als Charakterbegleitsame 
bei der Herkunftsbestimmung von Kleesaaten. [Concerning the value of Centaurea solstitialis 
as an indicator of the origin of clover seed.l Jour. Landw. 67: 109-110. 1919. — Centaurea 
solstitialis has long been recognized as indicating a southern European origin of clover seed. 
As this plant in recent years has been growing in Alsace in increasing abundance its seed may 
also be found in clover seed from there. — C. E. Leighty. 

1170. Koerner, W. F. Auf welche Krankheitsformen ist beim "Burchsehen" und "Aus- 
hauen" der zur Saatgewinnung bestimmten Kartoffelfelder besonders zu achten. [What dis- 
eases are to be considered especially in going through and thinning out potato fields from which 
seed potatoes are to be selected.] Illustrierte Landw. Zeitg. 39: 323-324. Fig. 252-259. 1919. 

1171. Lansdell, K. A. Some common adulterants found in agricultural seeds. I. Jour. 
Dept. Agric. Union South Africa 1 : 26-31. Plates II-IV. 1920. 

1172. Lewis, A. C, and C. A. McLendon. Cotton variety tests. Georgia State Bd. 
Entomol. Circ. 29. 20 p. 1920.- — Outlines tests with twenty-eight varieties of cotton (Gos- 
sypium) for 1919 conducted in the following Georgia counties: Sumter, Stewart, Dooley, 
Burke, Wilks, Douglas and Habersham. In each test, from ten to twenty varieties were 
used. Summaries of the various tests and recommendations of the varieties for different 
sections and under different conditions are given. Lists are appended of cooperative cotton 
growers and of parties from whom cotton seed may be purchased. — T. H. Mc Hat ton. 

1173. Macpherson, A. Lucerne growing for seed. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 369- 
371. 1919. — -This article discusses the preparation of the seed bed, general cultural methods, 
weather conditions, harvesting the seed crop, etc. Conclusions are drawn that good crops 
of lucerne seed may be produced on well drained soil of average fertility. Very rich land and 
soil supplied with an abundance of moisture produce herbage rather than seed. Thick stands 
of lucerne are not favorable for good seed production. During the period devoted to the seed 
crop, two crops of hay may be taken from thick stands, which will be found of more profit. 
Old stands that are thinning out will often produce good crops of seed. The best practice for 
seed production is to establish a special wide-spaced stand by sowing the seed in rows 28 inches 
or more apart and cultivating two or three times. — N. J. Giddings. 

1174. Macpherson, A. Lucerne-culture tests at Ashburton Experimental Farm. New 
Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 288-293. 1919. — Experiments were conducted to indicate the proper 
amount of seed ; the best method of sowing, and the effects of lime and fertilizers. As a result 
of these tests it is recommended: Seed should be sown in drills from 14 to 21 inches apart, 
to admit of cultivation ; that not less than 15 pounds of seed per acre should be used ; and that 
lime should be used, but not fertilizers. — -N. J . Giddings. 

1175. Maiden, J. H. Chats about the prickly pear. No. 1. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31: 117-120. 1920. — A brief historical survey of Opuntia spp. as an Australian pest is pre- 
sented.— L. R. Waldron. 

1176. Maiden, J. H. Chats about the prickly pear. No. 2. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31: 195-199. 1920. — Remarks on possible minor uses of Opuntia spp. — L. R. Waldron. 

1177. McDiarmid, R. W., andG. C. Sparks. Farmers' experiment plots. Potato experi- 
ments, 1918-19. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 37-42. 1920.— Yields are given for different 
varieties in the New England district and the southwestern slopes at different points, with dif- 
ferent manures and for different cultural methods. Artificial manures proved to be 
valuable. — L. R. Waldron. 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 161 

1178. McDiarmid, R. W. Grain sorghums in northern districts. Agric. Gaz. New 
South Wales 31: 17-18. 1920. — Satisfactory results were obtained at Pallamallawa and Ten- 
terfield with 5 varieties of Andropogou sorghum, used both as green feed and for grain pro- 
duction. The maximum yield of grain was 28 bushels per acre from Kaoliang, which was also 
the earliest variety. — L. R. Waldron. 

1179. McKay, J. W. Assam Experiment Station. Rept. Karimganj Agric. Exp. Sta. 
1918-19: 1-16. 1919. — Annual report of Director of the Assam Experiment Station, recording 
progress in methods of cultivation and selection of promising varieties of commonly culti- 
vated field crops. — Winfield Dudgeon. 

1180. Menges, Fra.vklin. Report on soils and crops. Bull. Pennsylvania Dept. Agric. 
I 1 : 111-114. 1918. — Some brief considerations of the conditions favoring the conservation of 
food materials in the soil and what may be expected by a proper supplementation of them. — 
C. R. Orton. 

1181. Miege, E. Le deslnfection du sol. [The disinfection of the soil.] Prog. Agric. et 
Vitic. 74: 133-140. 1920— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2284. 

1182. Mieville, R. Note sur le theier sauvage du Phou-Sang Region du Tranninh (Haut- 
Laos). [Note on the wild tea of Phou-Sang.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 87-99. 1920. 

1183. Mitscherlich, Eilh. Alfred. Zum Gehalt der Haferpfianze an Phosphorsiiure 
und seinen Beziehungen zu der durch eine Nahrstoffzufuhr bedingten Ertragserhohung. [On 
the phosphoric acid content of the oat plant and its relation to the increased yield resulting from 
addition of nutrients.] Jour. Landw. 67: 171-176. 1 fig. 1919. — The law which Pfeiffer and 
others believe they have established is not confirmed by these investigations. — C. E. Leighty. 

11S4. Munter, Dr. Pflanzenanalyse und Diingerbedurfnis des Bodens. [Plant analysis 
and fertilizer requirement of the soil.] Jour. Landw. 67: 229-266. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 2275. 

1185. Myers, C. H. The use of a selection coefficient. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 
106-112. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1590. 

1186. Nelson, Martin, and L. W. Osborn. Report of oats experiments 1908-1919. 
Arkansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 165. 32 p., 2 pi. 1920. — Thirteen tables are given showing 
yields of 45 varieties of fall seeded and spring seeded oats under different dates of sowing and 
different rates of seeding. Tests were carried on in different sections of the state upon various 
types of soil. Recommendations are made of varieties adapted to different sections of the 
state and as to the cultural methods to be followed. — John A. Elliott. 

1187. Nelson, Martin, and Edgar A. Hodson. Varieties of cotton, 1919. Arkansas 
Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 166. 8 p. 1920. — Five tables are given showing the rank in seed cot- 
ton, lint production, seed production, and value of lint per acre of from 8 to 25 varieties, tested 
in various parts of the state, on different types of soil. — John A. Elliott. 

118S. Olivares, Daniel. Cultivo del lupulo. [Cultivation of hops.] Revista Agric. 
[Mexico] 3 : 374-378. Ibid. 4 : 12-16, 62-64. 2 fig. 1919.— An account of the importance and 
possibilities of hops as a crop in Mexico giving details, botanical description, varieties, culti- 
vation, fertilizers, manner of harvesting and yields. — John A. Stevenson. 

1189. Ortiz, Ruben. Rotacion y alternacion de los cultivos. [Rotation and alternation 
of crops.] Jalisco Rural [Mexico] 2: 61-64. 1920. — Popular r£sum6 of reasons for crop rota- 
tions. A series of rotations suitable for Mexican conditions is given. — John A. Stevenson. 

1190. Oswald, W. L. Cooperation between the seed analysts and the seed trade. Proc. 
Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 1919: 38-41. 1919. 



162 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1191. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. An annual white sweet clover. Proc. Iowa Acad. 
Sci. 25: 249-251. PI. 4-6. 1920. — Origin and history of an annual strain of Melilotus alba 
found at Ames, Iowa. — H. S. Conard. 

1192. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. Test your clover and timothy seed. Iowa Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Circ. 59. 2 p. 1919. 

1193. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. Johnson grass as a weed in southwestern Iowa. 
Iowa Agric. Exp. Sta. Circ. 55. 4 P-> 3 fig. 1919. — Johnson grass has become established in 
southern Iowa, and promises to become a menace to the farmers. A brief discussion is given, 
including a botanical description of the grass and seed, together with methods of extermi- 
nation. — Florence Willey. 

1194. Pavoni, P. A. El cultivo de la higuerilla. [Cultivation of the castor bean.] Jalisco 
Rural [Mexico] 2 : 41-45. 1919. — A compiled account of the cultivation of the castor bean. — 
John A. Stevenson. 

1195. Pieper, H. Beschreibung einer Methode zur raschen Erkennung von Futterruben- 
samen im Zuckerriibensamen. [The description of a method for rapid differentiation between 
stock beet seed and sugar beet seed.] Zeitschr. Vereins Deutsch. Zucker-Indust. 766: 409- 
418. 1919. 

1196. Pitt, J. M. Farmers' experiment plots. Winter green fodder exepriments, 1919. 
Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 7-12. 8 fig. 1920. — Soiling crops are recommended for 
winter and spring in the Central Coast district, as dry weather invariably occurs. Cultural 
details and yield results are given for 10 localities (or less) for 8 varieties of wheat, 5 of oats 
and vetches and peas in combination with wheat or oats. The maximum yield of over 21 tons 
was secured from Thew wheat and peas. — L. R. Waldron. 



1197. Pitt, J. M., and R. W. McDiarmid. Farmers' experiment plots. Maize experi- 
ments, 1918-19. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 99-105. 1920.— Different varieties, with 
and without phosphatic manures, were grown at various localities in the Central Coastal dis- 
trict. The use of manures generally showed profits. The Improved Yellow Dent gave a 
maximum yield of 125 bushels per acre. Light yields were secured in the Northern districts. 
— L. R. Waldron. 



m WVMtBWKV 



1198. Powers, W. L., and W. W. Johnston. The improvement and irrigation require- 
ment of wild meadow and tule land. Oregon Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 167. 44 P-,25 fig. 1920. — 
There are more than 515,000 acres of wild meadow and tule land in eastern Oregon, the former 
comprising more than one-third of the irrigated area of the state. The chief vegetation 
in the peat swamps consists of tules and flags, mingled with wire grass and sugar grass, 
while the chief meadow grasses are redtop, blue-joint, meadow grass and wild clover. In 
the Chewaucan Basin alsike clover and timothy have yielded 3{- tons an acre as compared to 
1 ton of native grass on adjoining land. Alfalfa in the Harney Basin has produced about 2 
tons an acre, while native wild hay has averaged but $ ton an acre. In the Fort Klamath 
region alsike clover and timothy have yielded more than double the amount of forage pro- 
duced by native grasses. Results from 5 years experiments have shown that an average depth 
of 18 inches of water on the field could produce the maximum yield now obtained, while an 
average of 12 inches has given the largest yield per acre per inch of water used. The average 
cost for the production of wild hay has been nearly double that required for alsike clover and 
timothy. Marked increases in yield of alfalfa have been secured from an application of sul- 
fur to swamp border soils. — E. J. Kraus. 

1199. Ramsay, J. T. Is change of seed necessary in the cultivation of potatoes? Jour. 
Dept. Agric. Victoria 17: 651-657. 1919. — The selection of home grown seed potatoes has 
given as good results as imported seed potatoes. — J. J. Skinner. 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 163 

1200. Ravaz, L. Le nitrate d'ammoniaque. [Ammonium nitrate.] Prog. Agric. et Vitic. 
74:33-34. 1 fig. 1920. 

1201. Rindl, M. Vegetablefatsandoils.il. Drying oils. South African Jour. Induct. 
3:121-127. 1920. 

1202. Robbins, \V. W. The organization of the Colorado seed laboratory. Proc. Assoc. 
Official Seed Analysts 1919: 35-38. 1919. 

1203. Robbins, W. W. Research and seed testing. Proc. Assoc. Official Seed Analysts 
1919:20-22. 1919. 

1204. Robin, J. Les differentes varietes de riz cultivees a la station de Cantho. [The 
different varieties of rice cultivated at the Cantho station.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 
40-45. 1920. — Brief notes on the characters of 22 varieties of rice. — E. D. Merrill. 

1205. Salmon, S. C. Establishing Kanred wheat in Kansas. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Circ. 74. 16 p. Aug., 1919. — Kanred wheat is a hard, red, winter wheat, resembling closely 
Turkey and Kharkof . It is resistant to winter killing, ripens early, yields more than any other 
commercial variety in Kansas and is very resistant to leaf rust and some forms of stem rust. 
It will probably be of commercial value in other states growing winter wheat. — L. E Melchcrs. 

1206. Sanderson, T. Value of Red Durum or D 5 wheat. North Dakota Agric. Exp. 
Sta. Special Bull. 5 : 507-517. 1920. — Deals with milling and baking values. There are pre- 
sented coefficients of flour absorption, and also those for volume, color and texture of loaf. 
When these coefficients are applied to the data presented the D 5 wheat was found to be 
worth 23 cents per bushel less than No. 1 Amber Durum, and 38 cents less than No. 1 Hard 
Red Spring, for the years 1915-1919. The D 5 showed itself inferior in all loaf characters. — 
L. R. Waldron. 

1207. Sayer, Wynne. Report of the Imperial Agriculturist. Sci. Rept. Agric. Res. Inst. 
Pusa 1918-19: 11-34. 4 pi. 1919. — The report describes the results of experiments in crop 
rotation at the Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, India, to determine the best methods 
of working the land of the Pusa farm, and field tests of new and improved varieties of com- 
monly cultivated plants. A new variety of wheat (Triticum vulgare), "Hard Federation," 
stands up well in wind and rain, and yields up to 3300 pounds per acre. — W infield Dudgeon. 

1208. [Schule, N., and H. L. Maxwell.] The oil in peanuts. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1: 
213. 1920. [Reprinted from Chemical News (London).] 

1209. Scott, John M. Bahia grass. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 112-113. 1920.— A 
report of the promise of Bahia grass (Paspalum notalum), which has been introduced into 
the United States from South America and Mexico. Experiments in Florida have given very 
satisfactory results. — F. M. Schertz. 

1210. Sparks, G. C. Farmers' experiment plots. Potato experiments, 1918-1919. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales 31: 251-254. 1920. — Different varieties were tried in several localities, 
with and without fertilizers. Fertilizers had a marked positive effect upon yield. — L. R. 

Waldron. 

1211. Sparks, G. C., B. C. Meek, and R. W. McDiarmid. Farmers' experiment plots. 
Wheat and oats experiments, 1919. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 153-164. 1920.— Trials 
with wheat, also oats and barley, were carried out in three districts with a number of coopera- 
tors. The experiments dealt with the effect of fertilizing, early and late sowing, crop-harrow- 
ing, fallowing, rate of seeding and the effect of using graded and ungraded and acclimatized 
and unacclimatized seed. Yields and bushel weights of grain are given. Working the land 
after the rain gave growth and returns superior to that worked only prior to the rain and 



164 AGRONOMY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

while the land was dry. The value of the properly compacted seed bed was demonstrated in 
the long and short fallowing plots and the May preparation with the spring-toothed cultivator 
only. The use of superphosphate with a quick maturing variety on the long and short f allowed 
land is unnecessary. Good jaelds on the long fallow plainly demonstrated the value of that 
system. — L. R. Waldron. 

1212. Stuckey, H. P. Further studies in fertilizing and storing sweet potatoes. Georgia 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 134: 77-87. 1920.— Bulletin 107 of the Georgia Experiment Station reports 
work on fertilizing sweet potatDes (Ipo7noca batatas) which was begun in 1908, the first report 
being published in 1913. This Bulletin reports on the same work from 1914-1919 inclusive. 
The area utilized for the plats is Cecil clay loam, and the same kinds and amounts of ferti- 
lizer have been applied to the same plats from 1908 to 1919 inclusive. Plat No. 1, fertilized at 
the rate of 24 tons of stable manure per acre; plat No. 2, 2100 pounds 16-per-cent acid phos- 
phate per acre; plat No. 3, 900 pounds sulphate of potash per acre; plat No. 4, 1500 pounds 
nitrate of soda per acre; plat No. 5, 1800 pounds of complete fertilizer. Results show that 
acid phosphate and sulphate of potash have increased the acidity of the soil. The complete 
fertilizer gave the largest total yield throughout the period of the test, stable manure coming 
second. Heavy nitrogenous fertilization seemed to give potatoes a lighter color and some- 
what poorer flavor. The variety of sweet potatoes used since 1913 has been Myers Early. 
The best quality potatoes were produced on the acid phosphate plat and the check. The pot- 
ash seemed to have little influence in either color, flavor, or texture of the flesh. Potatoes 
from the experimental plats were tested in storage. Those from the check plat kept better 
through the winter than the others, but the data obtained were variable and a conclusion 
can hardly be drawn. In testing the influence of soil types on the keeping of sweet potatoes, 
potatoes grown on Cecil clay loam or red soil and on a gray phase of the Cecil clay loam were 
compared; it is concluded that under local conditions, potatoes grown on gray soil keep 
better than those grown on red soil. Potatoes from various plats were put in storage and loss 
of weight determined. The average loss of weight was 16.6 per cent. The loss of moisture 
from November 5th to March 1st was 3.73 per cent. The average total loss of weight was 
16.6 per cent, and it is concluded that the percentage in loss of weight over the percentage 
of loss in moisture is doubtless due to the breaking down of carbohydrates and the giving off 
of carbon dioxide. In conclusion the author outlines a cooperative test on fertilizing sweet 
potatoes that is being carried on by several southern stations. It states results for one year. 
— T. H. McHatton. 

1213. Syme, J. E. Wheat plots at Narromine, 1919. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 
233-234. 1920. 

1214. Syme, J. E. Farmers' experiment plots. Wheat and oats experiments, 1919. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 235-240. 1920. — Trials with wheat and oats were carried out with 
several cooperators with different varieties, under various cultural methods, with the use of 
manures, and with the use of home-grown and introduced seed. Yields of grain and wheat 
hay are given and rainfall data presented.— L. R. Waldron. 

1215. Tabor, Paul. Permanent pastures for Georgia. Georgia State Coll. Agric. Bull. 
197. 36 p., 16 fig. 1920. — Discusses the following pasture plats in Georgia: Japan clover 
{Lespedeza stricta), Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), carpet grass (Axonopus compressus) , 
Dallis grass (Paspalum dilatatum), white clover (Trifolium repens), Rhodes grass (Chloris 
gayana), Kudzu (Pueraria thunbergiana) , bur clover (Medicago arabica), black medic (A/. 
lupulina), red top or herds grass (Agrostis alba), orchard grass (Daelylis glomerata) , tall oat 
(Arrthenalherum elatius), rescue grass (Bromus unioloides) , arctic grass (Bromus secalinus), 
rye grass (Lolium sps.), Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis), The Paspalums (Paspalum 
sps.), giant carpet grass (Axonopus furcatus), broomsedge (Andropogon sps.), Indian oats 
(Chrysopogon nutans), wild rye (Elymus sps.), wire grass (Aristida stricta), lightwood-knot 
grass (Sporobolus curtissii), crab grass (Syntherisma sps.) , crow foot (Dactyloctenium aegyp- 
tium), cane brake (Arundinaria tecta, A. macrosperma) , maiden cane (Panicum hemitomum), 



No. 2, September, 1920] AGRONOMY 165 

smut grass (Sporobolus berteroanus) , marsh bermuda ($]><>rt>h<>lu8 virgatus), Carolina clover 
(Trifolium Carolinianum), hop clover (T. procumbeus] T. dubium). — Directions for soil prep- 
aral ion and seeding are present ed by t he author and also mixtures of grass seeds suitable for 
various soils of the state. — T. II. McHatton. 

1216. Taylor, 11. W. Tobacco culture, grading on the farm. Rhodesia Agric. Jour. 
17:20-27. 1920. 

1217. Tran-van-Huu. Note sur la variete de riz dite "Hueky." [Variety of rice known 
as "Hueky."] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2 : 75-78. 1920. 

1218. Tran-van-Huu. Note sur la culture du riz flottant en Cochinchine. [Cultiva- 
vation of floating rice in Cochinchina.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 46-52. 1920. — Notes 
on ten varieties and a description of the methods used in growing these forms of the rice 
plant which are peculiarly adapted to inundation. — E. D. Merrill. 

1219. Vageler, H. Beziehung zwischen Parzellengrosse und Fehler der Einzelbeobach- 
tung bei Feldversuchen. [Relation between size of plot and error of the single observation in 
field experimentation.] Jour. Landw. 67:97-108. Ifig. 1919. — Rye, oats, potatoes, and kohl- 
rabi fields were each divided into 128 small rectangular plots, of which the yields were separ- 
ately determined. The probable errors of the average yields of these plots considered singly 
and in different combinations were calculated. Different results were obtained according to 
the method and procedure followed, but when using the method considered least objectionable 
the probable error is not greatly reduced by enlarging the plots above about 50 square meters. 
— C. E. Leighty. 

1220. Vernet, G., and X. Salomon. Notes sur le Fourcroya gigantea Vent. [Notes on 
Fourcroya gigantea Vent.] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon 2: 80-87. PI. 2. 1920. 

1221. Waldron, L. R. First generation crosses between two alfalfa species. Jour. Amer. 
Soc. Agron. 12: 133-143. 1920. 

1222. Walster, H. L. Marquis versus durum wheats. North Dakota Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Ext. Div. Circ. 34. 8 p. 1920.— Summary of North Dakota yields.— L. R. Waldron. 

1223. Weeks, Charles R. Growing alfalfa in western Kansas. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. 
Circ. 73. 10 p. July, 1919. — Information is given on soil requirements, seed bed preparation, 
date, rate and method of seeding, nurse crops, cultivation, time of cutting, seed crops, vari- 
eties and insects injurious to alfalfa in Kansas. — L. E. Melchers. 

1224. Welton, F. A. Experiments with oats. Monthly Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 
79-83. 7 tables. 1920. — The article comprises tests of time, rate, manner, quality and vari- 
eties of seed. — R. C. Thomas. 

1225. Wenholz, H. Field peas as fodder. A substitute for wheat and oats. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales 31 : 167-170. 1920. 

1226. Wenholz, H. Soil improvement for maize. I. Manures and fertilizers. Agric. 
Gaz. New South Wales 31 : 29-35, 111-116, 117-183. 1920. 

1227. Wenholz, H. Fertilizers for green winter fodders. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31:241-242. 1920. 

1228. Westbrook, E. C. Tobacco culture. Bright leaf or flue-cured tobacco. Georgia 
State Coll. Agric. Bull. 199. 86 p., 13 fig. 1920.— Discusses a development in history of the 
bright tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) industry in Georgia and considers advisability of increas- 
ing the crop. Discusses tobacco soils, crop rotation and general principles of tobacco culture, 



166 BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

beginning with the preparation of the plant bed, and including transplanting, cultivating, 
insect enemies and diseases. Outlines directions for harvesting and curing, as well as for 
storage. Gives plans and suggestions for storage barns and curing sheds. — T. H. McHatton. 

1229. Willey, Florence. The vegetative organs of some perennial grasses. Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci. 25: 341-367. Fig. 121-144. 1920. 

1230. Williams, C. G. Clipping tests of oats and wheat. Monthly Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. 
Sta. 5:20-23. 4 tables. 1920. 

1231. Winters, S. R. Paper from cottonseed waste. Sci. Amer. 122: 299. 2 fig. 1920. 

1232. Wright, I. A. Thehistoryof the cane sugar industry in the West Indies. Louisiana 
Planter and Sugar Manufacturer 62 : 414-415. Ibid. 63 : 14-15, 108-109, 222-223, 237-239, 414- 
415. 1919. 

1233. Young, J. P. Report of Committee on the Cereal Crops. Bull. Pennsylvania Dept. 
Agric. I 1 : 11-13. 1918. — A report of the acreage, average yield per acre, estimated total pro- 
duction, average price per bushel, and estimated total value of the wheat, corn, rye, oats, 
buckwheat, potatoes, tobacco and hay crops in Pennsylvania for the year 1917. A compara- 
tive table with the yields per acre in 1916 is also given. — C. R. Orton. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY AND HISTORY 

Lincoln W. Riddle, Editor 

1234. Anonymous. Brief account of the life and works of Reginald Philip Gregory. Jour. 
Botany 57: 47. 1919. 

1235. Anonymous. C.S.Harrison. Florists' Exchange 47: 413. 1 fig. 1919. 

1236. Anonymous. William J. Stewart. Florists' Exchange 47:413. 1 fig. 1919. 

1237. Anonymous. Lewis S. Ware 1851-1918. Internat. Sugar Jour. 21: 113. / pi. 
1919. — Lewis S. Ware, the distinguished sugar engineer, publisher, and author, of Philadel- 
phia and Paris, made a special study of sugar beet industry and attempted unsuccessfully to 
establish it in the United States in 1873. In 1879 he established at Philadelphia a monthly 
publication, The Sugar Beet, which continued for 32 years. He also published pamphlets and 
books, his principal work being "Beet Sugar Manufacture and Refining," which is one of the 
standard works on this subject. Dr. Ware collected a sugar library of 12,000 volumes, which 
he has bequeathed to the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia. — C. Rumbold. 

1238. Baker, C. F. A contribution to Philippine and Malayan technical bibliography. 
Work fundamental to plant pathology and economic entomology. Philippine Agric. 8: 32-37. 
1919. — This bibliography gives mycological and entomological publications, each of which 
is based wholly or in part on the field results of the compiler, in the Philippines and Malaysia, 
during the period from 1913 to 1918, inclusive. The object of the index is to aid the investi- 
gator in obtaining the literature on these subjects, and to illustrate the great value of coopera- 
tion between scientists. — S. F. Trelease. 

1239. Biggar, H. Howard. The old and the new in corn culture. U. S. Dept. Agric. 
Yearbook 1918: 123-137. 4 pi., 10 fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 28. 

1240. Britten, James. Bibliographical notes. LXXVI.— Henry W. Burgess's "Eido- 
dendron." Jour. Botany 57: 223-224. 1919. — A review of this work published in London in 
1827 and bearing the full title "Eidodendrox: Views of the general character and appearance 
of Trees, foreign and indigenous, connected with Picturesque Scenery." The work is of 



No. 2, September, 1920] BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY 107 

little or no botanical interest. Its only interest to the botanist is in connection w it h an essay 
headed "Botanical Diversions 1" followed by a large title "Amoenitates Querneae." Here 
is included a comprehensive account of the oak in literature, history, poetry and commerce. 
The author of this essay was probably a more competent man than Burgess. Gilbert 
Burnett is often cited as the probable author. [See also next following Entry, 1241.] — K. 
M. Wiegand. 

1241. Britten, James. Bibliographical notes, LXXVII. John Ellis's directions for col- 
lectors. Jour. Botany 57 : 521 . 1919. — This is an analysis of a damaged copy of this work pub- 
lished in 1771, which has lately been presented to the Department of Botany of the British 
Museum. It is entitled "Directions for bringing over Seeds and Plants from the East-Indies 
and other distant Countries in a State of Vegetation" and is anonymous. It proves to be a 
reissue of the first portion of the pamphlet published in 1770 by John Ellis, with some addi- 
tional matter included. [See also next preceding Entry, 1240.] — K. M. Wiegand. 

1242. Cockayne, L. Presidential address. New Zealand Jour. Sci. Technol. 2: 241- 
251. July, 1919. — Address delivered before the New Zealand Institute Science Congress, 
at Christchurch, 1919. Traces briefly the history of the New Zealand Institute, its activities, 
publications, equipment, influence, and aims. Urges the public support, financial and other- 
wise, of research in "pure" science, whether or not the given investigation has "an evident 
practical bearing." Notes the need of research in New Zealand in plant physiology and plant 
diseases. — C. S. Gager. 

1213. Farr, Bertrand H. The peony and its people — from amateur to professional. 
Flower Grower 6: 102. 1919. — References to the modern varieties of the peony and personal 
glimpses of those who produced them. — W. N. Clute. 

1214. Gagnepain, F. Edouard Bureau. Sa vie et son oeuvre. [Life and work of Edouard 
Bureau.] Rev. Gen. Bot. 31 : 209-218. Portrait. 1919.— Edouard Bureau (1830-1918), ento- 
mologist, geologist and botanist, had a part in founding La Societe Botanique de France. In 
1874 A. de Jussieu's chair of .plant classification at the Paris Museum was reestablished, and 
Bureau was selected to occupy it. In this position he worked for more than 30 years in aug- 
menting the great herbarium, developing the colonial floras, establishing a permanent ex- 
hibition of vegetable products, studying the palaeobotanical collections of Brongniart, and 
presenting courses in the Museum. A list of Bureau's 158 botanical contributions is ap- 
pended. — L. W. Sharp. 

1245. Guinet, A. Auguste Schmidely. Sa biographie. [The biography of August Schmid- 
ely.] Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve 10: 377-379. 1918.— Schmidely is known for his study of the 
genera Rosa and Rubus. The results of his study from plants collected in the Swiss Alps are 
published mostly in the bulletin cited. He was born Jan. 26, 1838, and died Oct. 28, 1918.— 
W. H. Emig. 

1246. Holm, Theo. The history of the popular name "Flower De Luce" or "Fleur De Lis" 
of the Iris. Rhodora 21 : 180-1S1. 1919. — A short discussion of the derivation of this name. 
It appears to have been first applied to the yellow iris growing on the shores of the river Lys 
in Flanders. The derivation dates back to the year 468 when the Franks left Flanders to 
invade and conquer Gaul, establishing the kingdom of France. In commemoration of their 
birthplace they selected this flower for their emblem. The name "Fleur deLys" is therefore 
an abbreviation of "Fleur de la Lys." — James P. Poole. 

1247. Lee, A. Atherton. Plant pathology in Japan. Phytopath. 9: 17S-179. 1919. — 
The development of plant pathology in Japan commenced with Dr. Shirai's lectures at the 
Agricultural College, Tokyo, in 1886. Eighty pathologists now have a thriving society w hich 
publishes a journal with articles in English, German and Japanese. The latter are abstracted 
in English. — R. E. Vaughan. 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 2 



168 BIBLIOGRAPHY, BIOGRAPHY, HISTORY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1248. Meyer, Rud. Heinrich Poselger. Monatsschr. Kakteenkunde 29: 97-100. 1919. 
— There is given an account of the life of Poselger, his travels in Mexico in 1849-51, and his 
death in 1883.— A. S. Hitchcock. 

1249. Nelson, J. C. A little known botanist. Amer. Botany 25 : 129-133. 1919.— Juan 
Loureiro born in Lisbon, 1715. At the age of 20, visited Cochin China and later collected 
extensively there and in China proper, Cambodia, Bengal, and Malabar. He published Flora 
Cochinchinensis in 1790, and various shorter works in Portuguese. — W. N. Clute. 

1250. Nicholson, Wm. Edw. A reminiscence of the late Dr. Emil Levier. Bryologist 
21 : 85-86. 1918. — The author gives an account of an evening spent with Dr. and Mme. Levier, 
and tells about the methods used by Dr. Levier in mounting specimens. — Edward B. Cham- 
berlain. 

1251. Peacock, Josiah C. Franklin Muhlenberg Apple, Ph. G., Phar. D. Memoir. Amer. 
Jour. Pharm. 91 : 546-550. 1919. 

1252. Petch, T. Garcia da Orta's mongoose plants. Ceylon Antiquary and Literary 
Register 4 3 : 143-149. 1919. — Discussion of the three plants of Ceylon, alleged to have been 
used as an antidote of snake poison, and described by the Portuguese physician Garcia 
da Orta, who lived at Goa from 1534 to about 1570. The first of these plants, which the 
ichneumon of fable seeks in order to protect itself against the bite of the cobra, is Rauvolfia 
serpentina. The second of Orta's species, the wood of which was formerly sent to Europe as 
Lignum colubrinum, was identified by Linne with Strychnos nux-vomica. In the author's 
opinion it is S. trichocalyx. The third species, hitherto unidentified, is determined as Hemi- 
desmus indicus (Singhalese iramusu). None of these plants appears to be in use as a remedy 
for snake bite at the present day, nor are they enumerated in the recipes for snake-bite reme- 
dies, twenty in number, which Hoatson collected in Uva in 1822. — B. Laufer. 

1253. Prain, (Sir) David. "John" Roxburgh. Jour. Botany 57: 28-34. 1919.— A dis- 
cussion of the identity of "Roxburgh, junior," alluded to in Dr. William Roxburgh's Flora 
Indica. — K. M. Wiegand. 

1254. Sewell, M. C. Tillage: a review of the literature. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 2: 
269-290. 1919— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1883. 

1255. Stringer, H. B. George Arnold. Florists' Exchange 48: 521. 1 fig. 1919. 

1256. Vaupel, F. Aus der alten Kakteenliteratur. [On old cactus literature.] Monats- 
schr. Kakteenkunde 29: 25-31, 49-54, 61-66, 115-120. 5 fig. 1919.— The author translates 
chapters from an old Spanish work published in 1547, Coronica de las Indias, by Goncalez 
Hernandez de Oaiedo y Valdes. Chapter 23 describes the Pitahaya fruit; chapter 24 
describes a columnar cactus called torches ; chapter 25 concerns tunas and their fruits ; chapter 
1 of book 10 deals with tree cactuses. — A. S. Hitchcock. 

1257. Whelpley, Henry M. James Michenor Good. Amer. Jour. Pharm. 91: 447-452. 
PI. 1. 1919. — A review and appreciation of the life and work of the late James Michenor 
Good, one of the landmarks in American Pharmacy. — Anton Hogslad, Jr. 

1258. Williams, Emile F. George Golding Kennedy. Rhodora 21: 25-35. 1 pi. 1919. 
— Biographical sketch of the late George Golding Kennedy. — James P. Poole. 

1259. Winslow, E. J. Early days of the American Fern Society. Amer. Fern. Jour 9: 
33-38. 1919. 



No. 2, September, 1920] CYTOLOGY 169 

BOTANICAL EDUCATION 

C. Stuart Gager, Editor 
Alfred Gundersen, Assistant Editor 

1260. Brown, Nelson Courtlandt. The royal Italian forestry college. Jour. Forestry 
17: 807-812. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1303. 

1261. Clute, WillardN. Plant names and their meanings. — II. Ranunculaceae. Amer. 
Bot. 26: 2-10. 1920. — The common names used for species of Ranunculaceae traced to their 
sources when possible. — W. N. Clute. 

1262. Conard, H. S. The general classification of higher plants. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 
25:237-240. 1920. 

1263. Pammel, L. A. State parks in Iowa. Sci. Monthly 10: 516-521. 1920.— The plan 
proposes the preservation of some of the forests for the pleasure and education of all the 
people. — The parks are of different kinds. Lake parks which include enough of all lake shores 
to conserve animal and plant life; along streams where these have cut through ridges as the 
Devil's Backbone, and the forests associated with these; ledges on which most of the ferns 
of the state are found; mounds, palisades and similar areas suggest the plans. — It is far- 
sighted wisdom on the part of the state to establish these parks to preserve to future 
generations the natural history and geology and historic features of Iowa. — L. Pace. 

1264. S., E.J. [Rev. of : Church, A. H. Elementary notes on structural botany. Oxford 
Botanical Memoirs No. 4. 27 p. Oxford University Press, 1919.] Jour. Botany 58:27. 1920. 

CYTOLOGY 

Gilbert M. Smith, Editor 
George S. Bryan, Assistant Editor 

1265. Balls, W. Lawrence. The existence of daily growth-rings in the cell wall of cotton 
hairs. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 90: 542-555. PI. 14-16. 1919.— Cellulose wall of Egyptian 
cotton swelled to five or ten times normal size by treatment with NaOH and CS2 showed con- 
centric layering. Correlated with Egyptian field crop conditions where growth is arrested 
each afternoon. Only one thin primary layer formed while cell is growing in length. When 
thickening sets in it proceeds to a maximum of 25 layers. — Paul B. Sears. 

1266. Beer, Rudolph, and Agnes Arber. On the occurrence of multinucleate cells in 
vegetative tissues. Proc. Roy. Soc. London B 91 : 1-17. PI. 1 . 1919. — Lists species in which 
multinucleate cells have been recorded in vegetative tissues, together with region of plant 
involved. List includes 177 species in 60 families of vascular plants. Theory of previous 
workers regarding amitotic origin of such multinucleate phases is questioned. No clear ex- 
ample of amitosis observed but numerous cases of mitosis normal up to cell plate stage ob- 
served. Instead of normal cell walls formation after mitosis Kinoplasm forms a hollow 
sphere around nucleus — "phragmosphere.'' This gradually enlarges until coextensive with 
cell cytoplasm. Suggested that numerous nuclei render available for use of cytoplasm valu- 
able material (a) by increased nucleus surface (b) in certain cases by nuclear disintegration 
and resorption. — Paul B. Scars. 

1267. Buscalioni, L. Nuove osservazione sulle cellule artificiali. [Further observations 
on artificial cells.] Malpighia 28: 403^434. PI. 11-12. 1919.— This is a description and dis- 
cussion of experiments with colloidal films. The plates are from photomicrographs of the 
results of experiments and show not only simulation of cell-walls, but also simulation of 
nuclei with chromatin-reticulum. — L. W. Riddle. 



170 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1268. Legrand, L. Une conception biologique nouvelle de la cellule. [A new biological 
conception of the cell.] Rev. Gen. Sci. Pures et Appliquees30: 13. 1919. — Nothing essentially 
new, but a good review of the present situation. — G. J. Pcirce. 

1269. Mangenot, M. G. Sur revolution du chondriome et des plastes chez les Fucacees. 
[The evolution of the chondriosome and of the plastids in the Fucaceae.] Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Sci. Paris 170: 63-65. / fig. 1920. — In the apical cells of F. vesiculosus and F. platycarpus 
mitochondria are to be found at some of the protoplasmic anastomoses in the cytoplasm, 
while at other anastomoses small phaeoplasts appear and elsewhere in these cells there are 
grains of fucosane. The adjacent peripheral cells also contain mitochondria, grains of fuco- 
sane and phaeoplasts, the last named being larger, having more pigment and reacting in a 
different fashion to the fixing solutions than those of the apical cell. Small phaeoplasts occur 
not only in the apical cells, but also in the cells of the central axis cut off from the apical 
cell on its proximal face and in the initial cells of adventitious shoots. The cells containing 
small phaeoplasts are considered to be embryonal in character. — C. H. and W . K. Farr. 

FOREST BOTANY AND FORESTRY 

Raphael Zon, Editor 
J. V. Hofmann, Assistant Editor 

1270. Adler, Friedrick v. d. Aus dem Kubani Urwald. [The Kubani virgin forest.] 
Oesterreich. Forst.- u. Jagdzeitg. 38: 23. 1920. — A short popular description of an 80 hectar 
area of virgin timberland in Bohemia. Trees 1 meter to 1.9 meters in diameter are found in 
contrast to the small sizes generally found in cut over forests in the same region. — F. S. Baker. 

1271. Aguilar, R. H., The lumbang-oil industry in the Philippine Islands. Philippine 
Jour. Sci. 14: 275-285. 1919. — Two kinds of lumbang nuts occur in the Philippines, lumbang 
bato (Aleurites moluccana) and lumbang banucalag (Aleurites trisperma), but when the 
word lumbang is employed it is taken to mean lumbang bato. The Bureau of Forestry is 
encouraging planting of the trees so that a sufficient supply of raw material may be assured. 
The nuts may be stored for a year or more without depreciable change. The oil is used in 
the calking of vessels, manufacture of soft soap, and in the manufacture of paints. The ker- 
nels may be separated from the shells and the oil expressed, or the whole nut ground up and 
the oil separated. The former is slower and more laborious but furnishes a larger percentage 
of oil and a cake of higher fertilizing value. The oil may be kept satisfactorily in copper 
containers. — Albert R. Sweetser. 

1272. Ammon, W. Ueber die Pflicht zum Unterholt subventionierter Aufforstungs und 
Verbauungs-Projekte. [The obligation to maintain subsidized forestation and construction 
projects.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstw. 71 : 105-114. 1920.— One of the difficulties in maintain- 
ing a subsidized project is the change of ownership. When a change of title occurs the new 
owner accepts the subsidy as an obligation and fulfills it in so far as it is compulsory. Under 
the laws of Berne the acquisition of land carries with it the obligation to protect and continue 
any subsidized project although other cantons do not adequately provide for change of title. 
— A subsidy may consist of either a fixed sum or a per cent of the project undertaken. The 
State or Canton must have preference in the arrangement because in the event of non-fulfill- 
ment the project must be continued by the State or Canton. — Non-utilization of a tract for 
timber production or grazing constitutes a non-fulfillment of a subsidy agreement and leaves 
the present incumbent subject to a fine. — The regulations are still somewhat confused and it 
is recommended that the obligations of the State and land owner be more specifically defined 
and incorporated in the laws. — J. V. Hofmann. 

1273. Anderson, J. Ecuador contributes a wood that is lighter than cork. Sci. Amer. 
122: 281. 2 fig. 1920. — Concerns Ochroma lagopus, balsa wood. — Chas. H. Otis. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 171 

127-1. Anonymous. Annual return of statistics relating to forest administration for the 
year 1917-18, British India. 25 p., 1 diagram. Simla, 1919. — The report contains summarized 
tabulated data on forest areas, improvement, protection, fires, grazing, planting, exports, 
expenditures, revenues, and other subjects for all the provinces. The present forest area 
under control of the Forest Department is 251,512 square miles or 23.3 per cent of the total 
area of all the provinces; 60,724 square miles, or 24 per cent of the forest area, are under 
approved working plans. 46.3 per cent of the entire forest area was under fire protection and 
47,249 square miles, or 18.8 per cent, was entirely closed to grazing during the year. The 
financial statement shows a total revenue of 40,969,257 lis, expenditure 21,157,063 Rs, leaving 
a surplus (cumulative) of 19,812,194 Rs. A final table gives the state of the finances by 
periods and years from 1S69 to 191S, and the appended diagram shows graphically the relation 
of revenue, expenditure and surplus for the past ten years. — E. R. Hodson. 

1275. Anonymous. Automatic regulation of humidity in factories. Sci. Amer. Monthly 
1 : 24-28. 6 fig. 1920. — An article of interest to manufacturers of articles made from wood. — 
Chan. H. Otis. 

1276. Anonymous. Effect of decay on wood pulp. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1: 247. 1920. 

1277. Anonymous. Fliegertatigkeit im Dienste des Forstschutzes. [The use of air planes 
In forest protection.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstw. 71 : 82-83. 2 pi. 1920. — Photographs taken 
from airplanes may be used for classification of areas in suitable regions for grazing, etc., also 
for topographic features and boundary locations of permanent forest areas. Photographs 
taken on a scale 1:25,000 bring out a great deal of detail. Often aerial patrol may bring out 
features that would be lost otherwise, such as snowslides and landslides in the initial stages. 
Taken in time, these may be prevented. — J. V. Hofmann. 

1278. Anonymous. Forests in Japan. Amer. Forestry 26: 95. 1920. 

1279. Anonymous. Fra Dansk Skovforening. Handel og Priser i 1918-19. [Business 
and prices, 1918-19.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 453-489. 1919. 

1280. Anonymous. Fuel value of wood. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1 : 425. 1920. 

12S1. Anonymous. Holz als Ersatz der Kohle bei der Gaserzeugung. [Wood as a substi- 
tute for coal ingas production.] Oesterreich. Forst.- u. Jagdzeitg. 38:23. 1920. — Owing to the 
scarcity of coal in Zurich (Switzerland) wood was used in some of the retorts to eke out the 
coal supply. Mixtures of green cherry, oak, beech, alder, ash, willow, chestnut, hazel, birch 
were \ised. A yield of 27.5 per cent of gas was obtained of good quality running 29.2 per cent 
of hydrogen, 10.3 per cent methane and 2.9 per cent heavy hydrocarbons. — F. S. Baker. 

1282. Anonymous. Jaegersborg Dyrehave. [The game reserve at Jaegersborg.] Dansk 
Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 4-8. 1919. 

1283. Anonymous. Kiln drying of green hardwoods. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1 : 247. 1920. 

1284. Anonymous. Lead pencils. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1: 286. 1920. 

1285. Anonymous. Lumber salvage in France. Sci. Amer. 122: 105. 1920. 

1286. Anonymous. Made of wood. Sci. Amer. 122: 55. 1920. Some of the strange uses 
of wood and its by-products, as displayed in an exhibit prepared by the New York State 
College of Forestry. — Chas. II. Otis. 

1287. Anonymous. Paper famine if forests are wasted. Amer. Forestry 26:94-95. 1920. 

1288. Anonymous. Sodium fluoride as a wood preservative. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1: 258. 
1920. 



172 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1289. Anonymous. The Southern Forest Conference. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1:286. 1920. 
— Notes on the meetings held in New Orleans, beginning Jan. 28, 1920. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1290. Anonymous. Die Sozialisierung des Forstwesens. [The socialization of forestry.] 
Oesterreich. Forst.- u. Jagdzeitg. 37: 269-271. 1920. — During the war heavy cutting took 
place in Austrian forests and conditions are at present unsettled, the peasantry expecting a 
division and distribution of state forests and large estates. The future of sustained wood 
production and the very existence of many communities in the mountainous regions depends 
upon unification of management rather than further subdivision. The public value of the 
forests demands this. Formation of local voluntary associations of timber land owners, 
loggers, lumbermen and dealers is recommended, these associations to be united into a greater 
State association with large powers to govern forest management, lumber prices, export trade, 
and forest labor. — F. S. Baker. 

1291. Anonymous. Wohlfahrtseinrichtungen fur Waldarbeiter. [Housing conditions for 
forest laborers.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstw. 71: 114-116. 1920. — Oberforster Schadelin 
advocated furnishing quarters in 1908 and Dr. Flury later pointed out that living conditions 
among the industries were better and more attractive than those of the forest laborers. This 
resulted in young men seeking other industries rather than the Forest Service. — The author 
describes the use of portable shelters built for 6 to 12 men that have proved successful in the 
Canton of Schaffhausen. The contentions in favor of a shelter equipped with a stove are 
that the men are more contented and willing to work in wet weather because they are able 
to dry their clothes when they return from work. Also the men do not use so much liquor 
in order to keep warm. — J. V. Hofmann. 

1292. Ashe, W. W. Notes on trees and shrubs in the vicinity of Washington. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club. 46: 221-226. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2963. 

1293. Baker, Hugh P. , and Edward F. M cCarthy. Fundamental silvicultural measures 
necessary to insure forest lands remaining reasonably productive after logging. Jour. Forestry 
18: 13-22. 1920. — Silvicultural practice in the Adirondacks has not yet been fully settled 
and further work is needed in determining the limits of forest types, proper methods of slash 
disposal, and the requirements of the various species for establishment. A survey of forest 
lands and forests is needed. — E. N. Munns. 

1294. Bang, J. P. F. Lidt om Bjergfyrskovens Behandling. [Notes on management of 
mountain fir.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 189-196. 1919. 

1295. Bates, C. G. A new evaporimeter for use in forest studies. Monthly Weather 
Rev. 47:283-294. 6 fig. 1919. 

1296. Bentley, J. B., Jr. Municipal forestry in New York. Amer. Forestry 26: 160-162. 
4 fig. 929. — Describes plantings made in Chenango County, N. Y. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1297. Biilmann, H. H. Nogle Tilvaekstoversigter fra Meilgaard Skovdistrikt. [Some 
observations on growth in Meilgaard district.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 5 : 30-36. 1920. 

1298. Blanford, H. R. Financial possibilities of even-aged crops in Burma. Indian For- 
ester 46: 53-61. 1920. — Figures are presented which show possible returns from stands of 
teak and two other less important woods using 3 and 4.5 per cent as the interest rate. A rota- 
tion of around 75 years is forecasted. — E. N. Munns. 

1299. Boas, J. E. V. Det Nye Jagtlovsforslag og det Danske Skovbrug. [The new game 
laws and Danish forestry.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 5: 50-55. 1920. 

1300. Bohn-Jesperson, J. F. W. Sitkagranen i Klitten. [Sitka spruce in Klitten.] 
Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 101-109. PL 8. 1919. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 173 

1301. Bowles, J. Hoopek. The California gray squirrel an enemy to the Douglas fir. 
Amer. Forestry 26: 26. 1920. — A loss amounting to hundreds of thousands of dollars, caused 
by girdling of the trees by the squirrel. — Olias. //. Otis. 

1302. Bridel, M. Marc. Application de la methode biochemique aux rameaux et aux 
ecores de diverses especes du genre Populus. [Application of the biochemical method to the 
branches and barks of various species of the genus Populus.] Jour. Pharm. et Chim. 19: 
429-434. Also Ibid. 20: 14-23. 1919.— Sec Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2841. 

1303. Brown, Nelson Courtlandt. The royal Italian forestry college. Jour. Forestry 
17: 807-812. 1919. — A brief history of forest education in Italy is given with a description of 
the school at Vallombrosa. The school has a high scholastic requirement and courses and 
hours of work do not differ greatly from American practice. — E. N. Munns. 

1304. Brown, W. H. Philippine fiber plants. Forestry Bur. Philippine Islands Bull. 
19: 1-115. 28 pi. 1919. — A general consideration of Philippine fiber producing plants with 
descriptions, occurrence, local names, methods of extracting fibers, and the uses to which 
the fibers are put. About 150 species are considered. — E. D. Merrill. 

1305. Bruce, Donald. Alinement charts in forest mensuration. Jour. Forestry 17: 
773-801. 15 fig. 1919. — Alinement charts are adapted for formulae involving three variables. 
The development and principles underlying these devices with their application in problems 
of mensuration in determining the volume of trees is given in detail with illustrations as to 
their practical use. Advantages of much quicker computation and ease of construction are 
claimed over the use of slide rules and sets of curves employed in the past. — E. N. Munns. 

1306. Butler, Ovid M. Relation of research in forest products to forest administration. 
Jour. Forestry 18: 275-283. 1920. — Silviculture cannot overlook the technical quality of the 
wood in its forest practice as the latter is influenced by silvicultural practices. Growth influ- 
ences the technical properties of the wood greatly in seasoning, in strength and in use. Me- 
chanical and physical qualities have already shown a close relation to rate and character of 
growth, and chemical uses may do likewise. — E. N. Munns. 

1307. Cabrera, Teodoro. La utilidad de los guayabos. [Uses of the guava trees.] 
Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 628. 1919. 

130S. Carter, H. Report on forest administration in Burma, for year ended June 30, 
1918. 114 P-, 1 pl- Rangoon, British India, 1919. — At the close of the year the aggregate area 
of the reserved forests was 29,116 square miles, about one-fifth of the total forest area of the 
province, and in addition there are large tracts proposed for reservation. The area under 
approved working plans is 10,832 square miles, or 37 per cent of the total reserved area. A 
system of cultivation called taungya (shifting cultivation, i.e., an area cleared and burned 
in hilly country for shifting cultivation) is practiced on areas aggregating 1,230 square miles 
of reserved forests by the wild hill tribes, comparatively low in the scale of civilization. When 
uncontrolled this system causes greater and more permanent damage than a fire. These wild 
tribes will not undertake permanent cultivation and are averse to settling in the plains. The 
problem is difficult but it is expected to regulate the taungyas by rotation in connection with 
the control of forest villages and also obviate local shortages of forest labor. By this plan 
the jungle tribes could be provided with all the virgin soil they require and the abandoned 
taungyas be stocked with a valuable forest crop. In a search for sites suitable for the exten- 
sion of cinchona the following is reported of the damage by the taungya system:"Land with 
the necessary soil conditions has been very much to seek. Areas, some of which half a century 
or more ago would probably have afforded the requisite conditions, have been ruined by 
the practice of the jungle tribes of the pernicious system of shifting cultivation known in South 
India as kumri, in Burma as taungya and in Assam as jhum, by which enormous stretches 
of magnificent forest have been destroyed and the surface soil exhausted and more or less 



174 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

washed away by the unimpeded rush of rain water." And of an area west of the Upper Chin- 
dwin: 'As regards cinchona prospects, the journey was disappointing. There was no need to 
go inland from the river for all along the outer ranges the ravages of shifting cultivation were 
only too evident. The evergreen forests are being rapidly destroyed." During the year 
1,814 acres of taungya plantation were newly formed. Detailed tabulated data (72 pp.) is 
appended. In rev iewing the year's work it is stated that the future before the Forest Depart- 
ment is one of the greatest activity ; for not only has the better exploitation of the commercial 
forests to be undertaken, but the proper conservation of all that unclassed forest on which the 
agricultural demand is now concentrated can not be left in its present neglected condition. 
Such vast areas as the unclassed forests of Burma (74,707,834 acres) can not long be subjected 
to such profligate destruction as is now going on in many places for want of control and of 
staff to exercise it. The conservation of these forests is not a matter of mere revenue, but in the 
best interests of the whole population and most especially to the advantage of the agricultural 
classes. — E. R. Hodson. 

1309. Cary, A. Ticks and timber. Amer. Forestry 26: 92-94. 5 fig. 1920.— Concerns 
forest conditions in the Gulf states, U. S. A.—Chas. H. Otis. 

1310. Chandler, B. A. Financial loss to the community due to forest lands becoming 
wastes. Jour. Forestry 18: 31-33. 1920.— Destructive lumbering is responsible not alone for 
the economic and financial loss due to the wasteful cutting and burning, but also for the 
degeneration of the people through loss of the vigorous stock, poor crops, whiskey and mal- 
nutrition. Such people need assistance from the outside and larger communities, as they are 
not self sustaining. In such regions, a peculiar type of degeneracy is developing. — E. N. 
Munns. 

1311. Churchill, Howard L. Approximate cost of private forestry measures in the 
Adirondacks. Jour. Forestry 18: 26-30. 1920. — Costof a forester and proper forest work in a 
lumber company was found to amount to an annual charge of 36 cents per thousand feet, 
while the charges due to conservative lumbering amount to 65 cents per thousand. — A com- 
ment by W. N. Sparhawk is to the effect that a number of items are not properly forestry but 
lumbering, thereby reducing the cost considerably. — E. N. Munns. 

1312. Curtiss, C. F. Forest parks and their relation to the rural community. Rept. 
Iowa State Hortic. Soc. 53 : 363-364. 191S— See Bot, Absts. 3, Entry 3038. 

1313. D'Aboville, P. Determination du diametre au milieu du tronc de l'arbre sur pied. 
{Determination of the middle diameter of a standing tree.] Translated by S. T. Dana. Jour. 
Forestry 17: 802-806. 1 fig. 1919. — -By means of similar triangles based on known distances 
from the tree and the relation between the diameter of the tree at breast height and the 
intercepted diameter on a scale held at arms length, the diameter at half the height can be 
obtained. A formula is given for the practical application of this principle to field use. — 
E. N. Munns. 

1314. Dalgas, J. M. D0ende Egeskov i Westfalen. [The dying oak forest: Westfalen.] 
Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 64-72. 1919. 

131". Dalgas, J. M. Gavntraeproduktionens Samfunds0konomiske Betydning. [The 
economic importance of production of lumber.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 446-453. 
1919. 

1316. Dalgas, J. M. Nogle Oplysninger om Skove og Skovforhold i Nordslesvig. [Forest 
conditions in North Schleswig.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 160-189. 1 fig. 1919. 

1317. Davis, R. N. The winter aspect of trees. Amer. Forestry 26:87-91. 10 fig. 1920. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 175 

1318. Dickie, F. Discovery of sugar on Douglas fir. Amor. Forestry 26: / fig. 

1920. — The Indians of British Columbia knew of the existence of sugar on the Douglas fir 
long before the first white man came to North America. Only now the facts have been ascer- 
tained. Reporting upon the findings of Prof. Davidson and Mr. Tejt, the writer states that 
"fir sugar" is occasionally formed during summer droughts or in dry-belt regions, sugar-bear- 
ing trees being most abundant between the 50th and 51st parallels and between 121°-122° 
longitude. The "manna" is a natural exudation from the tips of the needles, occurring as 
white masses ranging from | inch to 2 inches in diameter on leaves and branches. A slight rain 
may quickly dissolve the sugar and it may be found recrystallized in patches at the base of 
the tree. At other times it remains in a semifluid condition. The sugar contains nearly 50 
per cent of the rare trisaccharide, melezitose. Sugar-producing firs are chiefly those standing 
on gentle slopes facing east and north in compar.it ively open areas. In these situations, the 
leaves being exposed to the sun, an abundance of carbohydrates more than normal are formed 
during the day, which are not stored or carried to the growing tissues, as is the case with Doug- 
las fir in heavily forested areas. The ground and atmosphere being dry, an increased root 
pressure and cessation of transpiration cause the leaves to become water-gorged. This water 
contains a sugar created by the reconversion of starch into sugar. By evaporation, the sugar 
is deposited on the leaf tips. By reason of the necessity for a succession of sunshiny days to 
produce the sugar, the Douglas fir does not yield a harvest that can annually be depended 
upon. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1319. Dickie, F. Sugar from the Douglas fir. Sci. Amer. 122: 165, 174-175. 1 fig. 1920. 
— The sugar-yielding firs are confined to the dry belt of British Columbia, and are chiefly 
found in the hottest parts of the interior of the province between parallels 50° and 51° and 121°- 
122° longitude. Trees standing on gentle slopes facing north and east and which are fairly 
wide spaced produce sugar in greatest abundance. The sugar occurs in white masses scattered 
over the foliage and branchlets, the accumulation of drops; drops of small size may appear 
upon the leaves at the tips and sometimes two or three tips will become imbedded in a very 
large drop. Analysis shows that the sugar yields about 50 per cent of the rare trisaccharide, 
known as melezitose. The Indians of the region have known of this occurrence of sugar on 
the Douglas fir for a long time and gathered it whenever available; but it is an uncertain 
crop, owing to reasons of climate. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1320. Drolet, George. Turpentine orcharding effect on longleaf timber. Jour. Forestry 
17 : 832-834. 1919. — Turpentining with only slight damage to virgin longleaf timber has been 
successful in Alabama under a system where the crops are worked for only 2 years and then 
logged. Only healthy trees over 12 inches are tapped and not more than two cups are placed 
on a tree. Results of 4 years' work are given which show that there is a loss from turpentine 
operations which may be kept small, and that this loss increases with the length of the opera- 
tion. — E. N. Munns. 

1321. Dunbar, John. Forty-two distinct forms of hickories. [Rev. of: Sargent, C. S. 
Notes on North American trees— II. Carya. Bot. Gaz. 66: 229-258. 1918.] Amer. Nut. Jour. 
10:20-21. 1 fig. 1919. 

1322. Eldredge, I. F. Management of hardwood forests in the southern Appalachians. 
Jour. Forestry 18: 284-291. 1920. — An outline is given of a management plan for use in the 
hardwoods. The problem presented is one of area regulation with 6 age-classes to be consid- 
ered in arriving at the volume of cut in any period in the working circle. — E. N. Murms. 

1323. Eysselt, Joh. "Weidwald." [Pasturewood.] Oesterreich. Foist.- u. Jagdzeitg. 
38: 1-2. 1920. — The present high value of grazing lands is leading to a demand for the ex- 
tension of "pasture-woods" particularly in the alpine forests. This is considered contrary 
to public policy, however, as it would entail injury to exceedingly valuable protection forests, 
and lead to the extension of mountain torrents, avalanches and landslides, while experience 
as shown that the removal of the timber has also led to a deterioration of the pasturage 



176 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

as well. The segregation of all pasture-woods that have protection value is urged, to be 
managed on a strictly protective basis. Artificial extension should be practiced at least to 
the formation of clumps of trees, such as are naturally found in alpine meadow situations. — 
F. S. Baker. 

1324. Fabricitjs, O. R0dgran paa Fyn. [Red spruce at Fyn.] Dansk. Skovforenings 
Tidsskr. 4: 317-372. 1919. 

1325. Fernow, B. E. [Rev. of: Recknagel, A. B., and John Bently, Jr. Forest man- 
agement.] Jour. Forestry 17: 850-853. 1919.— See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1373. 

1326. Fetjcht, Otto. Zur Entstehung des Harfenwuchses der Nadelholzer. [On the for- 
mation of "harp-growth" on conifers.] Naturw. Zeitschr. Forst-u. Landw. 17:137-139. 1 fig. 
1919. — S. Klein, and other authors, agree that the secondary stems, producing the so-called 
"harp" formation, are developed from the existing primary branches. The author, in the 
summer of 1917, discovered a white pine in the community of Wurzbach (Wurtt, Black Forest) , 
which exhibited a new sort of origin. On this tree, not a single branch has attempted to form 
a secondary stem, but some twenty young stems have arisen on the back of the tree below the 
upper third, evidently from dormant buds, either from the old whorls or between them. — 
J. Roeser. 

1327. Flint, Howard R. A suggested departure in national forest stumpage appraisals. 
Jour. Forestry 17:823-831. 1919. — Present methods of stumpage appraisals on the national 
forests are deemed unsatisfactory and the proposal is made to change these by basing the 
price to be paid on the total receipts at stated intervals from lumber sales and costs of oper- 
ation expressed in work hours of men, horses or machines. — E. N. Munns. 

1328. Girard, James W., and U. S. Swartz. A volume table for hewed railroad ties. 
Jour. Forestry 17: 839-842. 1 fig. 1919. — To overcome the recent change from two classes 
to five for railroad ties a volume table was prepared for Douglas fir and larch based on the 
diameter and number of ties per tree. The difference in form factors between the two species 
is not sufficient to affect the grades or number of ties. — E. N. Munns. 

1329. Graves, H. S. The extension of forestry practice. Amer. Forestry 26: 50,51. 1920. 

1330. Graves, Henry S. A policy of forestry for the nation. Jour. Forestry 17: 901-910. 
1919. — Present handling of forests in U. S. A. is not satisfactory and public interest re- 
quires public ownership of extensive areas and public participation in protection and manage- 
ment. A national policy demands action by the government, the states and by private owners 
of forest lands. National forest land should be increased, states should acquire and extend 
their holdings to assist in their economic and industrial life, and municipalities should have 
forest land to protect the water supply and to serve as a source of revenue.— On private lands, 
state and national aid should be given to prevent fires and legislation to this end should be 
undertaken by the states. Similar action by the states is necessary to require the forest owner 
to prevent lands becoming waste after lumbering and to assist the forest owner to secure the 
maximum production. In this, the states should be aided by the National government. 
Uniform taxation and a forest loan act are necessary, and a federal law is required to provide 
the government with authority to extend its influence and assistance to the states. — E. N . 
Munns. 

1331. Greeley, W. B. The forest policy of France. The control of sand dunes and 
mountain torrents. Amer. Forestry 26 : 3-9. 7 fig. 1920. — Material for this article has been 
* :iken largely from "Cours de Droit Forestier," by Charles Gugot, and from data prepared 
by G. Garbe, Engineer des Ponts et Chausses. Bremontier is credited with having de 
veloped the methods which were successful in halting the destructive course of the Gascon 
dunes. These embraced the construction of a rampart along the coast, planting hardy herbs 
on the dunes within the rampart and planting seeds or seedlings of maritime pine. A 



No. 2, September, 1920J FORESTRY 177 

national policy was adopted in 1810, and by 1864 the forestation of the 250,000 acres of dunes 
bordering the Landes was practically completed. Since that date the work has consisted 
largely in the care of the plantations established, the construction of new ramparts along 
the coast where dangerous dunes were forming, the extension of the successive zones of vege- 
tation up to the limits of security thus established and the administration of the maritime 
pine forests which have been created. The successful reforestation of the dunes gave great 
impetus to the planting of maritime pine throughout the entire Landes. Today the Landes 
are a vast pinery, interspersed with little meadows and neat farms and traversed by a network 
of surfaced highways. — In the control of torrential erosion in the Alps and Pyrenees, France 
has been confronted with a far more difficult problem, which is, essentially, one in social 
economies. Following terrible floods in 1859, a reforestation law was passed in 1860, and by 
1882 reforestation projects in the mountains had reached a total of some 350,000 acres. New 
laws passed at this time provided for more reduced areas for planting and other intensive meth- 
ods, being limited to the immediate channels or slopes where erosion was taking place, and the 
establishment of large protection belts in the mountains, surrounding the limited water 
courses in which serious erosion was actually taking place. Further, the grazing of certain 
communal pasture lands was placed under public control. Human obstacles have prevented 
the perfect working of these measures. In controlling erosion, the line of attack is to reduce 
the trickling action of water on slopes, prevent the starting of gullies and hold loose soil or 
rock in place. This is accomplished by tree planting and by the employment of dams. — Chas. 
H. Otis. 

1332. Greeley, W. B. Private forestry in France. Amer. Forestry 26: 139-143. 2 fig. 
1920. 

1333. Greeley, W. B. Self-government in forestry. Jour. Forestry 18: 103-105. 1920.— 
Comment on national forest policy. — E. N. Munns. 

1334. Griffin, Gertrude J. Bordered pits in Douglas fir: a study of the position of the 
torus in mountain and lowland specimens in relation to creosote penetration. Jour. Forestry 
17: 813-822. / fig. 1919. — Examination of the pits in Douglas fir showed a tendency in the 
torus of the mountain wood to aspirate (close) the pit while the opposite was true of the low- 
land woods, oven drying increasing the aspirated tori in both mountain and lowland varieties. 
In both sapwood and heartwood of the mountain variety, a large proportion of aspirated tori 
were found in air-dried wood, while only in the spring wood of the heartwood were the tori 
aspirated. Penetration of creosote was found to coincide directly with the number of aspi- 
rated tori. Subsequent treatments of air-dried material failed to open the tori when once 
aspirated, though soaking in alcohol before drying prevented their closing. — E. N. Munns. 

1335. Gujer, A. Zu unserer Titulaturfrage. [The question of titles.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. 
Forstw. 71: 78-81. 1920. — The present titles are objectionable because they do not express 
the grade of the position and do not differentiate between the practical and technical posi- 
tions. — It is proposed to replace "Forster" and "Oberforster" by "Forster" and "Forst- 
meister." "Forster" should apply to practical positions and "Forstmeister" to technical 
positions. The title could be .used to cover all positions such as Kreis-, Bezirks-, Stadt-, 
Gemeinde- or Korporationsforstmeister. Such titles would eliminate the general usage of 
"Forster" for all employees in the profession of forestry. — J. V. Hofmann. 

1336. Guthrie, John D. Women as forest guards. Jour. Forestry 18: 151-153. 1920. 

1337. Hall, S. J. Trees that are older than history. Sci. Amer. 122: 303. 2 fig. 1920.— 
Concerns the Sequoia. — Chas. II. Otis. 

1338. Harvey, LeRoy H. A coniferous sand dune in Cape Breton Island [Nova Scotia . 
Bot. Gaz. 51 : 417-426. 8 fig. May, 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 288. 



178 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1339. Haugh, L. A. Klimaets Indflydelse Paa Udviklingen af Bogens Sommerskud. [The 
influence of climate on the development of summer growth of beech.] Dansk Skovforenings 
Tidsskr. 4:13-28. Fig. 4- 1919. 

1340. Hawes, A. F. Raw material for the paper industry. Amer. Forestry 26: 134-138. 5 
fig. 1920. The present paper shortage, U.S.A., isprobably the result of the unusual amount of 
advertising carried by the newspapers, rather than of any scarcity of wood. The better grades 
of paper are still made from rags. While paper can be made from various plant fibers, straws 
and certain other materials, the collection of these materials in bulk is so costly that none of 
them can compete with wood. Spruce, hemlock and fir are the three main woods used in 
paper making. 95 per cent of the pulp and paper mills in the United States are located in the 
East, and the present supplies of these woods cannot be expected to last more than 25 years. 
Up to 1909 the country was self-supporting in respect to pulpwood, but since that date the 
consumption has exceeded the home product. Importations from Canada are constantly 
increasing. There are ample supplies of pulpwood for a great many years in Alaska and the 
Northwest. These may for several reasons become available. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1341. Hawley, R. C. Forestry in southern New England. Amer. Forestry 26: 10-15. 
7 fig. 1920. — The territory embraced is roughly the states of Connecticut and Rhode Island. 
The region is primarily a manufacturing district. The forest area is now about 46 per cent 
of the total land surface. This forested area may be considered better suited for growing 
trees than for the production of agricultural crops. The forest is primarily hardwood in 
character. An upland hardwood type comprises over 80 per cent of the forest area, a swamp 
hardwood type less than 7 per cent, a pine (usually white) type about 2 per cent, an old field 
type (pine) 9 per cent and a hemlock type forms about 2 per cent of the area. As a whole the 
forests of southern New England are of second growth. — Chas. II. Otis. 

1342. Hay, R. Dalrymple. Third annual report of the forestry commission, New South 
Wales, financial year ended June 30, 1919. 38 p., 1 diagram, 8 pi. Sydney, 1920. — The Forestry 
Act, passed by Parliament, November, 1916, created the Commission with powers to place 
the management of the forests on a business footing. Included in this plan is the systematic 
working of the forests with a view to regeneration and growth of future crops, and the disposal 
of timber and other forest produce to the best advantage. The Commission is exercising its 
powers with discretion and judgment in getting the new regime gradually under way, but is 
meeting with considerable opposition from the adherents of the old system of forest working, 
which was largely at the will of the operator. The forest area of New South Wales is esti- 
mated to be 11,000,000 acres, of which 5,043,800 acres have been proclaimed State forests and 
566,730.5 acres are under working plans. It is stated that the available area of timber-bearing 
land of commercial value in the entire Commonwealth, previously estimated at 97,400,000 
acres, can be reduced (on the basis of the past year's data) with certainty to about 24,500,000 
acres. Of this area only about 18,000,000 acres had so far been protected from alienation in 
the interest of forestry. The estimated proportions in each State of the foregoing total 
(24,500,000 acres) are: New South Wales, 8,000,000 acres; Victoria, 5,500,000 acres; Queens- 
land, 6,000,000 acres; Western Australia, 3,000,000 acres; Tasmania, 1,500,000 acres; and 
South Australia, 500,000 acres. At the instance of the Premier of New South Wales, the 
importance of ultimately appropriating a National forest area of about 30,000,000 acres for 
the whole Commonwealth, is being urged for the Commonwealth and the States' considera- 
tion. This area should comprise about 25,000,000 acres of indigenous forest country, and 
about 5,000,000 acres of coniferous plantation. During the year 98,372 acres of State forest 
area were released for settlement, 407| acres were planted to conifers, chiefly Pinus insignis 
and P. pinaster, and 23,707.5 acres were treated for natural regeneration and silvicultural 
improvement. A number of trees and fiber plants were tested for pulping material ; the tree6 
were mountain gum (Eucalyptus goniocalyx) , coral tree (Erythrina), and mountain ash (Euca- 
lyptus sieberiana). The algaroba bean (Prosopis juli flora) is being tested in a number of 
localities for fodder purposes. The outer sheathing of the gray ironbark (E. paniculata) has 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 179 

proven an excellent substitute for cork and cork waste, which is used largely in I be manufacture 
of insulating material. Experiments undertaken to ascertain whether this sheathing could 
be removed without injury to the growing tree have resulted successfully. Mountain ash (E. 
gigantea) is being tested for veneer material. Many other investigations on a variety of sub- 
jects are also under way. Mistletoe is doing serious damage to the forests of the western 
districts. The following species are infested : Acacia ancura, Eremophillalongifolia, E. en \,<i . 
E. dcalbata, E. rostrala, and C. luehmanni. An area of 37,500 acres of Crown land in the 
vicinity of Buckenboura, on the South Coast was recently temporarily withdrawn from settle- 
ment for the growing of wattle trees for tanbark production. The principal species of wattle 
of tannic value (Acacia decurrens) is widely distributed on the area and appears well adapted 
to local climatic and soil conditions. It is expected therefore to set aside the better por- 
tions of the area as a National permanent reserve for the growth and preservation of wattle. 
Reference is made to an article by A. Shallard published in the October, 1918, issue of the 
Australian Forestry Journal which states that probably 20,000 people in Australia keep bees, and 
that the yield last season was between 5000 and 6000 tons of honey, the bulk of which came 
from the gum (eucalypt) trees, and among the principal varieties of honey value, the iron- 
barks, the stringybarks, the boxes, flooded gum, white mahogany, tallow wood, spotted gum, 
gray gum, and bloodwood, are given first place. In order to widen the use and productiveness 
of the state forests in this direction, the Commission has now made arrangements for the issu- 
ance of bee-farming permits, which convey to the holders certain privileges of occupation and 
use, and enable liberal areas of the state forests to be taken up as bee ranges. — E. R. Hodson. 

1343. Helms, Johs. Weymouthsfyrren paa Silkeborg Skovdistrikt. [Pinus monticola at 
Silkeborg District.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 402-408. PI. 2. 1919. 

1344. Henkel, J. S. Afforestation in Zululand. Rhodesia Agric. Jour. 17:50-52. 1920. — 
Judging by the indigenous vegetation and the bad effects of strong winds, conditions at Em- 
pangeni appeared far from favorable for the growing of exotic timber trees. Quite a large 
number, however, have adapted themselves to the conditions, the outstanding successes being 
secured with eucalypts. — E. M. Doidge. 

1345. Hesselman, Henrik. Iakttagelser over Skogstradspollens Spridningsformaga. 
[Dissemination of pollen from forest trees.] Meddel. Statens Skogsforsoksanst. 16: 27-60. 
S fig. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 232. 

1346. Hodal. Fransk bergfuru (Pinus montanagallica). [French mountain pine.] Tids- 
skr. Skogbruk 28: 1-12. PI. 2. 1920. 

1347. Hole, R. S. A new species of Ixora. Indian Forester 45: 15-16. 1919. — See Bot. 
Absts. 3, Entry 2983. 

1348. Holten, Just. Gamle Ege i Christianssaedes Skove. [Old oaks on Christian 
Manor.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 379-395. 1919. 

1349. Hosmer, Ralph S. One aspect of the national program of forestry: cost. Jour. 
Forestry 18:9-12. 1920. — The cost item has been left out of consideration in the discussion 
of a national forest policy. This is important because the antagonism of private owners is 
apt to result if the burden falls too heavily on them, and if the burden on the population is 
too heavy, there is apt to be trouble from the other side. In any case, the public pays the 
bills in the end. — E. N. Munns. 

1350. Hosmer, R. S. [Rev. of: Judd, C. S. Report of the Division of Forestry, Territory 
of Hawaii, for biennial period ended Dec. 31, 1918.] Jour. Forestry 17: 853-855. 1919. 

1351. Htjbaxjlt, E. Efter krigen paa de britiske 0er. [The British Islands after the war.] 
[From Rev. Eaux et For&s. Oct., 1919.] Tidsskr. Skogbruk 27: 276-291. 1919. 



180 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1352. Jessen, P. P. En Ny Dansk Impraegneringsmetode. [A new Danish staining 
method called Teakin.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 427-445. PI. 2. 1919. — The process 
consists in pressing different kinds of liquids which contain coloring matter into the wood. 
These are either inorganic salts or aniline dyes. The color is taken up by the cells of the 
wood. — J. A. Larsen. 

1353. Judd, C. S. An historical mesquite tree. Sci. Amer. 122: 165, 175. 1 fig. 1920.— 
Descriptive of the algaroba (Prosopis juliflora), its occurrence in Hawaii, characteristics, 
uses and propagation. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1354. Kellogg, R. S. The news print paper situation. Amer. Forestry 26: 147. 1920. 

1355. King, H. E. Tree planting in community, a suggested scheme. South African Jour. 
Indust. 3: 161-163. 1920. 

1356. Kinzel, Wilhelm. Ueber eine neue Methode des Durchfrierens und die damlt 
erzielten Erfolge bei zahlreichen bisher nicht oder kaum zur Keimung gebrachten Samen. 
[Concerning a new method of freezing and the results derived with numerous unfertile seed or 
seed with very low germinative power.] Naturw. Zeitschr. Forst- u. Landw. 17 : 139-142. 1919. 
— The author discusses the varying results obtained in the artificial treatment of seed either 
in light at 20° or in the dark under frost conditions. He cites a considerable number of ex- 
amples. However, it is evident, that some species show little response to the methods hitherto 
employed. Treatment of seed by frost in conjunction with light has in the past been avoided, 
because where used, harmful results were obtained. This method, though, is very successful 
in many cases, and will yet become important in the case of many tree seeds. It cannot be 
used with seeds rich in chlorophyl, such as Acer and Fraxinus, or with frost sensitive seed, 
such as beech, hazel-nut, yew and others. — J. Roeser. 

1357. Kirkland, Burt P. Co-operation between national forests and adjacent private 
lands. Jour. Forestry 18: 120-130. 1920. — To insure continuous forest production and the 
permanence of wood using industries, the owners of lands in units totaling more than 25,000 
acres should consider the area as a whole. This would permit of better equipment and per- 
sonnel, a permanent town-site and the development of practical forestry. Protection is to 
be paid for on an ownership basis, and the area to be restocked as cut by nature or planting. 
Careful cutting and trained supervision to follow the entire operation. — E. N. Munns. 

1358. Kirkland, Burt P. Economics of private forestry. Jour. Forestry 18: 214-217. 
1920. — The misconceptions of those who believe forestry uneconomic are due to misbeliefs 
in the rights of private property, interest returns and capitalization and taxation. — E. N. 
Munns. 

1359. Kitchin, P. C. Preliminary report on chemical weed control in coniferous nurseries. 
Jour. Forestry 18: 157-159. 1920. — Applications of copper sulphate, zinc chloride, and sul- 
phuric acid to seed beds gave greatly reduced numbers of weeds, especially good were the re- 
sults from the first two salts. Further work is in progress. — E. N. Munns. 

1360. Knuchel, Hermann von. Zur Praktikantenfrage. [The probation question.] 
Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstw. 71 : 69-78. 1920. — A plea for better conditions for the probationer 
and more democratic relations between academic and applied forestry. The probationer 
should receive pay and should be allowed to serve under practical foresters on applied forest 
problems rather than the general system of working as a subordinate, without pay, under an 
instructor. — The state should encourage students to attend forest schools, but should not 
subsidize them. Enrollment at the forest schools should be limited to the number of men 
needed by the state. Foresters must receive better pay and be placed on social equality with 
other professions such as medicine, etc. — J. V. Hofmann. 

1361. Koehler, Arthur. Identification of mahogany. [Review of several papers.] 
Jour. Forestry 18: 154-156. 1920. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 181 

1362. Kornerup A., and H. Mundt. Aske-Gavnetra. [Ash for lumber.) Dansk Skov- 
forenings Tidsskr. 5 : 1-29. tS fig. 1920. 

1363. KttHL. Traeets Kemiske Leknologi. [The chemical composition of wood.] Dansk 
Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 28-64, 110-146. 45 fig. 1919. 

1364. Lee, Laurence. Notes on the Parana pine of southern Brazil. Jour. Forestry 18: 
57-61. 1920. — The Parana pine has a stand of about 650 billion board-feet in Brazil. The 
wood is said to be superior to Swedish pine and even the southern longleaf pine of North 
America. There are no resin ducts and resin accumulates only at the base of knots. At the 
present time the lack of shipping facilities and the unfair taxes are keeping this timber from 
the market. — E. N. Munns. 

1365. Leopold, Aldo. Determining the kill factor for blacktail deer in the southwest. 
Jour. Forestry 18: 131-134. 1920. — A method similar to that used in estimating cattle is pro- 
posed for obtaining data on the blacktail deer. — E. N. Munns. 

1366. Maddox, R. S. Reclamation work a vital forestry problem. Amer. Forestry 26: 
74-76. 5 fig. 1920. — Relates particularly to conditions in Tennessee. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1367. Maiden, J. H. A critical revision of the genus Eucalyptus. Vol. IV, Part 8. P. 
201-237, 4 pl William Applegate Gullick: Sydney, 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2995. 

1368. Maxwell, Hu. The uses of wood. Wood in agricultural implements. Amer. 
Forestry 26: 148-155. 14 fig. 1920. 

1369. McLean, R. C. Studies in the ecology of tropical-rain forest: with special reference 
to the forests of South Brazil. I. Humidity. Jour. Ecology 7: 5-54. 1 pl., 21 fig. 1919. 

1370. Mell, C. D. The mangroves of tropical America. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 388-389. 
5 fig. 1919. — The red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle) produces the bulk of the commercial 
bark used for tanning purposes. The bark is from three-fourths to one inch thick, of a dull 
reddish color, somewhat fibrous and covered with a grayish cork-like cuticle, and contains 
tannin superior to that of many other barks used for that purpose. The percentage of tannin 
is from 25 to 36. The gathering of the bark is a difficult task. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1371. Metcalf, C. D. Logging with belt tread tractors. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1: 42-44. 
5 fig. 1920. [Reprinted from the West Coast Lumberman.] 

1372. Minchin, A. F. Annual rings in sal. Indian Forester 46: 38-45. 2 fig. 1920 — 
Annual rings in sal may be distinguished on a tangential cut when not possible on a radius. 
Fresh cut stumps only can be used and a clean smooth surface is essential. Stump counts and 
measurements of trees of known age show a very close relationship though based on a very 
small number of trees. — E. N. Munns. 

1373. Moore, Barrington. [Rev. of: Recknagel, A. B., and J. Bentley, Jr. Forest 
management, xiii + 269 p. , 26 figs. John Wiley & Sons : New York, 1919. Net $2.50. ] Tor- 
reya 20 : 34-35. 1920. — The book is written for owners of forest-lands who are not professional 
foresters. Four branches of forest management are treated: (1) mensuration; (2) regulation 
of cut; (3) finance; (4) administration. Both the forest-owner and professional forester will 
find the book valuable. [See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1325.] — J. C. Nelson. 

1374. Mulloy, G. A., and W. M. Robertson. An analysis of logging costs in Ontario. 
Jour. Forestry 17: 835-838. 1919. — Data on logging costs compiled from a large number of 
reports on operations in Ontario through several years is given for 11 divisions of cost covering 
82 detailed items. — E. N. Munns. 



182 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1375. Mtjnns, E. N. Effect of fertilization on the seed of Jeffrey pine. Plant World 22: 
138-144. 1919. — Various crosses between thrifty, mistletoe-infested, insect-infested, and 
suppressed specimens of Pinus jeffreyi were made, with the result that thrifty trees produce 
larger and heavier seeds, with a higher germination percentage, higher rate of germination, 
higher real value per pound, and ability to produce stronger seedlings. Seeds borne on 
suppressed, malformed, and diseased trees are of inferior quality for planting. The author 
suggests forest management in which diseased and suppressed trees are removed, and only 
thrifty seed trees left for seed purposes. In collecting seed for forest tree nurseries, thrifty 
trees should be chosen as parents. [See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1589.] — Chas. A. Shull. 

1376. Nellemann, L. P. NogleUnders0gelser Over Arbejdstidog Arbejdsydelse. [Some 
investigations on working hours and working men's aid.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 
408^27. 1919. 

1377. [Nordstedt, C. T. O.] [Swedish rev. of : Ostenfeld, C. H. Bemerkninger om dan- 
ske Traeer og Buskes Systematik og Udbredelse I. Vore Aelme-Arter. (Remarks on the sys- 
tematics and distribution of Danish trees and shrubs. I. Our species of Elms.) Dansk 
Skovforenings Tidsskr. 1918: 421-442. 1918.] Bot. Notiser 1919: 102. 1919. 

1378. Oppermann, A. Et Lovbuds Udviklingshistorie. [History of the development of a 
law.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 146-160. 1919. 

1379. Oppermann, A. Vort Skovbrug Omkring Aar 1900. [Our forestry in 1900.] Dansk 
Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4: 259-316. 1919. 

1380. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. The germination of some trees and shrubs and 
their juvenile forms. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25 : 292-340. Fig. 45-120. 1920.— One lot of seeds 
was placed in good greenhouse soil in the fall (1917) and stratified in a cold frame, from which 
they were removed to the greenhouse in March 1918. The second lot was planted in an open 
place covered with two inches of soil and leaves. Air temperature records were kept through- 
out the season; soil temperature records were kept in the fall until the ground was frozen, 
and again during the opening of the growing season of 1918. Tables of temperature and pre- 
cipitation are given. Photographs or outline drawings of the leaves, and frequently outlines 
of trichomes, are given, with descriptive text, for the following species: Juglans cinerea, 
J. nigra, Carya ovata, C. laciniosa, C. alba, C. glabra, C. cordiformis, Corylus americana, 
Ostrya virginiana, Betula lutea, B. alba papyrifera, Quercus coccinea, Q. ellipsoidalis , Q. fal- 
cata, Q. nigra, Q. imbricaria, Ulmus americana, U. fulva, U. purnila, Celtis occidentalis , Cra- 
taegus mollis, C. Crus-galli, Prunus padus, P. serotina, Gleditsia iriacanthos, Gymnocladus 
dioica, Ptelea trifoliata, Acer saccharinum, A. saccharum, A. saccharum nigrum, A. negundo, 
Aesculus glabra arguta, Vitis vulpina, Tilia americana, Cornus alternifolia, Fraxinus penn- 
sylvanica lanceolata, Catalpa speciosa. A table gives number of seeds planted and total num- 
ber germinated. — H. S. Conard. 

1381. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. A variation in the black walnut. Proc. Iowa 
Acad. Sci. 25: 241-248. PI. 3, fig. 48-44. 1920. 

13S2. Parnell, Ralph. Progress report on forest administration in the North-West 
Province for the year 1918-19. 41 p., 1 map. Peshawar, British India, 1919. — Incorporated 
with the annual report is a similar one covering the five-year period from 1914-15 to 1918-19. 
Since 1917 a beginning has been made in the departmental exploitation of timber. So far wal- 
nut, chil, and coniferous timber in one locality have been handled in this way. It is stated 
that the loss of revenue incurred by the government by leases for even relatively short periods 
in at all abnormal times, the difficulty of arranging for leases for long periods on a sliding 
scale of royalties on account of the vested interests involved and the friction inevitable in 
using the sliding scale, the importance of the Government's retaining its timber in its own 
hands for as long as possible in case of emergent needs and the public advantage obtained by 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 183 

the government's being in a position to use the profits of the timber trade for the benefit of 
the country as a whole instead of these profits going into the pockets of a few long-headed 
private firms, are believed to justify the abandonment of the system of sales of standing trees 
and the adoption of the system of departmental exploitation. During the year the depart- 
ment removed by this system 171,000 cubic feet of timber, or 14 per cent of the total timber 
outturn against 1 per cent the preceding year. Since the walnut supply is becoming exhausted 
and natural reproduction scarce, it is necessary to plant. A nursery has been established at 
Nagan and about \ acre sown with 21,000 walnuts. It appears the best method of restocking 
is to sow direct on the areas and fill in the gaps with trees raised in the nursery. Tests of 
bhan (Rhus cotinus) and garunda (Carrissa spinarum) leaves have shown a fairly satisfactory 
tannin content. However, the production from this source would only be sufficient to supple- 
ment the small local requirements of the province. Appended are numerous forms summar- 
izing detailed tabulated data and a map of the Hazara Division. — E. R. Hodson. 

1383. Pakst, August. Die Kienolgewinnung im Wald von Bialowies. [The production 
of pine-oils in the forest of Bialowies.] Naturw. Zeitschr. Forst- u. Landw. 17: 105-137. 6 
pi., 2 fig. 1919. — The author briefly reviews the best known volatile oils obtained from coni- 
fers, under four headings: (1) those obtained from the bark and wood above ground, (2) 
through the distillation of needles and buds, etc., (3) through the distillation of cones and 
fruit, and (4) from the underground woody portion through extraction or dry distillation. 
The production of pine-oil, a variety of turpentine oil, is an important industry of that sec- 
tion of Europe lying between the Carpathians and the Baltic Sea, including the countries of 
Poland, Courland and Lithuania. The establishment founded by the writer in 1916 in the 
Forest of Nowi Most, after it was occupied by the Germans, is then described inconsiderable 
detail under the headings: (1) the raw material used in the process of distillation; (2) con- 
struction of the establishment including the retort, the heating chamber, the arrangement 
for carrying off the distillate, the cooling mechanism and the receiver of the pine-oil estab- 
lishment; and the equipment of the tar and charcoal establishment; (3) the process of dis- 
tillation; (4) the products resulting from the distillation, chiefly pine- oil, tar and charcoal; 
(5) cost accounting and profitableness; and (6) conditions necessary to establish the pine- 
oil industry in Germany. Numerous tables are included to illustrate topics (3), (4), and (5). 
The author believes that the industry can be successfully introduced, especially in North 
Germany, both on a small scale and on a large scale if a large supply of woody material can 
be obtained close at hand, and concludes, that since the Russian producer has made a success 
of it under very poor economic conditions, there is no ground for believing that success will 
not crown the efforts of the native contractor surrounded b}^ an economic system organized 
and developed to the fullest extent. German forest culture is presented with a new prospect 
for increasing its forest revenue, and at the same time helping to break the economic bands 
now holding the country. — ./. Roeser. 

1384. Paschal, G. W. A bigger tree. Sci. Amer. 122: 61. 1920. — A letter concerning a 
poplar tree with a butt circumference of 39-40 feet. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1385. Passler, Johannes. Das Entrinden von Holzern unabhangig von der Jahreszeit 
nach dem Giitschowschen Verfahren. [Bark-peeling independent of the season according to 
the Giitschow process.] Schweiz. Zeitschr. Forstw. 71 : 116-118. 1920. — It is well known that 
oaks and other trees do not peel easily except during the spring time when the sap is flowing 
freely, also the quantity or quality of tannin varies very little during the year. This makes 
it possible to peel only during a short season although it would be profitable to peel during the 
entire year. Methods of loosening the bark have been in use for a long time among which 
the Maitre method in use for the past fifty years is the most commonly used. By this method 
the wood is steamed at 100°C. before peeling. — A new method devised by Gitchow consists 
of steaming the wood for several hours at 30 to 40°C. This has the advantage of leaving the 
wood cooler and easier to handle. It may also be applied in the field by use of a wagon that 
Gi'tchow has constructed in which the steaming can be done and the bark dried. — His method 
applies to the pines also and is the most feasible for field conditions where the cutting is done 
during the winter season and the wood delivered to the industries later.—/. V. Hofmann. 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 2 



184 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1386. Perkins, G. W. Forestry and recreation in the Palisades Interstate Park. Amer. 
Forestry 26: 20-26. 8 fig. 1920. 

1387. Perree, W. F. Progress report of the Forest Research Institute for the year 1918- 
19. 22 p. Calcutta, British India. 1919. — The work of the Institute is organized in five 
branches: Silviculture, forest botany, forest economy, forest zoology, and forest chemistry. 
A silvicultural experiment in Thano forest indicates that two regeneration fellings are un- 
necessary where natural reproduction is already present in sufficient quantity. Sufficient 
overhead cover to protect from frost is also sufficient to suppress young Sal (Shorea robusta). 
Side protection is of greater value than overhead protection. In this forest the frost risk is 
slight and therefore it is believed that a clear felling in one operation followed by cleaning and 
cutting back will prove successful in regeneration. To test this point an experimental area 
of five acres has been marked for clear felling. Two other plots were laid out in this forest 
to determine the effect of severe thinning (1) at an early age, and (2) at maturity. The 
following is indicated in afforestation work at Zaberkhet Tappar: Dalbergia sissoo (less dam- 
aged by deer) and Melia azedarach are the most promising species ; rooted cuttings of Dalbergia 
sissoo, Bombax malabaricum, Eugenia jambolana, and Grewia vestita have been successful, 
while Terrainalia tomentosa, Ougenia dalbcrgioides , and Mallotus philippinensis have given 
fair results, and that Chir (Pinus longijolia) can be better raised from direct sowings than by 
transplanting. (July is best season for transplanting this species.) In the study of tan- 
yielding trees and shrubs Anogeisus latifolia is being tested to determine the best season for 
pollarding, Cassia auriculala for stimulation of germination and for methods of transplanting. 
Phyllanthus emblica was found frost hardy, and both direct sowings and transplants from 
nursery have proved successful; germination ranged from 70 to 90 per cent. Elaeodendron 
glaucum, also frost hardy, showed 70 per cent germination and both direct sowings and trans- 
planting proved successful. In the branch of Forest Botany the problem of regenerating the 
Sal is believed solved by a series of recent investigations. The factors injurious to the estab- 
lishment of the seedling, due to the interaction of a soil-covering of dead leaves, drought, and 
bad soil aeration, are eliminated more effectively by a complete removal of the overhead can- 
opy than by either burning the soil covering, or by removal of undergrowth, with or without 
partial thinning of the overhead cover. Owing to the uncertainty of good seed years and for 
other reasons, the restocking of the area by artificial sowings is preferable to reliance on nat- 
ural regeneration. It has further been proved that much better results are obtained from 
broadcast sowings in cleared patches and narrow strips with full overhead light than from 
sowings under the shade of a partial canopy. Therefore the system proposed for handling 
Sal is a combination of the group and strip methods, in which the size of the unit regeneration 
areas is determined by the average height of the forest at maturity, and their sequence and 
orientation by local requirements for shade. A number of woods have been investigated for 
industrial use. The branch of Forest Chemistry obtained from the leaves of Cinnamomitm 
glandulijerum 0.20 per cent of camphor and 0.44 per cent of camphor oil. From the leaves 
of Eucalyptus tereticornis and E. crebra collected at Kaunli, Dehra Dun, were obtained oils 
which resembled those of similar species grown in Australia. The former contained a small 
percentage of eucalyptol but the oil from neither of these two species of eucalypts complies 
with the standard of the British Pharmacopoeia. Artemisia marilima was examined for san- 
tonin with negative results. The phenolic portion of the light Chir (Pinus longijolia) tar oil, 
a by-product in distilling this species for Stockholm tar, showed 8 per cent of guaiacol and 42 
per cent of creosole. Kelp (Saragosum species) from the Bombay Coast contained 0.02 per cent 
of iodine and 1.14 per cent of potassium. The Institute library has increased its books and 
periodicals to 14,014. Appended is a list of the current year's publications and also a cumu- 
lative list from the beginning of the Institute. In general it is expected to develop the 
Research Institute, to serve not only the scientific and economic interests of the Forest 
Department, but also to function as the central bureau of information for the entire Indian 
scientific and commercial community. — E. R. Hodson. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 185 

138S. Pettis, C. R. Legislative machinery for enforcement of private forestry measures. 
Jour. Forestry 18:6-8. 1920. — An attempt should be made to make lumbering operations and 
cut over lands more safe from fire. This may be done in New York by leaving strips and 
bands of uncut timber along roadways and creeks to create fire breaks, by the construction of 
6re lines, by burning the slash. Demons! raf ion forests and foresters are needed to show what 
can be accomplished. — E. N. Mun 

1389. Pinchot, Gifford. National or state control of forest devastation. Jour. Forestry 
18: 106-109. 1920. — State control does not offer the surest and strongest control of forest 
devastation; national control does and has proved its point in the past. — E. N. Munns. 

1390. Pool, Raymond J. The fuel situation in Nebraska and the need for greater wood 
production. Publ. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 10: 17-28. 1920. — The author discusses the need of 
wood, the shortage of wood, and the value of woodlots in Nebraska. He urges thinning of 
groves and wind-breaks, and cutting off when the crop is mature. — //. S. Conard. 

1391. Potts, II. W. The honey locust tree. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 85-90. 
7 fig. 1920. Gives chemical analysis of seeds. — L. R. Waldron. 

1392. [Pratt, Geo. D.] New York's forestry program. Amer. Forestry 26: 51-52. 1920. 

1393. Rafn, Johannes. Skovfr0analyser i Saesonen 1917-18. [Analysis of forest seed 
1917-18.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 4:8-12. 1919. 

1394. Rafn, Johannes. Skovfr0analyser i Saesonen 1918-19, samt lidt om Egern. [Tests 
of forest seed, 1918-19, with notes on the oak.] Dansk Skovforenings Tidsskr. 5: 55-64. 1920. 

1395. Rao, B. Inamati Sham. Brief note on the artificial raising of sandal in the Akola 
Division of the Berar Circle, Central Provinces. Indian Forester 46: 1-10. PI. 1-2. 1920. — 
Sandal seed was dibbled in the brush of Akola and in good years an excellent stand resulted. 
As the sandal coppices and spreads by root suckers, the future stands are well assured. — E. 
N. Munns. 

1396. Recknagel, A. B. Inspection, supervision and control of private forestry measures : 
methods and costs. Jour. Forestry 18: 23-25. 1920. — There are nearly 300 timber land own- 
ers in New York with more than 500 acres in their holdings. To administer these properly 
would require technical supervision. Working plans for each tract should be prepared by a 
forester and filed with the Conservation Commission, failure to do so to be punished and 
violations of the plan carry fines. An office for handling these operations on 2,182,000 acres 
is needed with a mobile field force. — E. N. Munns. 

1397. Record, S. J. Possum wood. Sci. Amer. 122: 569. 1920. — Descriptive of the tree 
and its wood, known by many common names, and botanically as Hura crepitans. This is 
one of the most recent introductions to the American timber market that seems certain to 
find a place. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1398. [Ridsdale, P. S.] A decade of progress in the Forest Service. Amer. Forestry 26: 
131-132. 1920. — An editorial, occasioned by the retirement of Henry S. Graves as head of 
the U. S. Forest Service, in which is reviewed the progress made during the ten years in 
which he has directed the forestry activities of the national government. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1399. [Ridsdale, P. S.] Increase in forest research necessary. Amer. Forestry 26: 
69-70. 1920. 

1400. [Ridsdale, P. S.] Light burning is a mistake. Amer. Forestry 26: 68-69. 1920. — 
Light burning means nothing more nor less than the continuance of the frequent surface fire, 
which steadily and irresistibly destroys the western pine forests. At its best, the practice is 



186 FORESTRY [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

simply a measure for the protection of old timber. An area cleaned by light burning has 
no advance young growth to replace the virgin timber after cutting. Light burning has no 
place in a system of forestry which seeks to perpetuate our western pine forests and make them 
continuously productive. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1401. [Ridsdale, P. S.] A national forest policy. Amer. Forestry 26: 67-68. 1920. 

1402. Skerrett, R. G. Multiple production — a new slogan. Sci. Amer. 122: 58-59,72. 
3 fig. 1920. — Touches, among other things, on the waste of lumbering and some of the ways 
in which this waste may be lessened. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1403. Skoien, Olap. Landsskogtakseringen. [Taxation of the forests.] Tidsskr. Skog- 
bruk 28: 12-15. 1 fig. 1920. 

1404. Smith, Annie Lorrain. Hyphomycetes and the rotting of timber. Trans. British 
Mycol. Soc. 6: 54-55. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2763. 

1405. Smith, F. H. Significant trends in lumber production in the United States. Amer. 
Forestry 26: 143-147. 1 map, 2 tables. 1920. 

1406. Smith, F. H. What our forests support. Amer. Forestry 26: 16-17. 1920.— A 
consideration of the great value of forests and their economic importance to the wealth, 
independence and prosperity of U. S. A. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1407. Sparhawk, William N., Donald Bruce, and Burt P. Kirkland. Report of 
subcommittee on forest leasing, forest loans, and forest insurance. Jour. Forestry 18:260- 
274. 1920. — The details of a leasing plan are given whereby the government can lease forest 
land instead of buying it outright, the financial burden being distributed over a long period. 
Financial credit to forest users is at high interest rate because of the small units and a system 
of Federal Forest Loan Boards is described. To handle forest insurance properly an insur- 
ance organization is necessary and as a public necessity is at stake and a resource in danger, 
this work can best be accomplished by a national organization. To these ends, legislation 
by the states and by the government is essential. — E. N. Munns. 

1408. Stevens, Carl M. Rating scale for foresters. Jour. Forestry 18: 143-150. 1920. 

1409. Terry, E. I. Further comment on a formula method of estimating timber. Jour. 
Forestry 18: 160-161. 1920. 

1410. Vestby, P. Spredte traek fra en skogbefaring i Chili. [Sketches from a trip to 
Chilean forests. 1 Tidsskr. Skogbruk 28: 17-27. PI. 2. 1920. 

1411. Vikhammer, P. Om granen som fremtidig skogtre nordenfor polarcirklen. [Nor- 
way spruce as a future tree north of the Polar Circle.] Tidsskr. Skogbruk 27: 253-276. Fig. 4- 
1919. 

1412. West, Erdman. An undescribed timber decay of hemlock. Mycologia 11 : 262-266. 
1919. 

1413. Williams, I. C. Report of forestry. Bull. Pennsylvania Dept. Agric. 11: 119-122. 
1918. — Remarks upon the loss of services of state foresters who entered war service and its 
effect upon forest protection. Brief statistics are. given of plantings within the state forests 
and of the available seeds and seedlings for future planting. The number of forest fires re- 
corded in 1917 was 2066 and the average area burned over 153.45 acres. The railroads within 
the state paid damages on 168 fires, the expense of extinguishing the same being $1674.80. 
Individuals made settlement for 81 fires, the expense of which amounted to 31016.73. During 
1917 the state forests were increased by 5593 acres, bringing the total area to 1,017,773 acres. 



No. 2, September, 1920] FORESTRY 1 87 

At the present time there are 52 state forests. It is pointed out that the State Department 
of Forestry has to 1918 paid from its resources $148,052.33 to the State School Fund of Penn- 
sylvania. — C. R. Orton. 

1414. Wilson, Ellwood. Use of seaplanes in forest mapping. Jour. Forestry 18: 1-5. 
1920. — Seaplanes in eastern Canada were found well adapted for forest use, the abundance of 
lakes and the absence of landing grounds making such a type of plane feasible. Hardwoods 
and softwoods can readily be distinguished and photographs with an aerial camera gave ex- 
cellent results in mapping, 200 square miles a day being possible with a machine as againsi 
50 square miles per month by a party of ten on foot. — E. N. Munns. 

1415. Woodruff, George W. Constitutionality of national laws to restrict forest devas- 
tation. Jour. Forestry 18: 100-102. 1920. — The Supreme Court, U. S. A., has upheld previous 
legislation dealing with the control of forest lands because of the benefit to the public and 
liberty of posterity. The present scheme for control of devastation fits in with the pasl 
favorable decisions. — E. N. Munns. 

1416. Woolsey, Theodore S., Jr. Early Arizona problems. Jour. Forestry 18: 13.5-142. 
1920. 

1417. Woolsey, T. S. Natural regeneration of French forests. Amer. Forestry 26: 77- 
81. 10 fig. 1920. — In the Landes and the Gironde maritime pine matures in 70-80 years, at 
which time the trees are clear cut. The branches and unmerchantable tops are left on the 
ground; the sun opens the cones and the sand is quickly covered with a stand so dense as to 
require thinning. In the sapling stage the excess trees are tapped to death to produce resin 
and mine props and to favor the development of the crowns of the final stand. The sessile 
oak in the Adour, where there is an annual acorn crop, can be clear cut. Sessile and peduncu- 
late oak stands (often mixed with beech in central France) must be regenerated by progressive 
cuttings. Oak matures in 180-240 years and the seedlings are intolerant, while the beech 
requires for a time a protective cover of older trees. Under these conditions there are 3 suc- 
cessive fellings; the seed felling aims at starting the seedlings, the development of the crowns 
of the seed trees and the partial removal of the merchantable crop ; a secondary felling aims 
to gradually remove the seed trees and to gradually free the existing seedlings without causing 
too much damage; the final felling is made when the ground is seeded and the first seedlings 
have developed into saplings, and in this the seed trees that are left are removed at one stroke. 
In fir stands, where advance growth almost always exists, the seed felling is really a light sec- 
ondary felling, designed to allow this advance growth to develop. Subsequent secondary 
fellings are also light; but the final felling should be complete. In the high mountains the 
treatment is different, since the objective is not solely the production of lumber, but the 
slopes must above all be protected to avoid damage by erosion. Group selection is the method 
practised. Soil preparation is often necessary, especially with spruce, since natural regen- 
eration is hampered by (1) a dense vegetable cover which prevents the seed coming in contact 
with the mineral soil, (2) an excessive cover of undecomposed dead needles or (3) too com- 
pact surface of the soil. — Chas. II. Otis. 

1418. Yates, Harry S. The growth of Hevea brasiliensis in the Philippine Islands. 
Philippine Jour. Sci. 14: 501-523. 1 fig. 1919. — This paper has to do with the possibilities of 
cultivating Hevea in the Philippines on a commercial scale. The necessary conditions of 
climate, temperature, soil, and elevation are described. A comparison of these conditions 
with those of regions where Hevea is successfully cultivated indicates the suitability of the 
Islands for its cultivation, and the yield of rubber is satisfactory. — Albert R. Sweetser. 



188 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

GENETICS 

G. H. Shull, Editor 
J. P. Kelly, Assistant Editor 

1419. A., D. The doubling of the stock. Gard. Chron. 66: 157. Sept. 20, 1919.— Author 
cites references contradicting Mr. Taylor, who states that Lothian growers succeed in 
obtaining double flowers from single-flowered plants without selection. It seems that seed 
selection must be made from plants showing tendency to doubling. — A. C. Hildreth. 

1420. Abl [Zuchtinspektor, Halle, Sachsen]. Unfruchtbare Zwillinge beim Rind. [Ster- 
ile twins in cattle.] Deutsch. Landw. Tierzucht. 22: 34-35. 1918. — Author reviews briefly 
the theory of Keller and Tandler in regard to the sterility and malformation of the free- 
martin heifer and describes two extreme examples. — Sewall Wright. 

1421. Allen, Ezra. Studies on cell division in the albino rat (Mus norvegicus, var. alb.). 
III. Spermatogenesis : the origin of the first spermatocytes and the organization of the chromo- 
somes, including the accessory. Jour. Morph. 31: 133-185. 58 fig. June, 1918. — A technique 
which prevents clumping of the chromosomes is described. In the albino rat, the spermato- 
gonia! number of chromosomes is 37; the accessory divides in the second maturation division. 
Shapes of the chromosomes in spermatogonia are all curved rods ; in first spermatocytes occur 
simple and compound rings, crosses, and one rod, the accessory; in the second spermatocytes, 
curved rods. The constitution of the first spermatocyte chromosomes is typically tetrad, 
with the four parts so organized that each may retain its individuality. The first spermato- 
cyte chromosomes pass through clearly marked leptotene, pachytene, and diplotene stages 
without synizesis. — Bertram G. Smith. 

1422. Alverdes, F. [German rev. of: Boas, J. Zur Beurteilung der Polydaktylie des 
Pferdes. (Polydactyly in the horse.) Zool. Jahrb. Anat. 4: 49-104. 1917.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 287-288. May, 1920. 

1423. Alverdes, F. [German rev. of: Lebedinsky, N. G. Darwins geschlechtliche 
Zuchtwahl und ihre arterhaltende Bedeutung. (Darwin's sexual selection and its significance 
for the maintenance of species.) Habilitationsvortrag. 31 p. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 282-283. May, 1920. 

1424. Alverdes, F. [German rev. of: (1) Naef, A. Die individuelle Entwickelung organ- 
ischer Formen als Urkunde ihrer Stammesgeschichte. (Kritische Betrachtungen iiber das soge- 
nannte "biogenetische Grundgesetz.") (The individual development of organic forms as evi- 
dence of their evolutionary history. — Critical consideration of the so-called "biogenetic law.") 
77 p. ,4 fig. Jena, 1917. (2) Idem. Idealistiche Morphologie und Phylogenetik. (Zur Meth- 
odik der systematischen Morphologie.) (Idealistic morphology and phylogeny. — On the method 
of systematic morphology.) 77 p., 4 fig. Jena, 1919.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 
22:279-282. May, 1920. 

1425. Alverdes, F. [German rev. of: Plate, L. Verbungsstudien an Mausen. (In- 
heritance studies on mice.) Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ 44: 291-336. 5 fig. 1918. (See 
Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 658.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 284-285. May, 1920. 

1426. Alverdes, F. [German rev. of: (1) Schaxel, Julius. Grundziige der Theorien- 
bildung in der Biologic (Principles of theory formation in biology.) G. Fischer: Jena, 1919. 
(2) Schaxel, Julius. Uber die Darstellung allgemeiner Biologic (On the presentation of gen- 
eral biology.) Abhandl. Theoret. Biol. 1919.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22:276- 
279. May, 1920. 



No. 2, September, 1920] 



GENETICS 



189 



1427. Anonymous. Report of the work of the plant breeding division for 1919. Jour. 
Dept. Agric. Ireland 20: 102-107. 1920. — This report contains a brief summary of the work 
on wheat, barley, oats, flax and rye grass. It is stated that several new forms of spring wheat 
have been developed from a cross between Red Fife and April Red. It is planned to Bilbfil i- 
tute one of these new forms for Red fife. — Hybrid barleys are compared with their parents and 
indicate slight increases in yield in some cases with deviations in others. Single plant selec- 
tions were made in a crop sown with commercial Riga flax seed. The progeny of each of these 
selected plants was found to be remarkably uniform, not only in botanical characters but also 
in physiological characters such as resistance to frost, period of growth and vigor. The two 
progenies were found to be superior to the others and the propagation of them was con- 
tinued. Twenty acres were sown from the two superior progenies and the plants showed great 
uniformity of growth. — In addition to these two selections, further selections were made from 
Riga flax and of these last selections two appear superior to the best two of the first selection. 
— Selections were also made of white-flowered and Kostroma flax. The results of these selec- 
tions are not reported. — Single plant selections are being made in Perennial and Italian rye 
grass but no report of the success of this work is given. — J. H. Kempton. 

1428. Anonymous. Daffodil breeding. Florists' Exchange 49: 1082. May 8, 1920.— 
Notes on daffodil breeding in America and England. Finest English daffodils are raised by 
S. Goodell of Seattle, Washington, from crossing English varieties. Some flowers measure 
11 cm. and display exquisite coloring. Author describes choice collection of seedlings (red 
cups and red eyes) shown at Royal Horticultural Society's Daffodil show in London on April 
13, raised by Mrs. R. O. Backhouse. Prices for best new seedlings range from $250 per bulb 
to $100 or less. — Orland E. White. 



1429. Anonymous. 
Jan., 1920. 

1430. Anonymous. 
11:6. Jan., 1920. 

1431. Anonymous. 
Jan., 1920. 

1432. Anonymous. 

1433. Anonymous. 



A new dahlia of interest to plant breeders. Jour. Heredity 11: 48. 
The heredity and environment of a great botanist. Jour. Heredity 

University wants photographs of twin calves. Jour. Heredity 11: 15. 

A genetic association in Italy. Jour. Heredity 11: 45. Jan., 1920. 
New eugenics society in Hungary. Jour. Heredity 11: 41. Jan., 



1020. 



1434. Anonymous. The birth rate in mixed marriages. Jour. Heredity 11: 96. Feb., 



1920. 

1435. Anonymous. 

1436. Anonymous. 

1437. Anonymous. 

1438. Anonymous. 
10:275. June, 1919. 

1439. Anonymous. 
1919. 



Eugenics in Germany. Jour. Heredity 11: 110. Mar., 1920. 
Eugenics in Scandinavia. Jour. Heredity. 11: 128. Mar., 1920. 
Eugenics and other sciences. Jour. Heredity 11: 77-78. Feb., 1920. 
A common misconception concerning human heredity. Jour. Heredity 

A factor influencing the sex-ratio. Jour. Heredity 10: 256. June, 



1410. Anonymous. Measuring intelligence. Jour. Heredity 11: 86-87. 1 fig. Feb., 



1920. 

1441. Anonymous. 
number of brain cells. 



Deficiency in intellect found to be correlated with deficiency in the 
Jour. Heredity 10: 369. Nov., 1919. 



190 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1442. Anonymous. A supposed sheep-goat hybrid. Jour. Heredity 10: 357-359. 2 fig. 
Nov., 1919. 

1443. Anonymous. Carriers of the germ plasm. Jour. Heredity 10: 422. Fig. 21. Dec, 
1919. 

1444. Anonymous. To increase the birth rate. Jour. Heredity 11: 64. Feb., 1920. 

1445. Anonymous. An award of honor to Walter Van Fleet. Jour. Heredity 11: 95-96. 
1 fig. Feb., 1920. 

1446. Anonymous. The death of Richard Semon. Jour. Heredity 11: 78-79. Feb., 1920. 

1447. Anonymous. Systematic breeding. Florists' Exchange 49: 986. April 24, 1920. — 
Popular discussion of breeding, with remarks on the importance of the F2 generation in 
crossing work. Breeding problems of the carnation, rose, cyclamen and sweet pea are 
discussed. — Orland E. White. 

144S. Anonymous. Historia de los metodos de seleccion. [History of the methods of 
selection.] Jalisco Rural [Mexico] 2: 7-8. 1919.— Popular. 

1449. Anthony, Stephen, and Harry V. Harlan. Germination of barley pollen. Jour. 
Agric. lies. 18: 525-536. 2 pi., 2 fig. Feb. 16, 1920.— Experiments with barley pollen were 
carried on: (1) with solutions, (2) with moist chambers, (3) fertilization in the field, (4) 
retention of viability in the laboratory, (a) when pollen is left in free air; (b) when pollen 
is kept over sulphuric acid; and (c) when pollen is kept in vacuo. No germinations were 
secured either with water or solutions of sugar, agar, or nutritive substances of various osmotic 
concentrations. Germination was finally obtained as follows: A slide containing pollen was 
placed inside a Van Tieghem cell; a piece of mesophyll from a leaf of garden pea was placed 
in the cell to supply water; the cell was covered with cover glass and placed outside on window 
ledge. Germination was thus obtained in five minutes. In field experiments receptivity of 
stigma and duration of viability of pollen were studied and results compared with those of 
laboratory experiments. Extreme delicacy of water adjustment is the most noticeable 
response of the pollen to treatment given in the experiments. Literature is reviewed. [See 
also Bot, Absts. 5, Entry 949.]— W. E. Bryan. 

1450. Babcock, E. B. Crepis — a promising genus for genetic investigations. Amer. Nat, 
54: 270-276. May-June, 1920. — It is desirable to find a genus with several crossable species, 
whose chromosome numbers are low and different; linkage groups corresponding to the 
chromosomes of each species should be understood. Crepis has 200 widely scattered and 
diversified species. Of these one is already known to have 3 chromosome pairs, 6 or 7 have 4, 
4 have 5, one has 8, one has 9, and one has 20. Cytologically these are unusually favorable 
objects of study. Crepis is prolific, usually self-fertile, gives 2 or 3 generations a year, and 
probably its species are crossable. Disadvantage is smallness'of flowers, making hybridiza- 
tion tedious though not impossible. Author has already commenced work on two species 
virens and tectorum, and urges other investigators to join in the attack, since an enormous 
mass of data will be necessary before the desired goal is reached.— Merle C. Coulter. 

1451. Bancroft, Wilder D. [Rev. of: Jaeger, F. M. Lectures on the principles of 
symmetry. 16x27 cm. xii + 333 p. Elsevier Publ. Co.: Amsterdam, 1917.] Jour. Phys. 
Chem. 23 : 516. 1919. — The book deals with the principles of symmetry in chemical substances, 
animals and plants. "While not easy reading, the book is an instructive one and contains 
a great deal that is of interest" to all morphologists, especially those in botany who are also 
interested in evolution. — H. E. Pulling. 

1452. Banta, Arthur M. Sex and sex intergrades in Cladocera. Proc. Nation. Acad. 
Sci. [U. S. A.] 4: 373-379. Dec, 1918. — Certain species of Cladocera, as Daphnia pulex, Simo- 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 191 

cephalit-x scmdtiius and throe species of Minna, showed no Lntergradation of the secondary sex 
characters. In other species, however, as Simocephalus vetulus, sex-intergrades appeared very 
infrequently and in Daphnia longispina they were not very unusual. Frequently, in Simo- 
cephalus vetulus, there were many male intergrades produced with the female intergrades, 
but in Daphnia longispina, the intergrades were nearly all females. Sex intergrades appeared 
in certain cultures of Simocephalus Vi tulus in t he 131st generation, in 1915, and have cord inued 
to appear throughout the 57 subsequent generations in the following three years. The females 
that showed only slightly developed intergrading sex characters reproduced with normal 
vigor but those with fully developed male characters were sterile. — D. D. Whitney. 

1453. Barnils, Perk. Les elements hereditaires dans le langage. [The hereditary ele- 
ments in language.] Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. 82: 828-829. 1919. 

1454. Bartlett, J. T. A plant-breeder's opportunity. Sci. Amer. 121: 372. 1919. — 
Desirable varieties of fresh vegetables and fruits are already available, but breeder now has 
notable opportunity in developing varieties adapted to such by-product industries as canning 
and evaporating. Special demands made, such as low water content, strawberries which 
husk easily, etc. Emphasizes that canners and evaporators use first-quality produce, not 
produce unsuitable for shipment in fresh condition. — Merle C. Coulter. 

1455. Batjin, P. Sur la dimegalie des spermies dans certaines doubles spermatogenese. 
Sa signification. [On dimegaly of sperms in certain cases of double spermatogenesis. Its sig- 
nificance.] Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. [Paris] 83: 432^134. Mar., 1920. 

1456. Baumann, E. Zur Frage der Individual- und der Immunitatszuchtung bei der Kar- 
tofiel. [On the question of individual selection in potatoes and the breeding for immunity.] 
Fuhlings landwirtsch. Zeitg. 67: 246-253. 1918. — Author points out the necessity of studying 
commercial potato varieties by means of clones. Data based on a number of individual 
selections vegetatively propagated from two varieties are presented. High yields are asso- 
ciated with an increase in number of tubers but a decrease in size. The percentage of starch 
in the tubers is lower in high yielders although the absolute amount of starch is greater. — 
Data on the influence of various leaf diseases in reducing yield is discussed. Author believes 
that the chief causes of "running out" in potatoes are leaf diseases. — R. J. Garber. 

1457. Bishop, O. F., J. Grantham, and M. J. Knapp. Probable error in field experiments 
with Hevea. Agric. Bull. Federated Malay States 6: 596. 1918. 

14.58. Blaringhem, L. Polymorphisme et fecondite du Lin d'Autriche. [Polymorphism 
and fecundity in Austrian flax.] Compt. Rend. Soc. Biol. [Paris] 82: 756-758. 1919. 

1459. Blaringhem, L. Vigueur vegetative compensatrice de la sterilite, chez les hybrides 
d'especes de Digitales (D. purpurea et D. lutea). [Vegetative vigor compensating for the ster- 
ility in a species hybrid of Digitalis (D. purpurea and D. lutea).] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. 
[Paris] 169: 481-483. 1919.— Reciprocal crosses of Digitalis purpurea, L., and D. lutea, L., 
give sterile progeny which surpass both parental species as follows: 

purpurea hybrid lutea 

Height 50-150 cm. 150-185 40-80 

Dry weight 150 g. 200-275 50 

Duration of life biennial many years triennial 

First generation plants are very uniform. Reciprocal crosses do not differ in vegetative fea- 
tures but flowers differ in size, shape and color. — D. F. Jones. 

1460. Bliss, A. J. Hybridizing bearded Iris. Gard. Chron. 67: 225. May 8, 1920.— 
Attempts to coordinate the results obtained by Bliss and by Sturtevant as to genetic compo- 
sition of certain plicalas, basing an explanation on the results of Bateson and Punnett's 
experiment with Emily Henderson sweet pea, [See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entries 331, 1669.] — 
./. Marion Shull. 



192 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1461. Bonne vie, Kristine. Polydaktyli i norske bygdeslegter. [Polydactyly in Nor- 
wegian peasantry.] Norsk. Mag. f. Lagev. 6: 1-32. 1919. — In several families from different 
parts of Norway one and the same type of hereditary Polydactyly occurs — a postaxial, asym- 
metrical Polydactyly, mostly developed on the right side of the body. The extra finger (or 
toe) was always fixed at the base of the fifth finger, the metacarpalia showing no abnormalities. 
In all families the character in its occurrence follows the dominant type of inheritance, occur- 
ring in each of a series (2-5) of generations and in a relatively large number of individuals. 
The degree of development of the sixth finger (or toe) and its occurrence on one or both hands 
or feet, however, show considerable variation within each generation, from a well developed 
finger with three normal phalanges, down to a small soft knob at the side of the hand. — A 
genealogical investigation proved all the families in question to descend from one and the same 
parish of Norway and also to have at least one ancestor in common. — Kristine Bonnevie. 

1462. Bonnevie, Kristine. Om tvillingsfodslers arvelighet. Undersokelse over en norsk 
bygdeslegt. [On the inheritance of twin births. Investigations on Norwegian peasantry.] 
Norsk. Mag. f. Lagev. 8: 1-22. 1919. — Hereditary disposition of twin births is stated within 
certain branches of a large country family (counting about 5000 individuals), the multiple 
births making in these branches no less than 7.7 per cent of all births, while the percentage of 
twin births within the whole country makes only 1.3-1.4 per cent. Through the "difference 
method" of Weinberg (subtraction of all twin "pairs" from the number of one-sexed twins) 
it is proved that about 80 per cent of all multiple births investigated should be considered as 
two-egged twin births, while probably only 20 per cent of multiple births have been from 
one egg. Younger mothers (below 30 years old) seem to give rise to one-egg and two-egg 
twin births in about equal number, while the number of one-egg twin births rapidly decreases 
among older mothers. The inheritance of two-egg twin births which must depend upon some 
hereditary character of the ovary is investigated through a genealogical study of the an- 
cestry of twin mothers. Among 88 twin mothers 73 are shown to belong to twin-producing 
branches of the families investigated, while the ascendence of 15 twin-producing mothers 
is unknown. 67 twinning mothers whose ascendence is known through several generations on 
one (30 cases) or on both sides (37 cases) are without exception shown to descend from twin- 
producing families through both parents, or through the one of them whose ascendence is 
known. The type of inheritance seems, therefore, to be that of a recessive character demand- 
ing for its manifestation that the twinning mother should receive her disposition in a double 
dose, through both her parents. The investigations are being continued on other families 
and all results should as yet be considered as preliminary. — Kristine Bonnevie. 

1463. Boulenger, G. A. Un cas interessant de dimorphisme sexuel chez un serpent 
africain (Bothrolycus ater Giinther). [An interesting case of sexual dimorphism in an African 
snake.) Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 168: 666-669. 1919. — -Sexes are distinguished by 
number of rows of scales, 19 in female, 17 in male. Variations in other species mentioned in 
literature are not related or are only indefinitely related to sex. — A. Franklin Shull. 

1464. Burch, D. S. Heredity and economical production of food. Jour. Heredity 11: 
7-11. 2 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1465. Burt, B. C, and N. Haider. Cawnpore-American cotton: An account of experi- 
ments in its improvement by pure line selection and of field trials. 1913-1917. Agric. Res. Inst. 
Pusa Bull. 88. 32 p., 10 pi., 1 fig. 1919. — Describes effort to isolate pure lines adapted to 
Indian conditions from a badly mixed stock of an American upland variety. — T. H. Kearney. 

1466. Call, L. E. Director's report. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. 1917-18. 63 p. 1918.— 
Author states breeding parthenogenetic Appotettix indicates certain characters may be af- 
fected by temperature and moisture. Of several thousand parthenogenetic offspring, all 
were females except four. Parthenogenesis occurs among homozygotes and heterozygotes. 
"Crossing over" and "linkage" also occur. — Corn leaf aphis: Aphis maidis, reared at tempera-, 
ture of 84° to 90°F. produced no winged forms; reared at 72°F. one winged form appeared 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 193 

among many hundred wingless ones; reined at temperature of 60" to 70°F. large numbers of 
winged forms appeared. "In entire 55 generations no males appeared." — Cereal crops: 
Author states Kanred winter wheat is markedly resistant to cold and certain strains of stem 
rust. Kansas Nos. 2414 and 2415 exhibit similar resistance. — Hessian fly seldom lays eggs 
on "oats, barley, einkorn, spring emmer, and durum wheat, and less abundantly on soft than 
on hard winter wheats." Very few "flax seeds" were developed on wheat varieties, lllini 
Chief, Dawson Golden Chaff, Beechwood Hybrid, and Currell Selection, although eggs were 
laid on them "in abundance." — Swine: Following tendencies have been noted: (1) Wide 
Berkshire forehead is dominant over medium forehead of Duroc Jersey and narrow forehead 
of Tamworth and wild hog, (2) Berkshire dish of face is recessive to straight face of Tarn- 
worth and wild hog, (3) Berkshire short face is completely recessive to Tamworth long face, 
(4) Erect ear of Berkshire is dominant over drooping ear of Duroc Jersey. — Apparently there 
are distinct hereditary differences between Berkshire and Duroc Jersey with respect to size, 
rate of growth and early maturity." — Fred Griffee. 

1467. Card, W. H. Originating and standardizing a new variety of Cornish. Reliable 
Poultry Jour. 26: 647, 672, 725, 748, 749, 817, 857, 858, 927, 975, 976. 8 fig. 1919.— An account 
of the origin of the White Laced Cornish fowl, by its originator, a practical breeder. — H. D. 
Good ale. 

1468. Carle, E. Selection pedigree appliquee a la variete de riz "Nang Meo." [Pedigreed 
selection applied to the variety of rice known as "Nang Meo."] Bull. Agric. Inst. Sci. Saigon. 
2 : 73-78. 1920. 

1469 Cohen-Stuart, C. P. A basis for tea selection. Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg. Ill, 
1: 193-320. 1919. — A comprehensive study of the origin, distribution and cultivation of tea. 
The systematic treatment of the genus Camellia is thoroughly discussed and a synoptic key 
is given for the determination of the various species. There is appended also a list of the 
specimens contained in the herbaria of Kew T , Buitenzorg, Singapore and Berlin. This article 
comprises the first of three sections of a paper on selection of tea. — J. H. Kempton. 

1470. Cole, Leon J., and Heman L. Ibsen. Inheritance of congenital palsy in guinea- 
pigs. Amer. Nat. 54: 130-151. Mar-Apr., 1920.— A definite neurosis (congenital palsy), 
characterized by clonic spasms, particularly of the legs, appeared in stock of normal guinea- 
pigs. All affected animals die at or before two weeks after birth. Defect is due to Mendelian 
recessive. DR X DR gave 183 normal, 63 palsied. Tested normals from this mating gave 
7 DD and 15 DR. Variations of symptoms are noted and discussed. Defect is due to a factor 
mutation, cause unknown. Comparison is made with certain hereditary motor disturbances 
in pigeons, mice, rats, rabbits, goats, sheep, man and progeny of alcoholized guinea-pigs, 
none of which cases are considered identical with congenital palsy observed by the writers. — 
C. C. Little. 

1471. Cole, Leon J. An early family history of color blindness. Jour. Heredity 10: 
372-374. / fig. Nov., 1919. 

1472. Collins, G. N., and J. H. Kempton. Heritable characters of maize. I. Lineate 
leaves. Description and classification of lineate plants — value of maize as material for investi- 
gation, and economic importance of discovering latent variations. Jour. Heredity 11: 3-6. 
Jan., 1920. 

1473. Cook, O. F., and Robert Carter Cook. Biology and government. Further dis- 
cussion of Alleyne Ireland's article on democracy and the accepted facts of heredity. Jour. 
Heredity 10: 250-253. June, 1919. 

1474. Cook, O. F. A disorder of cotton plants in China: Clubleaf or cyrtosis. Jour. 
Heredity 11: 99-110. 9 fig. Mar., 1920. 



194 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1475. Cooley, Charles H. A discussion of Popenoe and Johnson's "Applied eugenics" 
and the question of heredity vs. environment. Jour. Heredity 11: 80-81. Feb., 1920. 

1476. Correns, C. Fortsetzung der Versuche zur experimentellen Verschiebung des 
Geschlechtsverbaltnisses. [Continuation of experiments on artificial shifting of sex relations.] 
Sitzungsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin 1918: 1175-1180. 3 fig. 1918. 

1477. Coulter, Merle C. Inheritance of aleurone color in maze. Bot. Gaz. 69: 407-^425. 
May, 1920. — An attempt was made to test the certainty with which predicted aleurone ratios 
would be fulfilled in complicated crosses. Crosses were made involving the Rr Cc and Pp 
factors in such a way as to require eight different ratios. The general conclusion is reached 
that the expectation in these cases is reasonably fulfilled. Seeds of different shades of color 
were separated and planted to determine whether it was possible to recognize genotypes by 
the intensity of the color. The author concludes that with experience genotypes may be 
separated by this method, particularly among red seeds. The inheritance of faintly colored 
or parti-colored seeds was studied. It is assumed that such seeds lack the aleurone factor C 
but have some partial substitute which is very erratic in its effect on the expression of color. 
An unusual case is reported where a plant known to have the factorial composition Pp rr Cc 
gave, when selfed, an ear with a perfect ratio of 9 colored to 7 white seeds. It is believed in 
this case that some unusual condition is present which produces purple aleurone when com- 
bined with the factors PC but colorless aleurone in combination with C only. Practically all 
the grains on this ear had irregularly split pericarps and when planted germinated slowly or 
not at all with a subsequent slow and stunted growth, suggesting that the aleurone ratio may 
be due to pathological causes. Crosses in which Emerson's i2-tester was used as the male 
parent and C-tester as the female parent {PPRRcc X PPrrCC) were found to have only self 
purple seeds but when the parentage was reversed (PPrrCC X PPRRcc) all the seeds were 
mottled. This confirms the results of Emerson from whom the material was received. In 
various crosses of Emerson's C and R testers with material obtained from East, the author 
concludes that these investigators have given similar symbols to the same set of factors. A 
study of mottling led to the conclusion that it can appear only when the R aleurone factor 
enters the seed from the male parent and then only when some other condition is present. 
This other condition was found in Emerson's C-tester. A very small percentage of mottled 
seeds is obtained where no mottling is to be expected, in some crosses involving .ft-tester. 
Such mottled seeds are believed to differ genetically from the mottling in the crosses involving 
C-tester. — It was found that there were no differences in the inheritance of aleurone color 
between inflorescences on the main stalk and suckers, but there was evidence, not given, that 
differences might be expected in the inheritance of plant colors, particularly chlorophyll, 
between the main culm and lateral branches. — A further test of the variability in inheritance 
which may occur between different parts of the same plant was obtained by self-pollinating 
both ears of two-eared plants. In most cases the two ears were reasonably alike but in some 
instances significant differences were found. The agreement between the two ears of the 
same plant is especially poor where faint aleurone color is involved. — The chance distribution 
of the different-colored seeds on the ear was tested and found to hold for starchy-sweet and 
colored-colorless but on ears where less than 10 per cent of the grains were particolored the 
majority of spotted grains were found in groups of 4 or 5, indicating the influence of local con- 
ditions. With respect to this phenonemon the author believes that local conditions on the 
ear do not determine but merely limit the appearance of particolored aleurone.— J. H . 
Kempton. 

1478. Cowgill, H. B. Cross-pollination of sugar cane. Jour. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico 
3: 1-5. Jan., 1919. — Method used at Insular Experiment Station of Porto Rico is satisfactory 
and many seedlings are produced. Bags are made of cheese cloth 48 inches long and 18 wide, 
held extended by heavy wire rings sewed into them. Rings placed one at top and other 16 
inches from bottom so that a skirt of 16 inches is left to be drawn in and tied about stems 
of panicles. Bags are supported over panicles by means of bamboo poles set in ground with 
cross-bar at top. Poles are set to windward side of stools just before panicles "shoot;" 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS L95 

when panicles shoot, the bag is immediately suspended over each panicle and tied around its 
stem so that it is protected from undesirable pollen before any florets open. Cane blossom 
is hermaphrodite but some varieties are almost completely self-sterile, making it possible to 
cross-pollinate with another variety with assurance that nearly all offspring will be hybrids 
of the two chosen varieties. Pollinating is done by placing panicles of desired variety in bag, 
in Buch position that pollen will be shed or carried by wind or insects to florets of other variety 
as they open. One or two panicles are used at a time, allowed to remain in bag two or three 
days, being renewed as often as necessary. It is found advantageous to cut stems 4 to 6 
feet long and put cut end in joint of bamboo filled with water, thus keeping fresh 2 or 3 days. 
— Results: 1915-1910. Ten crosses attempted, eight produced seedlings, majority of which 
showed characteristics of both parents. About 1500 seedlings produced, one panicle yielding 
over 1000.— 1916-1917. Thirty crosses made comprising nine different combinations, of which 
nineteen were successful. From one combination 1309 seedlings were obtained and in all 
2589 were produced. — 1917-1918. Thirty crosses were attempted, comprising nine combina- 
tions. Fifteen were successful and 1794 seedlings were produced, 157 from one combination, 
735 from another. — Effect of crossing: In 1915-1916 and 1916 1917 pollinator was dark-colored 
cane while seed-parent was medium light, and dark color of pollen parent was seen in many 
of offspring. — At least two of old standard varieties are nearly pollen-sterile here (Crystalline 
and Rayada).— #. E. Barker. 

1479. Cunningham, J. T. Results of a Mendelian experiment on fowls, including the pro- 
duction of a pile breed. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1919: 173-202. 1 pi. Sept., 1919.— A male 
black-red Gallus bankiva was crossed to a silky hen. Data on inheritance of plumage, skin 
pigmentation, comb, booting and crest are given. The production of a pile race from the 
cross, which bred true, is described. "The simplest explanation" of its origin "is that seg- 
regation is not complete or perfect . . . ." Attempts to increase amount of pigmenta- 
tion in the piles by repeated back-mating to normals did not result in any consistent increase. 
— H. D. Goodale. 

1480. Danforth, C. H. Resemblance and difference in twins. Jour. Heredity 10: 399- 
409. Frontispiece, fig. 1-14, 20, 22-30. Dec, 1919. 

1481. Daniel, L., and H. Tetjlie. Extension des limites de culture de la vigne au moyen 
de certains hybrids. [Extension of the limits of culture of the grape by means of certain 
hybrids.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 166: 297-299. 191S. 

1482. Davenport, C. B. A strain producing multiple births. Jour. Heredity 10: 382- 
384. Nov., 1919. 

1483. Delage, Y., and M. Goldsmith. Le Mendelisme et le mecanisme cytologique de 
l'heredite. [Mendelism and the cytological mechanism of heredity.] Rev. Sci. Paris 57: 
97-109, 130-135. 1919.— Part I is a brief summary of Mendelism, "Neo-Mendelism" and the 
chromosome theory of heredity, including the factorial hypothesis, the phenomena of linkage, 
crossing over and non-disjunction and the chromosomal mechanism of sex determination. 
Mendelism is compared withWeismannism. Credit Natjdin with many discoveries attributed 
to Mendel. Mention influence of environment and cytoplasmic inheritance. Part II is a 
critique of Mendelism (or Neo-Mendelism). Acknowledge great advances and brilliant 
achievements in this field but think Mendelians are blinded to the uncertainties, defects, 
lacunae and improbabilities of the theory and the fragility of the objective bases upon which 
it rests. Illustrate (1) by questioning continuity of chromosomes because these are not 
visible in resting stage, (2) by questioning linear arrangement of genes because chemical 
differentiation of chromatin within individual chromosomes has not been demonstrated, (3) 
by contending that a force which will bring homologous chromosomes into such intimate and 
accurate alignment as necessitated by crossover hypothesis will not permit them to lie X-wise 
and give crossovers, and (4) by maintaining that Mendelian conception gives no explanation 
of successive appearance of characters in ontogeny or, (5) of the origin of new character- 
during evolution. Predict downfall of Mendelism from weight of accessory hypotheses neede> I 
to explain special cases. — C. 11'. Metz. 



196 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1484. Demoll, R. Zur Frage nach der Vererbung vom Soma erworbener Eigenschaften. 
[On the question of the inheritance of acquired characters.] Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 
46:4-11. 3 fig. 1920. 

1485. Detjen, L. R. A mutating blackberry — dewberry hybrid. Jour. Heredity 11: 92- 
94. 4 fig. Feb., 1920. 

1486. Detlefsen, J. A., and W. W. Yapp. The inheritance of congenital cataract in cat- 
tle. Amer. Nat. 54: 277-280. May- June, 1920.— On mating the F x son of Holstein-Friesian 
bull 62924 to the Fi daughters of this bull 8 F 2 offspring (2 9 and 6c?) with well-defined con- 
genital cataracts of the stellate type to 55 F 2 normal offspring were produced. Ninety-three 
normal F! offspring of 62924 were produced. Pedigree studies of bull 62924 reveal no ances- 
tors which had cataracts. Assuming the bull 62924 heterozygous the F 2 expectation is 55.125 
normal + 7.875 cataractous. 62924 mated to his own daughters produced 7 offspring, 3 (lc? 
4- 2 9 ) of which were cataractous. It is concluded that congenital cataract in cattle is a 
simple recessive Mendelian character. — John W. Goxcen. 

1487. De Vries, Hugo. Oenothera Lamarckiana erythrina, eine neue Halbmutante. 
[Oenothera Lamarckiana erythrina, a new half-mutant.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 
21:91-118. 1919. 

1488. Don caster, L. The tortoiseshell tomcat. A suggestion. Jour. Genetics 9: 335- 
338. Mar., 1920. — Author criticizes Little's hypothesis of mosaic character of tortoiseshell 
tomcat and on basis of work of Chapin, Lillie, and Magnusson on free-martin and of Cut- 
ler and Doncaster on histology of testis of sterile tortoiseshell tomcat, suggests that latter 
be a masculized female. — P. W. Whiting. 

1489. Doncaster, L., and H. G. Cannon. On the spermatogenesis of the louse (Pedicu- 
lus corporis and P. capitis), with some observations on the maturation of the egg. Quart. Jour. 
Microsc. Sci. 64: 303-328. 1 pi., 1 fig. Mar., 1920. — P. corporis has 12 chromosomes in somatic 
cells of both sexes. In the testis certain large cells, supposed to be follicular, also have 12. 
Other cells of testis, believed to be spermatogonia, have 6, apparently double, chromosomes. 
Spermatocytes, also with 6 chromosomes, pass through growth period followed by a very asym- 
metrical division, giving one large cell which develops into a spermatid and one small "polar 
cell" which degenerates. A conspicuous mitochondrial body remains in the large cell. No 
second spermatocyte division occurs. Centrosomes of spermatids are double and there are 
two axial filaments. No oogonial or oocyte divisions were found. Author did not observe 
unisexual broods or sex-ratio disturbances described by Hindle. Spermatogenesis of P. 
capitis apparently agrees with that of P. corporis. — C. W. Metz. 

1490. Duerden, J. E. Methods of degeneration in the ostrich. Jour. Genetics 9: 131-193. 
PL 5-6, 8 fig. Jan., 1920. — Author describes type of degenerative changes observed in coverts, 
wing quills, down feathering, wing digits and toes, and regards these as suggestive of the man- 
ner in which degeneration proceeds, and as favorable data for throwing light on the nature 
of variation and method of evolution generally. — -In his discussion of relation of the degenera- 
tive changes to adaptation, author concludes that, compared with other factors, such losses 
have little or no bearing upon the welfare of the ostrich; and hence, that natural selection has 
been inoperative in directing their course. "Natural selection may wipe out the race, but 
cannot guide its evolution." — Referring to ontogenetic and phylogenetic degeneration, 
author believes process of degeneration is in no way affected during the life of the individual, 
but only with the formation of the zygote; in plumes, scales and claws of embryos and chicks 
the degenerative changes are found expressed just as in the adult. "Degeneration may be 
defined as the somatic expression of a phylogenetic degradation and loss of genetic factors." 
— As to cause of degeneration, author acknowledges our ignorance on this point but believes 
they are certainly intrinsic as opposed to environmental. "The influence is so slowly acting 
. . . as to call for an aloofness, an independence, of external vicissitudes. Only something 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 197 

in the organism itself, and beyond all varying somatic responses, could meet demands so con- 
tinuous and so consistent." According to the author the agency at work possesses a strong 
determinate influence; and the evidence is of such a nature as to remind one of Nageli's con- 
ception of a mystical, internal, vitalistic force. In the ostrich, it is suggested that the changes 
may be interpreted in terms of "a germinal senescence, perhaps expressing itself in factorial 
fractionation and loss." The author believes that the ostrich race may present us with an 
example of "mass mutation." — In conclusion, author discusses the possibility of factorial 
changes, but this point, with reference to the bearing of the ostrich data, is left inconclusive. 
— P. B. Hadley. 

1491. Elderton, Ethel M. [Rev. of: Whipple, George Chandler. Vital statistics: 
An introduction to the science of demography. 12 x 18 cm., v + 517 p., 63 fig. John Wiley & 
Sons, Inc.: New York, 1919.] Science Progress 14: C96-697. April, 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 
3, Entry 2212. 

1492. Ellinger, Tage. [German rev. of: Punnett, R. C., and the late Major 
P. G. Bailey. Genetic studies in poultry. I. Inheritance of leg feathering. Jour. Genetics 
7:203-213. May, 191S. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 492.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 
22: 28S. May, 1920. 

1493. Ellinger, Tage. [German rev. of: Rasmuson, Hans. Uber eine Petunia-Kreuz- 
ung. (On a petunia cross.) Bot. Notiser 1918: 287-294. 1918. (See Bot, Absts. 3, Entry 
2181.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 289. May, 1920. 

1491. Ellinger, Tage. [German rev. of: Rasmuson, Hans. Zur Genetik der Bliiten- 
farben von Tropaeolum majus. (On the genetics of the flower colors of Tropaeolum majus.) 
Bot. Notiser 1918: 253-259. Nov., 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2180.)] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 288-289. May, 1920. 

1495. Ellinger, Tage. [German rev. of: Ratjnkiaer, C. Om L0vsspringstiden hos 
Afkommet af B0ge med forskellig L0vspringstid. (On leaftime in the descendants of beeches 
with different leaf times.) Bot. Tidsskr. 36: 197-203. 1918. (See Bot. Absts. 2, Entry 42.)] 
Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22 : 289. May, 1920. 

1496. Emerson, R. A. Heritable characters of maize. II. Pistillate flowered maize plants. 
Jour. Heredity 11: 65-76. 8 fig. Feb., 1920. 

1497. Emoto, Y. Uber die relative Wirksamkeit von Kreuz- und Selbstbefiuchtung bei 
einigen Pnanzen. [On the relative effectiveness of cross- and self-fertilization in several 
plants.] Jour. Coll. Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 43: 1-31. 2 pi., 6 fig. Mar. 15, 1920. 

1 !'JS. Erdmann, Rhoda. Endomixis and size variations in pure bred lines of Paramae- 
cium aurelia. Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 46: 85-148. 12 fig. 1920. 

1499. Erikson, J. Platanthera bitolia X montana i Blekinge. [Platanthera bifolia X mon- 
tana in Blekinge.] Bot. Notiser 1918: 59-62. 1918. 

1500. Euler, K. Ein bemerkenswertei- Fall von Knollen-Farbabanderung der Kartoffel. 
[A remarkable case of change of color in potato tubers.] Deutsch. Landwirtsch. Presse 1919: 
161-162. 1919. 

1501. Fairchild, David. Twins. Jour. Heredity 10: 387-396. Frontispiece, fig. 1-14, 
MO, 22-30. Dec, 1919. 

1502. Fleischmann, R. Die Auslese bei der Maisziichtung. [Selection in maize breed- 
ing.] Zeitschr. Pflanzenzticht, 6: 69-96. 1918. — Selection has been practiced since 1909 on 
the yellow horse-tooth variety of maize. The characters used were yield of grain, length and 



198 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

number of rows on the ear, per cent of grain to cob, weight of 100 seeds, and time of maturity. 
— It was found that in selecting for yield of grain the best results were obtained when the prog- 
eny row was taken as the unit of selection rather than the individual plant, although positive 
results w-ere obtained in either case. — Selection for number of rows was ineffective since the 
progenies regressed to a f ourteen-rowed type regardless of whether the selection was made for 
a greater or less number of rows. — The per cent of grain to cob was found to be readily changed 
by selection but it was found also that the size of the cob was directly associated with the 
yield of grain. Care, therefore, must be exercised in selecting for an increased ratio of grain 
to cob, not to reduce the absolute size of the cob. — The author questions the value of many- 
eared strains and restricted selection to single-eared plants. — J. H. Kempton. 

1503. Florin, Rudolf. Zur Kenntnis der Fertilitat und partiellen Sterilitat des Pollens 
bei Apfel- und Birnensorten. [On the fertility and partial sterility of the pollen of different 
varieties of apple and pear.] Acta Horti Bergiani 7: 1-39. 1920. — If there is self -sterility or 
insufficient power of germination of the pollen of a variety of fruit trees it is not advisable to 
grow the variety in question alone in great closed groups, but other sorts should be grown 
among them which produce plenty of pollen with great efficiency. Author has examined the 
power of germination of the pollen (in solutions of sugar of variable concentration) of 102 
apple and 14 pear varieties, which are cultivated in Sweden. He gives a tabulated summary 
of 405 experiments, wherein he states date, time of examination, temperature, per cent of 
germination and maximum and minimum length of the measured pollen tubes. — Of the apples 
24 sorts showed 0-30 per cent of germination; 13 showed 31-70 per cent; and 65 showed 71-100 
per cent. The last group is of course the most preferable for use as pollenizers. A list of 
literature is given containing 27 citations. — K. V. 0$sia?i Dahlgren. 

1504. Foot, Katharine. Determination of the sex of the offspring fiom a single pair of 
Pediculus vestimenti. Biol. Bull. 37: 385-387. Dec, 1919. — A pair of fleas produced 143 fer- 
tilized eggs. Of these 125 hatched and the sex was determined for 115 of the young or 92 per 
cent of the total. There were 62 males and 53 females. The earlier-produced eggs yielded 
a higher percentage of females than males. Later the proportion of the sexes became equal 
and then, as the last eggs were produced, the earlier sex ratio was reversed — more eggs 
developing into males than females. — D. D. Whitney. 

1405. Fraser, Allan Cameron. The inheritance of the weak awn in certain Avena crosses 
and its relation to other characters of the oat grain. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exp. Sta. Mem. 
23 : 635-676. June, 1919. — A study is made of the inheritance of the weak awn in Avena crosses. 
Burt oats were used as parent for the weak awn and Sixty Day for awnless. The reciprocal 
crosses indicated an approach to dominance of awnlessness. In F 2 generations, two distinct 
classes of the weak awn and awnless appeared with a variation between the two types of about 
all the possible differences between the parent sorts. These intermediate forms could not be 
separated into classes on a multiple factor basis. If all these intermediate forms were thrown 
into one class, there would be a close approximation to the 1:2:1 ratio. The fully awned type 
is evidently pure recessive. Data in F 2 or F 3 generations did not include the entire plant, 
the center spikelet only being used. This method was based upon results of Love and MoRos- 
tie on the tendencies of the plant to agree in its characteristics with the terminal spikelet. 
The data seemed to show that both parents contain a factor for awning, but that the Sixty 
Day parent possesses an inhibitor linked with yellow color. The inhibitor seems to be 
affected in its power of inhibition by environmental factors. The partly awned plants in F 2 
generations are shown to be heterozygous in successive progeny types. Spikelets with two 
awns on a kernel are found only on completely awned spikelets. Increase in soil moisture and 
nitrogen seems to decrease number of awns. — The appearance of strong and intermediate 
awns in F 2 and F. ? progenies is considered to be a reversion. There is strong linkage shown 
between medium long basal hairs and the awned condition. Short basal hairs or no hairs are 
dominant over long basal hairs. — With respect to color, the Fi plants are intermediate. On 
account of the difficulty of determining color under weather conditions, the F 2 is not consid- 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 190 

ered well classified. The Burt oat possesses a red factor and a yellow factor, which are quite 
distinct from the Sixty Day factor. The Sixty Day yellow factor inhibits awning. The Burt 
yellow carries no such inhibitor. The F 3 generation bears out most of the conclusions reached 
in F>. The appearance of brown berries is attributed to mutation or reversion. — Alvin Kezer. 

1506. Frateur, J. L. La robe sauvage du lapin. [The wild coat of the rabbit. 1 Reunion 
Soc. Beige Biol. 1919: 941-943. 1919. 

1507. Frets, G. P. De polymerietheorie getoetst aan de erfelijkheid van den hoofdvorm. 
[Theory of polymery tested in the inheritance of head-form.] Genetica 2 : 115-136. Mar., 1920. 

1508. Fruwirth, C. Neunzehn Jahre Geschichte einer reinen Linie der Futtererbse. 
[Nineteen-year history of a pure line of field peas.] Fiihlings landw. Zeitg. 69: 1-28. 1920. — 
Study of variations in a pure line, in sense of Johannsen, of field peas breeding absolutely 
true for three years to pink flowers and yellowish-green seed-coats. In succeeding years, 
"spontaneous variations" occurred from time to time such as plants with red-purple flowers 
and maple seed-coats, purple specked and purple-striped seed-coats, albino foliage, varie- 
gated yellow and green or more rarely green and white foliage, and plants that either died 
prematurely or set no pods or set pods, but matured no seeds. Detailed data given including 
tables, of selection and crossing experiments with some of the variants of this pure line. 
Only negative results obtained with selection lines. Variants may be regarded as phases 
of eversporting races, the variations arising either in vegetative cells or in sexual cells. In 
latter case parents of variants are hybrids, giving segregation ratios of a Mendelian type 
although these may be irregular. Some spontaneous variations such as red-purple flowers and 
maple seed-coats are dominants, while others such as albinism and other foliage-chlorophyll 
defects are recessive. Albino foliage variations appear first in a ratio of 3 green: 1 white, 
but the variation must have arisen in the sex cells two generations back, but since green fol- 
iage is dominant, did not appear except as members of an F 2 generation. Albinism and other 
chlorophyll defects appeared only in F 2 and later generations of cross of the "pure line" 
with a white-flowered green-foliage variety. Literature of chlorophyll defects is reviewed. 
"Disassociation" and "association" concept of Tschermak is discussed; also" pluripotency" 
concept of Haecker. Variations occurring in sex cells uniting with the unvarying sex cells 
appear as hybrids. Variations taking place in vegetative cells later give rise to sex-cells 
which unite and produce pure races of hereditary variations at once. Eversporting proclivity 
may express itself rarely in some races and as regards some characters. — Orland E. White. 

1509. Gaines, E. F. The inheritance of resistance to bunt or stinking smut of wheat. 
Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12 : 124-132. 1920. — Bunt resistance to wheat is not a simple Men- 
delian unit character, but resistance, if Mendelian, is composed of multiple factors, for a 
continuous series ranging from complete immunity to complete susceptibility has been ob- 
tained. Different wheat varieties possess different kinds of resistance. Linkage between 
resistance and morphological characteristics is not sufficient to prevent the selection of a 
resistant strain of any morphological type desired. — F. M. Schertz. 

1510. Galloway, Beverly T. Some promising new pear stocks. Jour. Heredity 11: 
25-32. 8 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1511. G auger, Martix. Die Mendelschen Zahlenreihen bei Monohybriden im Llchte 
der Dispersionstheorie. [The Mendelian ratios in monohybrids in the light of the dispersion 
theory.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 145-198. Mar., 1920. 

1512. Goldschmidt, Richard. Intersexualitat und Geschlechtsbestimmung. [Inter- 
sexuality and sex determination.] Biol. Zentralbl. 39: 498-512. Nov., 1919. 

1513. Gowen, J. W. Appliances and methods for pedigree poultry breeding at the Maine 
Station. Maine Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 280: 65-88. IS fig. 1919.— This is a revision of an 

earlier bulletin on the same subject. — H. D. Goodale. 

BOTANICAL ABSTHAITS, VOL. V, NO. 2 



200 GENETICS [Bor. Absts., Vol. V, 

1514. Grantham, J., and M. D. Knapp. Field experiments with Hevea. Agric. Bull. 
Federated Malay States 6: 595-597. 1918. 

1515. Grantham, J., and M. D. Knapp. Field experiments with Hevea. Arch. Rubber- 
cultuur 2 : 614-630. 1918. 

1516. Green, Heber. The application of statistical methods to the selection of wheat for 
prolificacy. Agricultural research in Australia. Advisory Council Sci. and Ind. Common- 
wealth of Australia Bull. 7: 49-56. 1918. — Author discusses application of familiar biometric 
methods and points out their limitations in wheat breeding. Experiments have been con- 
ducted for seven generations in selecting the heavy-, medium-, and light-yielding plants of 
wheat. Progress in both directions resulted, though apparently mucii more rapid, m the 
direction of high yield. — In an attempt to develop a wheat suitable for semi-arid climates an 
unusually severe season destroyed all but three plants in a plot. One of these three was a 
giant, the progeny of which has given rise to a valuable strain. — J. H. Kevipton. 

1517. Haecker, V. Eine medizinische Formulierung der entwicklungsgeschichtlichen 
Vererbungsregel. [A medical formulation of the developmental law of heredity.] Deutsch. 
Med. Wochenschr. 44: 124-126. 1919.— The author's "developmental law of heredity" [See 
Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 588] is briefly explained and illustrated. In general the clearness with 
which a trait segregates in heredity is a function of the autonomy of that trait in development. 
Hereditary defects occurring in organs with a higti degree of developmental autonomy tend 
to follow simple Mendelian rules in heredity while those dependent for their manifestation 
on disharmonies in several organs or systems (e.g., diabetes) do not do so. Cases in which the 
same organ shows different defects in various members of the same family are interpreted as 
indicating an early autonomy of the organ in question with a more or less generalized weak- 
ness of that organ in the particular family concerned. — C. H. Danforth. 

1518. Harlow, H. V., and H. K. Hates. Breeding small grains in Minnesota, n. 
Investigations in barley breeding. Minnesota Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 182: 45-56. 4 fig. Mar., 
1919. — Two lines of investigation (pure-line and hybridization) are discussed as methods of 
barley improvement. From selections of domestic and foreign sorts it was found that almost 
as wide variations in yield were found within a variety as in different varieties. By means of 
several crosses between Lion, a smooth-awned black barley, and Manchuria, a smooth-awned 
barley of high yielding ability has been produced. Other promising crosses have also been 
obtained. Sixty-eight selections, crosses and new introductions are compared on the basis 
of the yearly production. A method for discarding in elimination tests based on the probable 
error is presented. — W. E. Bryan. 

1519. Harper, R. A. Inheritance of sugar and starch characters in corn. Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club 47: 137-186. 3 pi. April, 1920.— Work of Correns and of East and others on 
the inheritance of sugar and starch characters in corn endosperm (Zea) is reviewed to show that 
intermediate sweet-starchy types result from crossing these two forms. Original experiments 
with crosses of different sweet and starchy endosperm varieties carried to the fourth filial 
generation are described and illustrated. Dominance of starchiness is shown in first cross 
but in segregating generations intermediate kernels ranging from practically pure sweet to 
pure starchy in appearance were obtained in varying proportions and degree along with 
other cases in which more definite segregation occurred. The different grades of kernels 
are classified and tabulated. Marked tendency shown for intermediate types to breed true 
but with more of an inclination to revert to sweet type than to starchy type. Practically 
pure starchy ears, in appearance, were obtained from a cross of two sweet varieties. Con- 
tinuity of variation in both sexually and asexually reproduced types is taken as an indication 
of mutual modification of germplasm where contrasting characters are brought together. 
The main features of chromosome individuality and of reduction phenomena are considered 
as established but the physiological nature of the chromatin is thought to permit mixing of 
hereditary materials resulting in intergradations between parental forms. — D. E. Jones. 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 201 

1520. HBNDRICKSON, A. H. Plum pollination. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 310. 28 
p., -5 fig. July, 1919.— Experiments show 13 varieties self-sterile, 3 Belf-feri Lie and 1 doubtful. 
Early-blooming Japanese varieties produce little pollen and are not efficient pollenizers. 

Late-blooming varieties produce abundant pollen. Excepl for the self-fertile Freneh and 
sugar prunes interplanting of varieties is recommended to increase yields. No evidence of 
Lntersterility among plum or prune varieties was found. Experiments show that bees are 
efficient agents of cross-pollinat ion. Set of fruit is also influenced by climatic factors. — J. L. 
Col! 

1521. HERREj Albert C. Hints for lichen studies. Bryologist 23: 26-27. 1920. — 
See Hot. Al.sts. 5, Entry 1919. 

1522. Hertwig, P. [German rev. of: Boveiu, Tiikodor. Zwei Fehlerquellen bei Mero- 
gonieversuchen und die Entwicklungsfahigkeit msrogonischer und partiellmerogonischer Seeig- 
elbastarde. (Two sources of error in investigations of merogony and the ability of merogonic 
and partially merogonic sea-urchin hybrids to develop.) Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 44: 
117 471. S pi. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 216-218. Mar., 1920.— See 
also Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 600. 

1523. Hertwic, P. [German rev. of: Hertwig, G '/nther. Kreuzungsversuche an Am- 
phibien. (Hybridization studies on amphibians.) Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 91:203-271. 8 fig. 
Aug. 20, 191S. See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 1005. Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 
219 221. Mar., 1920. 

1524. Hilgexdorf, F. W. Methods of plant breeding. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 
351 358. 1919.— Popular. [See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1153.] 

1525. Hollander, Eugen. Familiare Fingermissbildung (Brachydaktylie und Hyper- 
phalangie). [Familial abnormalities of the fingers (brachydactyly and hyperphalangy).] Berlin 
Klin. Wochenschr. 55: 472^474. 1918. — A man and his son, and probably also his sister, are 
characterized by a shortening of the fingers accompanied by an extra bony element in the basal 
phalanx of digits two and three. Evidence is brought forth to show that the extra element 
is an ununited epiphysis, the inhibition of normal union being in these cases apparently an 
hereditary trait. — C. H. Danforlh. 

1526. Holmberg, O. R. Carex dioicaXpaniculata, en for Skandinavien ny hybrid. (Carex 
dioicaXpaniculata, a hybrid new for Scandinavia.] Bot. Notiser 1918: 249-252. 8 fig. 1918. 

1527. Honing, J. A. Selectie-proeven med Deli-tabak. II. [Selection experiments with 
Deli-tobacco. II.] Meded. Deli-Proefstation, Medan, Sumatra, 2: 84. 1 pi. 1918. — Gives 
results of selection experiments at Deli Proefstation for 1917. The tobacco was harvested 
separately, tied in bundles with specially colored twine, fermented in bulk with the other 
tobacco, and finally separated for testing. In general the results of 1917 were inferior to those 
of 1916 due to less favorable weather. Both large- and small-scale trials were made. In 
the small-scale trials there were 467 lots, most of these containing 800-1200 plants. These 
repres ented 150 seed-numbers belonging to 81 lines. Of the large-scale trials, with from 
90,000' to 560,000 plants per lot, there were 34. These trials were distributed over 17 estates 
and were supervised by 5 assistants. Figures for production, percentages of various qualities, 
estates' grading and manufacturers' grading, leaf measurements, numbers ot leaves per plant, 
burning tests, etc., are given for most of these lines. The writer does not agree with Koch 
(Koen, L. Algem. 1528 Landbouwincekblad voor Med. India, Dec. 7, 1917) that mixed seed 
is to be preferred to that from pure lines, so far as tobacco culture is concerned. [See also 
next following Entry, 1528.] — Carl D. La Rue. 

1528. Hoxixg, J. A. Selection experiments with Deli tobacco. III. Meded. Deli-Proef- 
stat. Medan 2: 25. 1919. — See also next preceding Entry, 1527. 



202 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1529. Hottes, Alfred C. Our American originators. Florists' Exchange 48: 933. S fig. 
Dec. 27, 1919. — The work of the A. W. Livingston Seed Co., of Columbus, Ohio, is discussed 
somewhat flatteringly and information is given as to the source or point of origin of nineteen 
commercial varieties of potatoes. — H. F. Roberts. 

1530. Hottwink, R. Hzn. Erfelijkheid. Populaire beschouwingen omtrent net tegen- 
woordige standpunt der erfelijkheid, versameld uit theorie en practijk. [Heredity. Popular 
presentation of the present status of heredity compiled from theory and practice.] Assen. 
Stoomdrukkerij Floralia 1919: 1-62. 5 pi. 1919. 

1531. Howe, Ltjcien. The relation of hereditary eye defects to genetics and eugenics. 
Jour. Heredity 10: 379-382. Nov., 1919. 

1532. Hume, A. N. Corn families of South Dakota. South Dakota Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
186: 114-134. Aug., 1919. — A plan of corn breeding is described in which a 96-ear-row breeding 
plot is employed. The plot is divided into four independent quarters of twenty-four rows 
each and alternate rows are detasseled in order to insure against the most extreme forms of 
inbreeding. Thus far the system follows that devised by the Illinois Agricultural Experiment 
Station. An important modification, however, lies in the fact that instead of planting the 
tasseled or "sire" rows from different individual ears, all of the twelve "sire" rows of each 
quarter are planted from kernels of a single ear. This not only permits a more intense selec- 
tion for high yield but also makes possible the establishment of a definite ear pedigree along 
both lines of parentage. Data are given to show the tendency of yielding capacity of seed 
ears to follow lines of ancestry. — L. H. Smith. 

1533. Hume, A. N. Yields from two systems of corn breeding. South Dakota Agric. 
Exp. Sta. Bull. 184: 70-86. Jan., 1919. — Two systems of corn breeding are compared, both 
of which are based upon the ear-row plan of continuous selection. The essential difference 
between the two systems is that in the one, alternate rows of the breeding plot are detasseled 
and seed is taken only from detasseled plants thereby insuring a certain degree of crossing 
while in the other system this precaution is omitted. The results based upon several seasons' 
data indicate no significant difference in effectiveness in increasing yield. The working details 
of a plan of corn improvement intended to meet the demand for simplicity and practicability 
are appended. — L. H. Smith. 

1534. Ikeno, S. Etudes d'heredite sur la reversion d'une race de Plantago major. [He- 
reditary studies on reversion in a race of Plantago major.] Rev. Gen. Bot. 32 : 49-56. 1920. 

1535. Ireland, Alletne. Democracy and heredity — A reply. Jour. Heredity 10: 360- 
367. Nov., 1919. 

1536. Janssens, F. A. A propos de la chiasmatype et de la theorie de Morgan. [Concern- 
ing the chiasmatype and Morgan's theory.] Reunion Soc. Beige Biol. 1919: 917-920. 1919. 

1537. Janssens, F. A. Une formule simple exprimant de qui se passe en realite lors de la 
"chiasmatypie" dans les deux cineses de maturation. [A simple formula expressing what really 
takes place in chiasmatypy in the two maturation divisions.] R6union Soc. Beige Biol. 1919: 
930-934. 1919. 

1538. Johannsen, W. Weismanns Keimplasma-Lehre. [Weismann's germplasm theory.] 
Die Naturwiss. 6: 121-126. 1918. 

1539. Johannsen, W. Om Weismanns Kimplasma-Laere. [Weismann's germplasm the- 
ory.] Vidensk. Meddelelser fra Dansk Naturhist. Foren i KJ0benhavn. 69: 153-164. 1918. 

1540. Johnson, Charles W. Variation of the palm weevil. Jour. Heredity 11: 84. Feb., 
1920. 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 203 

1541. JOHNSON, James. An improved strain of Wisconsin tobacco. Connecticut Havana 
No. 38. Jour. Heredity 10: 2,81-288. Fig. 8-10. June, 1919. 

154'2. Jones, D. F., andW. O. FlLLEY. Teas' hybrid catalpa. An illustration of the greater 
vigor of hybrids; increased growth and hardiness as a result of crossing; illustrating definite 
principles of heredity. Jour. Heredity 11: 16-24. 6 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1543. Jones, D. F. Selection in self-fertilized lines as the basis for corn improvement. 
Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 77-100. 1920. — Selection in self fertilized lines makes possible 
a reliable estimation of hereditary values of both sexes and is suggested for corn improvement. 
— F. M. Schertz. 

154*1. Kappert, H. Uber das Vorkommen volkommener Dominanz bei einem quantitativen 
Merkmal. [The occurrence of complete dominance in a quantitative character.] Zeitschr. 
indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 199-209. 1 fig. Mar., 1920. 

1545. Kempton, J. H. Heritable characters of maize. III. Brachytic culms. Jour. He- 
redity 11 : 111-115. 4 fig. Mar., 1920. 

1546. Klatt, B. Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber die Beeinflussbarkeit der Erban- 
lagen durch den Korper. [Experimental investigations on the modifiability of the hereditary fac- 
tors through the soma.] Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. Freunde. 1919: 39-45. 1919. — Writer experi- 
mented with three races of gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar). The caterpillars of one of these 
had an unusuall}' broad yellow stripe along the back, dominant on the whole over the narrow 
yellow stripe of the normal race. The third race had a black longitudinal stripe, dominant 
over yellow and normal and clearly differing by a unit factor. He extirpated the ovaries of 
individuals dominant in one or both factors (yellow or black) and transplanted in their place 
ovane? from recessive individuals. These females were mated with recessive males. The 
caterpillars appeared to be pure recessives, showing no trace of the dominant characters of 
the foster mothers. [See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1579.]— Sewall Wright. 

1547. Klatt, Berthold. [German rev. of: Durken, Bernhard. Einfiihrung in die 
Experimentalzoologie. (Introduction to experimental zoology.) 16 x 23 cm., x + 446 p., 224 fig- 
Julius Springer: Berlin, 1919.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 275-276. May, 
1920. 

154S. Klatt, B. [German rev. of: (1) Palmgren, Rolf. Till Kannedomen om Abnormi- 
teters Nedarfning hos en del Husdjur. (Inheritance of abnormalities in certain domestic 
animals.) Acta Soc. pro fauna et flora fennica 44: 1-22. 1918. (2) Palmgren, Rolf. Tvenne 
bastardei mellan getbock och fartacka, fodda i Hogholmes zoologiska tradgard. (Two hybrids 
between sheep and goats produced in Hogholm zoological gardens.) Med. pro fauna et flora 
fennica 44: 124-125. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22:283-284. May, 1920. 

1549. Klatt, B. [German rev. of: Pezard, M. A. Transformation experimental des 
caracteres sexuels secondaires chez les Gallinaces. (Experimental transformation of secondary 
sexual characters in Gallinaceae.) Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 160: 260-263. 1915.] Zeit- 
schr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 284. May, 1920. 

1550. Koch, L. Verdere Onderzoekingen betreffende de praktijkwaarde van de lijnen- 
selectiemethode, mede in verband met het gemengd planten van varieteiten. [Further obser- 
vations on the practical value of the line-selection method and a comparison of it with the mixed 
planting of varieties.] Teysmannia 29: 389-123. 1918. — Author has made comparative tests 
of planting in (a) pure lines, (b) mixed populations and (c) populations made up of definite 
mixtures of pure lines of the following crops: rice, katjang tanah, kedelee, corn, potatoes, and 
cassave, and finds that in rice and katjang, line selection gives no satisfactory results. Vari- 
eties of rice when in mixed plantings influence each other greatly. The results of such 



204 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

influences depend upon the kind and proportion of the varieties in the mixture, it is possible 
to get mixtures that produce a higher average yield than any of the varieties of which the 
mixture is composed. [See also next following Entry 1551.] — W. H. Eyster. 

1551. Koch, L. Onderzoekingen betreffende de praktijkwaarde van de iijnenselectie- 
methode voor verschillende eenjarige landbouwgewassen. [Researches concerning the prac- 
tical value of the line selection method for various annual tropical crops.] Teysmannia 29: 
1-36, 96-127, 156-191, 389-423. 1918.— The line-breeding method was first practised in 1907 
by van der Stok, then assistant at the botanical section of the Experiment Station for Rice 
and other Annual Crops at Buitenzorg, Java. A great deal of line breeding had been per- 
formed before 1915, the selected crops being specially rice, ground-nuts and soy beans. Dur- 
ing the years when most breeding took place (1911-1915) some peculiarities were noticed, which 
gave birth to the idea that line breeding was by no means a method for securing high-pro- 
ducing rice strains, etc. In the trials (almost all of them with 8 or more control plots) it was 
observed that the population (mixture of all strains, high- and low-producing) gave in most 
cases an unexpectedly high yield, higher than most selected pure strains. Breeding did meet 
with success where immunity for certain diseases or qualitative peculiarities were aimed at. 
As most breeding was for increasing the yield, a series of trials was undertaken to determine 
whether line breeding should be continued or not, and to investigate the reason why there 
was so little success. — In the years 1914-1916 selection took place for 6 rice varieties. In only 
2 of 16 trials did the selected rice strains give a fairly good yield in comparison to the unse- 
lected mixture. As a rule, a strain that gave one year the highest yield, failed to do so in the 
next. More than once such a strain yielded much less than some others had that been much 
inferior the previous year. — As the climate at Buitenzorg is somewhat peculiar, and results 
might perhaps be influenced by the great rainfall or the moist atmosphere, trials were made 
at the same time at the experimental farms at Ngandjoek and at Sidoardjo, these places being 
situated respectively in the central and the eastern part of Java. Out of six trials at Ngand- 
joek, the pure strains and the unselected mixture were alike; at Sidoardjo, in 2 out of 3 cases, 
the strains failed to give a higher yield than the population. — The supposition arose that the 
high yield of the population might be caused by the fact that the mixture is, generally speak- 
ing, more suited for uneven circumstances than is a pure variety. — In order to investigate 
this matter author began, in 1915, a series of trials wherein mixed-up pure strains were com- 
pared with the same races unmixed. The same was done by mixing up pure varieties. In 
most trials the varieties or strains were compared in this way: (1) variety A, 100 per cent; 
(2) variety B, 100 per cent; (3) A, 75 per cent + B 25 per cent; (4) A 50 per cent + B 50 per 
cent; (5) A 25 per cent«+ B 75 per cent. — Not only the yielding but also the stooling power 
was examined. When the paddy was ripe the ears were cut by hand and afterwards all the 
product in the trials where pure varieties had been mixed up was separated by hand so that 
one could know exactly which part of the yield had been provided by variety A, and what 
part by B. All heads were counted, so that the average weight was determined. The result 
of 4 trials with 8 controls showed that the pure strains and varieties did, on the whole, not 
so well as the mixtures. The stooling power shown by weekly counts, was in most cases 
higher than the pure strains; in one of the four cases, however, all the counts were remarkably 
lower with the mixtures than with the pure strains. Of two varieties, the highest producer 
(singly planted) did not always give the greatest proportion of the product of the mixture. 
1 n most cases the heads of the varieties that suppressed the other one became heavier and the 
heads of the suppressed one became lighter.— Trials .of the same order w r ere made with maize, 
soy beans and peanuts. With maize, yellow Menado corn and Saipan corn, singly planted, 
were compared with mixtures of these varieties. The mixtures yielded as much as 12 per 
cent more than the highest-producing variety separately planted. With soy beans the same 
was to be observed: 70 per cent of black mixed with 30 per cent of white soy beans yielded 12 
per cent more than black alone, and 28 per cent more than white alone. With peanuts, 9 
out of 10 mixtures gave a higher yield than might have been expected from the yield for the 
pure strains. — In the year 1916-1917, out of 4 trials comparing pure strains with mixtures of 
the same strains, no conclusions could be reached as to which should be preferred, strains or 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 2(V) 

mixtures.— Out of 5 other such trials made a1 Sidoardjo, only in one case did the strains yield 
more than the mixtures. — The same was done for peanuts, the Strains producing a little more 
than the mixtures.— The conclusion could be reached that: (1) Mixed planting of rice or pi 
nuts does not necessarily raise the production. (2) Line Belectii with paddy gives wholl 
unsatisfactory results.— In 15 other trials, made in 1916-1917, where mixed-up pure varies 
of paddy had been compared (8 controls) with the same varieties unmixed, the following 
conclusions were reached: (1) The yield of a mixture of pure varieties is, on the whole, higher 
than the calculated yield based on the production of the varieties planted singly. (2) The 
stooling power in a mixture is generally higher than the calculated. — (3) The percentage of 
stalks bearing heads is somewhat less in mixtures than in pure varict tee. (4) The mean head- 
weight of different varieties in a mixture exhibits greater variation, and may differ greatly 
from the weight of the same variety not mixed. (5) In a mixture one variety may suppress 
another. (6) The suppressing variety is not necessarily the highest yielding when planted 
singly. (7) The suppressing variety is generally the race that stools most, when other char- 
acters are the same. (8) As a rule, the mean weight of the head increases with the suppress- 
ing variety and decreases with the suppressed one. (9) Perhaps it may be possible to find 
empirically mixtures that are well suited to certain circumstances. — Mixing trials have also 
been made with sweet potatoes (14 trials) and cassava varieties (1 trial). With sweet pota- 
toes no conclusions could be made as to the yielding power; with cassava the mixture proved 
to be better than the best pure race. [See also next preceding Entry. 1550., — L. Koch. 

1552. Kohlbrugge, J. H. F. De erfelijkheid van verkregen eigensh2ppen. [Inheritance 
of acquired characters.] Genetica 1 : 347-386. 1919. 

1553. Krafka, Joseph, Jr. The effect of ternperatuie upon facet number in the bar-eyed 
mutant of Drosophila. Parti. Jour. Gen. Physiol. 2 : 409-432. 10 fig. Mar. 20, 1920. Part II. 
Ibid., 433-444. 4 fig. May 20, 1920. Part III. Ibid., 445-464. May20,1920 — Breeding experi- 
ments with the bar-eyed mutant of Drosophila melanogaster at constant temperatures between 
15°-3l°C. have shown that the mean facet number varies inversely with the temperature at 
which the larvae develop, though no such variation occurs in the normal w r ild stock. The tem- 
perature coefficient for the variation in facet number of bar eye is of the same order as that for 
chemical reactions, and the variation may be plotted as an exponential curve. The greatest- 
percentages of increase per degree centigrade come at the upper and lower temperatures. 
The temperature curve for rate of development of the immature stages of the fly corresponds 
with the facet curve from 15°-27°C., but drops above that point. The rate of development 
may be interpreted as the resultant of a number of different processes having different tempera- 
ture coefficients. Temperature is effective in determining facet number during a relatively 
short period in larval development only, i.e., at a stage when about 36 per cent of immature 
development is completed. This period is about 18 hours long, and the temperature either 
before or after that time has no effect on facet number. The time at which this period is 
reached is dependent on the rate of development, but the facet number is not influenced by the 
length of the immature stage. The correlation between the two curves is therefore only 
apparent. It is suggested that the decrease in facet number in the bar-eyed flies may be 
accounted for by the presence of an inhibitor in the mutant stock, the temperature coefficient 
of which differs from that of the normal facet-producing reaction. — It is shown also that the 
coefficient of variability of the facet number in bar-eyed flies increases with temperature, 
while the standard deviation apparently decreases. The effect of temperature on facet num- 
ber in bar-eyed stock is not inherited. — H. H. Plough. 

1554. Kuiper, K. Ondeizoekingen over kleur en teekening bij runderen. Naar experi- 
menten van R. Houwink Hzn. [Studies on color and color pattern in cattle. Based on experi- 
ments of R. Houwink Hzn.] Genetica 2: 137-161. 5 pi. Mar., 1920. 

1555. Kuster, E. Uber mosaikpanaschierung und vergleichbare Erscheinungen. [Mosaic 
variegation and comparable phenomena.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36: 54-61. 1918. 



206 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1556. Kuster, E. Uber sektoriale Panaschierung und andere Formen der sektorialen 
Differenzierung. [On sectorial variegation and other forms of sectorial differentiation.] Mo- 
natshefte f. d. natw. Unterr. 12: 84-87. 1919. 

1557. Lebedinsky, N. G. Darwins geschlechtliche Zuchtwahl und ihre arterhaltende 
Bedeulung. [Darwin's sexual selection and its significance for the maintenance of species.] 
Habilitationsvortrag. 31 p. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1423. 

1558. Lehmann, Ernst. Zur Terminologie und Begriffsbildung in der Vererbungslehre. 
[Terminology and formation of genetical concepts.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22. 
236-260. May, 1920. 

1559. Lehmann, E. [German rev. of : (1) Sperlich, Adolf. Die Fahigkeit der Liniener- 
haltung (phyletische Potenz), ein auf die Nachkommenschaft von Saisonpsflanzen mit festen 
Rhythmus ungleichmassig iibergehender Faktor. (Capacity to maintain lines (phyletic potency) 
a factor distributed irregularly to the offspring of plants with fixed seasonal rhythm.) Sitzungs- 
ber. Akad.Wiss.Wien 128:379. 1919. (2) Sperlich, Adolf. Uber den Einfluss des Quellungs- 
zeitpunktes von Treibmitteln und des Lichtes auf die Samenkeimung von Alectorolophus hir- 
sutus All. Charakterisierung der Samenruhe. (On the influence of the time of application of 
forcing -agents and of light on the germination of seeds of Alectorolophus hirsutus. Charac- 
terization of seed rest.) Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 128: 477. 1919.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 299-301. May, 1920. 

1560. Leighty, Clyde E. Natural wheat-rye hybrids of 1918. Jour. Heredity 11: 129- 
136. 4 fig. Mar., 1920. 

1561. Levine, C. O. The water buffalo — A tropical source of butter fat. Jour. Heredity 
11:51-64. 9 fig. Feb., 1920. 

1562. Levine, C. O. Swine, sheep, and goats in the orient. Jour. Heredity 11: 117-124. 
6 fig. Mar., 1920. 

1563. Lewis, A. C. Annual report of the State Entomologist for 1918. Georgia State 
Bd. Ent. Bull. 55: 1-31. Fig. 2. 1919. — The cotton breeding work is along three main lines; 
to improve the wilt resistant varieties which have already been developed, breeding for 
earliness in Sea Island cotton, and to improve the varieties of cotton which are especially 
adapted to central and north Georgia. Breeding for wilt resistance is being done with three 
varieties, Lewis 63, Council Toole and DeSoto, all of which now give satisfactory results 
under wilt conditions. Efforts are being made to stabilize the length of lint in the hybrid 
Dix-Afifi, a long staple upland wilt-resistant variety. Selections are being made to improve 
ten varieties of cotton adapted to north and central Georgia. A strain of Sea Island cotton 
known as No. 33 has been developed which is much earlier than the ordinary varieties. This 
strain is also very prolific and produces a small stalk. — D. C. Warren. 

1564. Lienhart. De la possibility pour les eleveurs d'obtenir a volonte des males ou des 
femelles dans les races gallines. [On the possibility for the raiser to obtain males or females 
at will in the races of poultry.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 169: 102-104. 1919. 

1565. Lindhard, E., and Karsten Iversen. Vererbung von roten und gelben Farben- 
merkmalen bei Beta-Ruben. [Inheritance of red and yellow color character in beets.] Zeit- 
schr. Pflanzenzucht. 7: 1-18. June, 1919. — Crosses were made between red, yellow and white 
types of beets (Beta) and carried through the F 4 generation in some cases. A provisional 
factorial hypothesis is presented in which R G denotes red; r G, yellow; and R g and r g white. 
This presupposes a 9:3:4 ratio when a plant RrGg is self-pollinated. A large F 2 generation 
approximates such a ratio rather poorly and the author suggests a linkage between R and G 
with a gametic ratio of 1.8: 1 which fits the F 2 results closely. This linkage relation, however, 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 207 

does not apparently hold in the only two back-crosses listed, although the total number of 
individuals is slightly less than 100. The author then suggests the presence of a lethal factor 
(T) but does not develop this idea. — E. W. Lrindstrom. 

1566. Lipschutz, A. Bemerkung zur Arbeit von Knud Sand uber experimentellen Her- 
maphroditismus. [Comments on the work of Knud Sand on experimental hermaphroditism.] 
Pfliiger's Arch. 176: 112. 1919. 

1567. Little, C. C. A note on the origin of piebald spotting in dogs. Jour. Heredity 11: 
12-15. 1 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1568. Little, C. C. Is there linkage between the genes for yellow and for black in mice. 
Amer. Nat. 54: 267-270. May-June, 1920. — Discussion of recent paper of Dunn's referring to 
a deficiency of black young in a family of yellow mice. Because of small number of offspring 
involved, it is pointed out that the deviation from normal expectation may be entirely a 
matter of chance. Dunn states that yellow and black may possibly be linked. Author calls 
attention to the fact that yellow and agouti are allelomorphic and that agouti has been shown 
not to be linked to black. Author gives alternative explanation for observed facts, viz., as- 
sumption is made that a lethal factor is linked to black in the family above noted, and that 
this lethal is effective in a heterozygous condition in non-yellow mice but not in yellow mice. 
— H. L. Ibsen. 

1569. Little, C. C. The heredity of susceptibility to a transplantable sarcoma (J. W. B.) 
of the Japanese waltzing mouse. Science 51: 467-468. May 7, 1920. — In a cross between a 
Japanese waltzing mouse one hundred per cent susceptible to a transplantable sarcoma 
(J. W. B.) and the common non-waltzing mouse not susceptible to the sarcoma, the Fi gener- 
ation hybrids were all susceptible to the sarcoma, but the F 2 hybrids gave a total of twenty- 
three susceptible to sixty-six non-susceptible animals thus supporting the expectations on 
the three-, four-, five-, and seven-factor hypotheses. — To determine more closely the number 
of factors involved Fi hybrid mice, — themselves susceptible, — were crossed back with the 
non-susceptible parent race. The numbers obtained were twenty-one susceptible to 208 
non-susceptible which indicates that from three to five factors— probably four — are involved 
in determining susceptibility to the mouse sarcoma (J. W. B.). — Simultaneous presence of 
these factors is considered necessary for susceptibility. None of these factors is carried in 
the sex (X) chromosome since all the "X" chromosomes in the resulting animals, of the 
back-cross, if the original mating is a non-susceptible female with a susceptible male, will 
be derived from the common non-susceptible mice. — Mary B. Stark. 

1570. Lo Priore, G. Sulla ereditarieta. della fasciazione nelle spighe del mais. [On the in- 
heritance of a fasciation in the maize ear.] Staz. Sper. Agr. Ital. 51 : 415-430. 1918. — Four fasci- 
ated ears of maize were found in 1902. A progeny of these, grown from open-pollinated seed, 
produced fasciated ears on one-third of the plants. The second year 40 per cent of the plants 
bore fasciated ears, while in the third year the progeny of a better-fasciated ear produced 
such ears on 60 per cent of the plants. The plants with fasciated ears showed no other abnor- 
malities and yielded exceptionally well. The author concludes that a fasciated race of maize 
can be developed b}- selection although the abnormal form is transmitted to only a part of 
the offspring and according to laws of heredity not yet formulated. — The relation of traumatic 
and chemical treatment to the development of fasciations and other abnormalities as well as 
the relation of fasciation to the origin of the normal maize ear is discussed. — J. II. Kcmpton. 

1571. Losch, Hermann. Ascidienbildung an Staubfaden vergriinter Bliiten von Tropae- 
olum majus. [Ascidia formation on stamens of virescent flowers of Tropaeolum majus.l Ber. 
Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 37: 369-372. Dec, 1919. — Describes on virescent stamens of Tropae- 
olum majus ascidia in various stages of development. Inner side of ascidium is foliar under 
side. — James P. Kelly. 



208 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1572. Lotst, J. P. Heribert Nilsson's onderzoekingen over soortsvorming bij Salix met 
opmerkingen mijnerzijds omtrent de daarin en in publicaties vanandeienuitgeoeiende kiitiek 
aan mijn soorts-definitie. [Heribert- Nilsson's investigation on species formation in Salix with 
remarks of my own on the author's critique, and that of others on my taxonomic definitions.] 
Genetica 2: 162-188. Mar., 1920. 

1573. Lotsy, J. P. Cucurbita-Strijdpagen. De soort-quaestie.— Het gedrag na kruis- 
ing.— Parthenogenese? II. Eigen onderzoekingen. [Cucurbita problems. The species ques- 
tion. The result of crossing. Parthenogenesis? II. Investigations by the author.] Genetica 
2: 1-21. 1 8-colored plate, 9 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1574. Luhning. Die erbliche Geschlechtsverkniipfung. [Hereditary sex linkage.] 
Deutsch. Landw. Tierzucht, 22: 77-78. 1918. 

1575. Malinowski, Edmund. Die Sterilitiit der Bastarde im Lichte des Mendelismus. 
[The sterility of hybrids in the light of Mendelism.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 
225-235. May, 1920. 

1576. Mass, J. G. J. A. Field experiments with Hevea. Agric. Bull. Federated Malay 
States 6: 561-613. 596-597. 1918. 

1577. Masui, Kiyoshi. The spermatogenesis of domestic mammals. I. The spermato- 
genesis of the horse (Equus caballus). Jour. Coll. Agric. Imperial Univ. Tokyo 3: 357-376. 
S pi, 2 fig. 1919. 

1578. Masui, Kiyoshi. The spermatogenesis of domestic mammals. II. The spermato- 
genesis of cattle (Bos taurus). Jour. Coll. Agric. Imperial Univ. Tokyo 3: 377—103. 3 pi., 
1 fig. 1919. 

1579. Matthael, R. [German rev. of: Klatt, B. Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber 
die Beeinfiussbarkeit der Erbanlagen durch den Korper. (Experimental investigations on 
the modifiabiiity of the hereditary factors through the soma.) Sitzungsber. Ges. Naturf. 
Freunde 1919: 39-45. 1919. See Bot, Absts. 5, Entry 1546.] Zeitschr. Allg. Physiol. 18: 
46-47. 1920. 

1580. McAlpine, D. Immunity and inheritance in plants. Advisory Council Sci. Indust. 
Australia Bull. 7: 76-86. 1918. — A general discussion of the inheritance of disease resistance 
in wheat. Author recommends crossing susceptible varieties with resistant ones as means 
of developing rust immunity. — J. H. Kempton. 

1581. Mendel, Kurt. Familiare peripherische Radialislahmung. [Familial peripheral 
paralysis of the radial nerve.] Neurol. Cent ralbl. 39: 58-59. 1920. — It is recognized that hered- 
ity often plays a role in cases of facial paralysis, but it has not been determined whether 
the manifestation in these cases is due to the indirect effect of some hereditary anatomical 
anomaly, such for example as an unusually acute bend in the facial canal, or to a heightened 
susceptibility inherent in the nerve itself. The author now reports a family in which the 
father and two sons suffered from paralysis of the hand following very trivial injuries to the 
radial nerve at the elbow or near the shoulder. From these cases the author is led to believe 
that in hereditary paralysis involving the radial, probably the facial, and possibly other pe- 
ripheral nerves, the underlying factor is to be sought not in any gross anatomical variation of 
the related parts, but in an hereditary condition of increased vulnerability of the particular 
nerve involved in the paralysis. — C. H. Danforlh. 

1582. Metz, Chas. W. Correspondence between chromosome number and linkage groups 
in Drosophila virilis. Science 51 : 417-418. April 23, 1920.— Whereas in Drosophila mclano- 
gaster there are three large pairs and one very small pair of chromosomes, and three large 
groups and one very small group of linked genes, there are in D. virilis five large pairs, and one 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 209 

very small pair of chromosomes, and five known groups of linked genes. Author points out 
that only twenty-seven mutant characters, of which fourteen are sex-linked, have thus far 
been investigated in this species, and thai the failure to delect the sixth (and presumably 
small) group, is not surprising in view of the small number of characters investigated. He 
promises full data on this case in a future publication.— Jo An S. Dexter. 

1683. MiTsciiKiu.H n, EiLH, Alfred, tiber kiinstliche Wunderiihrenbildung. [The arti- 
ficial production of abnormal heads of cereals.) Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 101-109. 8 fin. 
Dec, 1910. 

1584. Moiih, Otto L., and Chr. Wriedt. A new type of hereditary biachyphalangy in 
man. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. No. 295. 64 p., 7 pi., 4 fig- 1919. — A careful study 
based on personal examinations, authentic records, photographs and X-ray plates has been 
made of the hands of nearly 100 members of a Norwegian family in which an unusually clear- 
cut type of brachyphalangy occurs in at least six generations. The trait behaves as a sirn 
dominant and is not sex-linked. In heterozygous individuals the manifestation is confined 
exclusively, so far as can be determined, to the middle phalanx of the index finger (and the com- 
parable phalanx of the corresponding toe). The affected phalanx may be shortened to a 
moderate degree or reduced almost to the point of elimination in which case it is sometimes 
subluxated toward the ulnar side causing the terminal phalanx to bend radial-ward giving a 
"crooked" finger which is not (in this family) genetically different from a "short" finger. Of 
especial interest is the fact that the manifestations of the trait do not fluctuate around a 
single mode but arrange themselves in two distinct groups without any overlapping. The 
authors, therefore, postulate a second, modif3 r ing, gene which intensifies the effect of the main 
gene. This modifier is one of presumably manj' such genes which may be widely distributed 
in the human germ plasm without often having an opportunity to manifest themselves. 
Certain individuals who have married into the family have been heterozygous for the modi- 
fier, others have lacked it altogether. Failure to recognize the existence of this gene might 
easily have led to erroneous conclusion as to "dilution" of the main gene. In reality no dilution 
has taken place in the course of six generations. Of possibly great importance is the result of the 
marriage of two affected individuals. A single marriage of this sort yielded three children, 
one of whom lacked all fingers and toes and died at the age of a year. The authors are inclined 
to regard this case as the one instance of an individual homozygous for brachyphalangy 

to look upon the gene as one which, when heterozygous, produces relatively inconsequential 
effects, but which when homozygous produces very serious, perhaps lethal, results. — C. II . 
Danforth. 

1585. Mohr, Otto L. Mikroskopische Untersuchungen zu Experimenten iiber den Ein- 
fluss der Radiumstrahlen und der Kaltewirkung auf die Chromatinreifung und das Hetero- 
chromosom bei Decticus verruccivorus (o 71 ). [Microscopic studies in experiments on the 
influence of radium rays and effect of cold on the maturation and the heterochromosome of 
Decticus verruccivorus (&).] Arch, mikrosk. Anat. 92: 300-388. 6 pi. 1919. 

1580. Morgan, T. H. Variations in the secondary sexual characters of the fiddler crab. 
Amer. Nat. 54 : 220 2 !0. 6 fig. May-June, 1920. — Two variations are described that are shown 
not to be due to regeneration. Whether due to genetic change, to infection, or to some em- 
bryonic "slip" could not be determined. Literature relating to sex-intergrades in Crustacea 
is reviewed.— 7'. //. Morgan. 

1587. Mottet, S. Digitalie hybride de Lutz. [The Lutz Digitalis hybrid.) Rev. Hortic 
91: 390-397. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1827. 

1588. Mumford, H. W\ Famous Angus cows of Scotland. Breeder's Gaz. 76: 462-463. 
1919. — Author discusses briefly the records of the foundation cows of certain famous families 
of the Aberdeen Angus breed. — Sewall Wright. 



210 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1589. Mttnns, E. N. Effect of fertilization on the seed of Jeffrey Pine. Plant World 22: 
138-144. 1919. — Author reports on results of various cross- and self- pollinations among 8 
trees of Pinus Jeffreyi, three of which were thrifty, two mistletoe-infected, one insect infected, 
and two "suppressed trees." On basis of observations author recommends that seed should 
be collected from localities with strong winds at time of flowering so that cross-pollinated 
seeds may be secured; and that for heavy seeds and consequent stronger seedlings collections 
should be from thrifty parents ; poor trees gave largest number of seeds to pound but produced 
smallest nursery trees ; and that in timber-sale practice only thrifty trees should be left. [See 
also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1375.] — James P. Kelly. 

1590. Myers, C. H. The use of a selection coefficient. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 12: 

,™> nr> , mn Number of ripe ears , „, . , , 

106-112. 1920. — - - ; — = percentage of maturity. Ihe average yield per 

Total number of ears 

stalk of maize was determined in pounds. It was desirable to combine the yield and the maturity 

into a single expression which would serve as a basis for selection. The average yield per 

stalk times the percentage of maturity gives the ''selection coefficient."— F. M. Schertz. 

1591. Nachtsheim, Hans. Crossing-over-Theorie oder Reduplikationshypothese? [The 
crossover theory or the reduplication hypothesis?] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 
127-141. 4 fig. Jan., 1920. 

1592. Nachtsheim, Hans. Zytologische und experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber die 
Geschlechtsbestimmung bei Dinophilus apatris Korsch. [Cytological and experimental studies 
on the sex determination of Dinophilus apatris Korsch.] Arch. Mikrosk. Anat. 93: 17-140. 
4 pi., 5 fig. Nov., 1919. 

1593. Naef, A. Idealistische Morphologie und Phylogenetik. (Zur Methodik der sys- 
tematischen Morphologie.) [Idealistic morphology and phylogeny. (On the method of system- 
atic morphology.) ] 77 p., 4 fig- Jena, 1919. 

1594. Noack, Konrad. [German rev. of: Stomps, Theo. J. Gigas -mutation mit und 
ohne Verdoppelung der Chromosomenzahl. [Gigas-mutation with and without doubling of 
the chromosome number. Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 65-90. 3 pi., 4 fig- July, 
1919. (See Bot, Absts. 4, Entry 778.) ] Zeitschr. Bot. 12: 36-39. 1920. 

1595. Noyes, Hilda H. The development of useful citizenship. Jour. Heredity 11: 88- 
91. Feb., 1920. 

1596. Nuttall, G. H. F. The biology of Pediculus humanus. Parasitology 2 : 201-220. 
1 pi., 1 fig. 1919. — Lice reared on white backgrounds developed very little pigment and ap- 
peared whitish or translucent but those reared on black backgrounds became very darkly 
pigmented thus showing that pigmentation is not inherited. In some lots taken from their 
host as high as 9 per cent of the adult individuals were hermaphrodites. — D. D. Whitney. 

1597. O., A. Zonal Pelargoniums. Gard. Chron. 66: 157. Sept. 20, 1919.— Maxime Kav- 
olsky, a comparatively new variety is briefly described. — A. C. Hildreth. 

1598. Palmgren. Rolf. Till Kannedomen om Abnormiteters Nedarfning hos en del 
Husdjur. [Inheritance of abnormalities in certain domestic animals.] Acta Soc. pro fauna 
et flora fennica 44: 1-22. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1548. 

1599. Palmgren, Rolf. Tvenne bastarder mellan getbock och fartacka, fodda i Hog- 
holmes zoologiska tradgard. [Two hybrids between sheep and goats produced in Hogholm zoolo- 
gical gardens.] Med. pro fauna et flora fennica 44: 124-125. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, 
Entry 1548. 

1600. Pammel, L. H., and C. M. King. An annual white sweet clover. Proc. Iowa Acad. 
Sci. 25: 249-251. PI. 4-6. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1191. 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 211 

1601. Pammkl, L. H., andC. M. King. A variation in the black walnut. Proc. Iowa Acad. 
Sci. 25: 241-248. PI. 3, fig. 43-44. 1920. 

1602. Patterson, J. T. Polyembryony and sex. Jour. Heredity 10: 344-352. 2 fig. 
Nov., 1919. 

1603. Pellew, Caroline. The genetics of Campanula carpatica. Card. Chron. 66: 
23S. S fig. Nov. S, 1919. — A brief consideration of investigations of the author more com- 
pletely discussed in "Types of segregation," Jour. Genetics 6: 1917. — In Campanula carpatica 
hermaphrodites occur with male and female organs fully developed. In other plants the an- 
thers fail to develop beyond a rudimentary stage while in others, still, development of the 
anthers is partial. Self-sterility is general in this species. In certain strains of C. carpatica 
pelviformis crosses between hermaphrodites or between females and hermaphrodites inva- 
riably gave mixed families consisting both of females and hermaphrodites, often with a pre- 
ponderance of females. The hermaphrodites appear to produce more gametes carrying the 
female character than gametes carrying the hermaphrodite character. There is no consistent 
difference in this respect between the ovules and pollen of a single plant. In other strains 
the pollen and ovules differ. Two hermaphrodites were found, pollen of which, when used 
on females, gave rise exclusively to females, whereas ovules of the same plant fertilized by 
other hermaphrodites gave rise exclusively to hermaphrodites. A flower-color factor pair 
in this species also follows this unusual type of segregation by which the ovules and pollen 
are differentiated. Normal segregation of the color factor occurs on the female side result- 
ing in equal numbers of ovules bearing blue or white allelomorphs. Ninety-seven per cent 
of the pollen grains, however, carry the white allelomorph and three per cent only the blue 
allelomorph.— Power of transmitting this unusual mode of segregation from parent to off- 
spring is apparently limited to the ovules, for no plant similar to C. carpatica pelviformis 
has been derived from its male side. This type of segregation may be compared with the 
double-throwing variety of stock. — C. B. Hutchison. 

1604. Pezard, A. Castration alimentaire chez les coqs soumis au regime came exclusif. 
[Alimentary castration in a cock subjected to an exclusive meat diet.] Compt. Rend. Acad. 
Sci. Paris 169: 1177-1179. 1919. 

1605. Pitt, Frances. Notes on the inheritance of color and markings in pedigree Here- 
ford cattle. Jour. Genetics 9: 281-302. 4 pi- Feb., 1920. — Notes and photographs on which 
this paper is based come chiefly from the breeding of pure bred Herefords owned by W. J. 
Pitt. — Excessive white on the sides of the belly and down the spine behaved to well marked 
animals as a recessive factor. The ratios were: heterozygote to heterozygote, 25 well marked: 
10 excessive white; heterozygote to pure dominant well marked, 52 well marked; heterozygote 
to recessive excessive white, 7 well marked to 9 excessive white. — Dark neck or extension of 
the pigment area to include the neck, the crest, and to encroach on the white area on the tail 
behaved nearly as a dominant to the desired white markings. In the presence of the factor 
for excessive white the "dark-necked" factor apparently may be inhibited in its action. — A 
ring of red around the eyes is dependent on a single dominant factor. The ratios for hetero- 
zygote X heterozygote were 42 red-eyed to 12 white-eyed. The mating of the heterozygote X 
the recessive white-eyed gave 12 heterozygote to 15 complete recessive. It appears that the 
factor for red pigment around the eyes is independent of the other factors.— Pigment on the 
nose behaves as a dominant to clean nose, pigmented X non-pigmented giving 4 pigmented in 
Fi; pigmented heterozgyous X non-pigmented, giving 3 pigmented to 3 not pigmented in the 
Fi. — Two pigment factors control coat color. Pale brown coat is dominant over the deep 
rich purple or claret coat. The factors for coat color apparently behave independently of 
the rest save with the possible exception of the pigmented nose.— The observation is made 
that the "claref'-coated animals may not feed as rapidly as the pale brown. — The history of 
the breed is cited to show that the factors discussed were present in early times. — John W. 
Go wen. 



212 GENETICS [Box. Absts., Vol. V, 

1606. Pleijel, C Valeriana excelsa Poir X officinalis L. nova hybrida. [Valeriana ex- 
celsa Poir X officinalis L. a new hybrid.] Bot. Notiser 1918: 29.5-296. 1918. 

1607. Popenoe, Paul. Inbreeding and outbreeding. [Rev. of: East, E. M., and D. F. 
Jones. Inbreeding and outbreeding. 14 x 21 cm., 285 p., 46 fig. J. B. Lippincott: Philadel- 
phia, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 571; 5, Entries 437, 1695.)] Jour. Heredity 11: 
125-128. Mar., 1920. 

1608. Popenoe, Paul. World-power and evolution. Jour. Heredity 11: 137-144. Mar., 
1920. 

1609. P[openoe], P. Lock's last work. [Rev. of: Lock, R. II. Recent progress in the, 
study of variation, heredity, and evolution. Ath ed., 336 p. E. P. Dutton & Co.: New York, 
1916.] Jour. Heredity 11: 110. Mar., 1920. 

1610. P[openoe], Paul. Morgan on heredity. [Rev. of : Morgan, Thomas Hunt. The 
physical basis of heredity. 14x21 cm., 300 p., 117 fig. J. B. Lippincott Co.: Philadelphia, 
1919.] Jour. Heredity 11: 144. Mar., 1920. 

1611. P[openoe], P. [Rev. of: Punnett, Reginald Crundall. Mendelism. 5th ed., 
13x19 cm., 219 p., 7 pi, 52 fig. Macmillan & Co.: London. 1919.] Jour. Heredity 11: 115. 
Mar., 1920. 

1612. Pridham, J. T. Oat and barley breeding, agricultural research in Australia. Ad- 
visory Council Sci. and Ind. Commonwealth of Australia, Bull. 7: 22-3S. 191S. — Cross was 
made between the Algerian variety of oats and Carter's Royal Cluster. The F 2 consisted of 
1,092 plants. There was great diversity among the young plants, some having coarse, broad 
leaves, while others had leaves almost like rye-grass in their fineness. There was also great 
diversity in character of stooling, foliage color, and habit of growth (erect or prostrate). 
On approaching maturity some plants showed pink or reddish color at base of stalk, a charac- 
teristic of the Algerian parent. 32.48 per cent of the plants exhibited the reddish straw, a 
percentage considered by the author to conform with a Mendelian ratio. The grain was 
of varying shades of brown, except in a few plants which produced yellow seeds, but no plants 
were found with white seeds like those of the male parent. — Four crosses were made between 
varieties of the Algerian type and those of the tree "class" and one cross was made between 
Algerian and a "side" oat. The Fi plants were intermediate in character and of pronounced 
vigor. In subsequent generations from oat crossbreds of the "tree" or branching type, no 
individuals of the "side" type were found. — Attempts were made to cross Avena fatua with 
the Algerian variety and also with Chinese skinless, but without success. — A cross was ef- 
fected between a "false wild oat" resembling A. fatua and white Bonanza. The progeny 
had slender straw, pale foliage and the open thin head with drooping branches of the wild 
oat. The line was not pursued further as no individuals of promise were found. — The most 
successful cross from the standpoint of the production of new varieties is white Ligowo X 
Algerian. From this cross sprang "Guyra," "Lachlan," and other strains of merit which have 
not yet been named. It is stated that the most productive varieties are those with stout awns 
and the value of skinless varieties is deprecated. — Seeds of various oat varieties and cross- 
breds were taken from Cowra and planted at Longerenong College, Victoria. In selections 
of these grown again at Longerenong striking variations were found in the Algerian oats. 
Among these were several plants with very coarse awns, very tall straw, white, large grain, 
and a limited number of stalks. These plants ripened unusually early. The possibility of 
the seed having been mixed was considered but no plants resembling these were found in 
other plots. This variation with a few individual exceptions bred true in succeeding years 
and was named "Sunrise" on account of its earliness. — A remarkable plant was found in Chi- 
nese skinless oats at Cowra in 1913. In addition to being much earlier than the other plants 
the early stools bore heads on which the upper flowers were like the skinless oat (three to 
five flowers to a spikelet) while the lower flowers resembled Algerian (two flowers to a spikelet 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 213 

with stiff glumes). The early stools had a darker foliage than the late ones, which latter 
bore flowers typical of the skinless oat. The straw, when mature, was reddish like that of 
Algerian. Some of the seeds were naked and sonic were black or dark brown hulled. Prog- 
enies of individual plants have been grown for several seasons and continue to be quite vari- 
able, some having wholly naked, some half and half and some yielding only hulled seed. The 
hulled seed germinated best and also yielded best. Crosses between this oat and Dun and 
Ruakura have given no promising material. — An oat resembling A. fatua was found in a 
progeny of the natural crossbred of the Sunrise varial ion. In this progeny most of the plants 
resembled Sunrise and seed from such plants bred true, but the wild oat type split up remark- 
ably. The plants varied in seed color, degree of awn, stoutness of straw and hairiness of 
grain, some being thickly felted while others were smooth. Since none of these types were of 
economic importance they were not persevered with. — Author states that well-marked varia- 
tions which bred true have been found in the Kelsall's, Black Bell, Ruakura, and Winter Turf 
variet ies. The characteristics of several varieties are given and the technique of oat crossing 
described. — Under the heading of Barley Breeding the author records having found a few 
plants of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum in a sample of wild wheat Triticum dicoccum 
dicoccoides. The wild barley was crossed with the Standwell and Kinver varieties. The Fi 
crossbreds were more vigorous than the cultivated parents. They were uniformly of the 
Chevalier type and scattered easily. Plants in which the grain adhered more or less firmly 
to the rachis and resembled malting barley were selected. In the F. t these selections compared 
favorably in productiveness with Kinver, Standwell and a two-row selection from Chilian. 
The straw is stronger, the awns stouter, the grain larger and the plants more drought-resistant 
than the ordinary malting barleys. — Author's assistant crossed a two-row naked-awned bar- 
ley with ordinary skinless, also Kinver malting barley with the two-row and naked type. 
Among other variations the latter cross gave rise to a six-rowed bearded type. — Author states 
that a Mr. Pe uock of the Bathhurst Experiment Farm found a natural crossbred in the 
Standwell barley which gave rise to a two-rowed awnless, six-rowed awnless and a six-rowed 
awned, all of which bred true. — J. H. Kempton. 

1613. Przibram, Hans. Ursachen tierischer Farbkleidung. [Causes of animal coat 
colors.] Arch. Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 45: 199-259. 1919. 

1614. Punnett, R. C. The genetics of the Dutch rabbit. — A criticism. Jour. Genetics 
9: 303-317. 1 pi., 2 fig. Mar., 1920. — -Author recognizes three true-breeding grades with 
reduced pigmentation and frequent heterochromia iridis, viz., White Dutch, Spotted Dutch, 
and Typical Dutch. Self-color is PPTTSS and White Dutch is ppttzs. S raises White 
Dutch to Spotted Dutch and if T is also added pigmentation is increased to Typical Dutch. 
P produces darker types and eliminates heterochromia. The various combinations of these 
factors are fitted to Castle's data and this multiple factor theory is considered to agree better 
than Castle's hypothesis of multiple allelomorphism of the four types, Self -color, Dark Dutch, 
"Tan" Dutch, and White Dutch, and to make unnecessary his conception of "mutual modi- 
fication."— P. W. Whiting. 

1615. Pye, H. Wheat breeding in its incidence to production. Agricultural research in 
Australia. Advis. Council. Sci. and Ind. Commonwealth of Australia Bull. 7: 10-22. 1918. 
— General discussion of the application of breeding to improvement of wheat. Author 
records having noticed in the past few years many more natural crosses in wheat than hereto- 
fore. This increase in crossing is attributed to lack of pollen, some varieties having been 
lost through a failure to fertilize the ovules. An emasculated bearded wheat left to wind or 
insect pollination produced nine seeds, eight of which germinated, six producing bald ears 
and two bearded. Author lists four features which influence prolificacy and thirteen quali- 
ties which are associated with prolificacy in its relation to inherency and economical harvest- 
ing. — J. H. Kempton. 

1616. R. [German rev. of: Trow, A. H. On "albinism" in Senecio vulgaris L. Jour. 
Genetics 6: 65-74. 1916. (See Bot. Absts. 1, Entry 947.) ] Zeitschr. Pflanzenziicht. 7: 141. 
Dec, 1919. 



214 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1617. Reighard, Jacob. The breeding behavior of the suckers and minnows. I. The 
suckers. Biol. Bull. 38: 1-32. Jan., 1920. — The white sucker (Catostomus commersionii) , 
the red-horse (Moxostoma aureolum) , and the hogsucker (Catostomus nigricans) breed in the 
swift water of small streams on gravel bottom. In all, the breeding males bear pearl organs, 
and in the hogsucker the female also bears them. In spawning, those surfaces of the male 
that are rendered rough by the pearl organs are brought into contact with the female, and 
aid the fish in maintaining their relative positions. In the white sucker and the red-horse, 
two males pair with the female at one time, one on either side of her. In the hogsucker, 
six or eight males may pair with the female at one time. In each species, the female repeats 
the spawning act in many places and with different groups of males. The male does not enter 
into combat with other males, but cooperates with them. The relation of the sexes is thus 
promiscuity, not polyandry or polygamy; this promiscuity is not found in fishes in which 
combat takes place between the males. — Bertram G. Smith. 

1618. Renner, O. Zur Biologie und Morphologie der mannlichen Haplonten einiger Ono- 
theren. [Biology and morphology of the male haplonts of some Oenotheras.] Zeitschr. Bot. 
11:305-380. 39 fig. 1919. 

1619. Renner, O. Bemerkungen zu der Abhandlung von Hugo de Vries: Kreuzungen 
von Oenothera Lamarckiana mut. velutina. [Comments on the paper by Hugo de Vries : Crosses 
of Oenothera Lamarckiana mut. velutina.] Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36: 446-456. 1918. 

1620. Richardson, A. E. V. Production of cereals for arid districts. Agricultural 
research in Australia. Advisory Council Sci. and Ind. Commonwealth of Australia Bull. 7: 
57-77. 1918. — Following a general discussion of location of arid regions, progress of cultural 
methods, differences between species and their ability to withstand drought, and relation of 
the migration ratio (i.e., ratio of grain to stalk) to drought-resistance, author describes the 
Hays centgener-plot system of wheat breeding. Cross-breeding as a method of producing 
new types is considered with brief summary of Mendel's principles. In this connection a 
list of dominant and recessive characters in wheat and barley is given. — Attempt was made to 
determine whether high and low yielding power are Mendelian characters. A high-yielding 
variety of wheat such as Federation or Yandilla King was crossed with one of low yield such 
as Huguenot. In the F2 the plants were grown in centgener plots and each plant harvested 
separately. While the parental varieties give normal frequency curves the F 2 appears to show 
segregation into two distinct groups, one consisting of high yielding plants (several of 
which outyield the best parent) and one of low yielding plants. Progenies of both groups 
were grown and the results indicate that the observed differences were inherited. — By propa- 
gating the extreme plants found in F 2 of a cross between a two-rowed bearded and a six-rowed 
skinless variety of barley a new race has been obtained which is six-rowed and bearded and 
exceeds the parents in migration-ratio as well as in yield. — J. H. Kempton. 

1621. Roberts, Herbert F. The founders of the art of breeding. Jour. Heredity 10: 
99-106. 4 fig. Mar., 1919. Ibid. 10: 147-152. 1 fig. Apr., 1919. Ibid. 10: 229-239. 1 fig. 
May, 1919. Ibid. 10: 257-270. June, 1919.— See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 90. 

1622. Rolfe, R. A. The pre-Mendelian age. Gard. Chron. 66: 288. Dec. 6, 1919 — 
Author takes somewhat positive attitude regarding Mendel and the supposed sanctification 
of his results, basing his objections upon the fact that Goss, Seton, Knight and Gartner all 
experimented with peas, obtaining concurrent results as to the uniformity in the Fi, and diver- 
sity in the F 2 generations, the overlooking of which data by Mendel and his commentators, 
seems to the author curious, and a manifest fault subject to criticism. Author thinks that 
Mendel has blinded all investigators to the merits of those who preceded him. — H. F. Roberts. 

1623. Romell, Lars-Gunnar. Nagot om artbildningsproblem. [On problems of the ori- 
gin of species.] Skogsvardsforeningens Tidskr. 18: 92-100. 1920. — After brief description of 
different theories concerning origin of species author discusses rather particularly the treatise 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 215 

of van dicr Wor.K, "Onderzoek ingen obcr blijvende modification en bun betrekking tot muta- 
ties" [Researches on persistent modifications and their relation 1<> mutations]. Cultura 1919. 
K. V. Ossian Dahlgren. 

1624. S., W. [Re\ . <>f : RlGNANO, Euqenio. Upon the inheritance of acquired characters: 
A hypothesis of heredity, development, and assimilation. 418 p. Open Courl Publishing Co. : 
Chicago, 1911.] Science Progress 14: 514-515. Jan., 1920. 

1625. Salisbury, E. J. Variation in Anemone apennina, L., and Clematis vitalba, L., 
with special reference to trimery and abortion. Ann. Botany 34: 107-116. 9 fig. Jan., 1920. 
— Author presents further data on his views relative to essential trimery of Ranunculaceae. 
In A. apeimina perianth segments ranged from 9 to 21 with 34 per cent of the flowers departing 
from trimerous condition in perianth. Distribution of variations tends to be symmetrical 
about mode in contrast to condition in A. nemorosa where skewness was associated with lower 
modal value. Stamen number in A. apennina ranged from 48 to 111 (multiples of 3). Curve 
was multimodal with succession of trimerous modes, greatest frequency being at 72, 81 and 87; 
in 55.3 per cent of flowers staminal number was multiple of three; departure from modes 
explainable on basis of fission or fusion. In 57 3 per cent of flowers carpel number was multiple 
of 3, largest modes being at 60, 63, 51, and 57 with limits of range 27 and 87. One instance 
of a carpel with two stigmas suggested fission as cause of departure from trimery. — In Clem- 
atis vitalba the gynaecium of 1202 specimens furnished again a many-peaked curve with 
modes at multiples of three. There was a tendency for number of abortive carpels to increase 
as total carpel number increased. Abortion seemed to depend on conditions of nutrition and 
development and not on idiosyncrasies of pollinating agent. — James P. Kelly. 

1626. Schaffner, John H. A remarkable bud sport of Pandanus. Jour. Heredity 10: 
376-378. 1 fig. Nov., 1919. 

1627. Schaffner, J. H. The expression of sexual dimorphism in heterosporous sporo- 
phytes. Ohio Jour. Sci. 18: 101-125. 25 fig. 1918 — "The sexual condition is simply a state 
of the living substance which may continue for a greater or less length of time before a neu- 
tral state or the opposite sex condition is set up." Author maintains inadequacy of sex- 
chromosome mechanism for most plants, even suggesting that Allen's work on Sphaerocarpus 
is not conclusive. Body of paper involves examples of various stages in development of dioe- 
cious condition. No original monosporangiate flowers exist ; few seeming examples show di- 
rect relationship to groups with opposite structures present. Usually dioecious condition 
comes directly from bisporangiate ; sometimes monoecism is intermediate. Carpellate flowers 
more likely to retain vestiges of stamen structures, than are staminate to retain carpel parts. 
Zizania aquatica has staminate spikelets awnless, carpellate long-awned, bisporangiate 
short-awned; latency of awn factor caused by presence of male condition. Cannabis sativa 
normally an extreme example of dioecism, but plants grown under unusual conditions may 
show reversal of certain parts to opposite sex. Discusses genera (Acer, Rumex, Fraxinus) 
and larger groups which themselves show many gradations in the development of dioecism. 
Suggests inadequacy of sex-chromosome idea even in animal kingdom, though in some cases 
"hereditary factors may arise in a special chromosome which may assist in retaining and 
intensifying a male or female state already established. " Sex-linked transmission can be read- 
ily explained without sex chromosomes. With assumption of sex chromosomes greater part 
of sexual phenomena becomes unexplainable and contradictory. Adds list of 41 plant species 
which are promising for investigation, describing general sexual condition of each. — Merle 
C. Coulter. 

1628. Schaxel, Julius. Uber die Darstellung allgemeiner Biologie. [On the presenta- 
tion of general biology.] Abhandl. Theoret. Biol. 62 p. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1426. 

1629. Schaxel, J. Grundziige der Theorienbildung in der Biologie. [Principles of theory 
formation in biology.] 221 p. G. Fischer: Jena, 1919. — See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1426. 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. T, NO. 2 



216 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1G30. Schellenberg, G. Uber die Verteilung der Geschlechtsorgane bei den Bryophyten. 
[On the distribution of sex organs in the bryophytes.] Beih. z. Bot. Zentralbl. 37: 1-39. 1919. — 
See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1639. 

1631. Schermers, D. Erfelijkheid en rasverbetering. [Heredity and race-improvement.] 
Schild en Pijl 10: 1-26. 1919. 

1632. Schiemann, E. Zur Frage der Briichigkeit der Gerste— eine Berichtigung. [To 
the question of brittleness in barley— a correction.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 
53. May, 1919. 

1633. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Baerthlein, K. Uber bakterielle Variabilitat, 
insbesondere sogennannte Bakterien-mutationen. (On bacterial variation, especially the so- 
called Bacteria mutations.) Centralbl. Bakt. 81 : 369-475. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. 
Vererb. 22: 303-304. May, 1920. 

1634. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Bateson, W., and Ida Sutton. Double flowers 
and sex linkage in Begonia. Jour. Genetics 8: 199-207. PI. 8. June, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 
3, Entry 2081.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 296-297. May, 1920. 

1635. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Collins, E. J. Sex segregation in the Bryophyta. 
Jour. Genetics 8: 139-146. PI. 6, 5 fig. June, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2103.)] 
Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 296. May, 1920. 

1636. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Correns, C. Fortsetzung der Versuche zur 
experimentellen Verschiebung des Geschlechtsverhaltnisses. Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. 1918: 
1175-1180. 1918.] Zeitschr. mdukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 293. May, 1920. 

1637. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Kajanus, Birger. Kreuzungsstudien an Win- 
terweizen. (Studies on crossing winter wheat.) Bot. Notiser 1918: 235-244. 1918. (See Bot. 
Absts. 4, Entry 622.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 292. May, 1920. 

1638. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: (1) Nilsson-Ehle, H. Untersuchungen fiber 
Speltoidmutationen beim Weizen. (Experiments on speltoid mutations in wheat.) Bot. Notiser 
1917:305-329. I fig. 1917. (2) Kalt, B., and A. Schtjlz. Uber Rfickschlagsindividuen mit 
Spelzweizeneigenschaften bei Nacktweizen der Emmerreihe des Weizens. (On atavists with 
spelt characters in naked wheat of the Emmer series.) Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 36: 669-671. 
1918. (See Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 624.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22:291-292. 
May, 1920. 

1639. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Schellenberg, G. Uber die Verteilung der 
Geschlechtsorgane bei den Bryophyten. (On the distribution of sex organs in the bryophytes.) 
Beih. Bot, Zentralbl. 37: 1-39. 1919.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 298. May, 
1920. 

1640. Schiemann, E. [German rev. of: Thelltjng, A. Neure Wege und Ziele der botan- 
ischen Systematik erlautert am Beispiele unserer Getreidearten. [New methods and purposes 
of botanical taxonomy illustrated by examples of our cereal species.] Naturw. Wochenschrift 
17:449-458,465^74. 3 fig. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 293-295. May, 
1920. 

1641. Schmidt, J. Experhnentelle Konstanz og Arvelighedsundersogelser med Lebistes 
reticulatus (Peters) Regan. [Experimental studies on constancy and heredity in Lebistes 
reticulatus.] Meddel. Carlsberg Lab. 14: 8. 1919. 

1642. Schultz, W. Gleichlauf von Verpflanzung und Kreuzung bei Froschlarven. [Par- 
allelism between transplantation and crossing in frog larvae.] Arch. Entwicklungsmech. 
Organ. 43: 361-380. / pi. 1918. 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 217 

1643. Seiler, J. [German rev. of : Goldschmidt, Richard. Crossing over ohne Chiasma- 
typie? (Crossing over without chiasmatype?) Genetics 2: 82-95. 1917.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 215-216. Mar., 1920. 

1644. Semon, Richard. Uber das Schlagwort "Lamarckismus." [On the catch-word 
"Lamarcklsm."] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 51-52. Dec, 1919. 

1645. Shamel, A. D. Origin of a new and improved French prune variety. Jour. Heredity 
10:339-343. Frontispiece, S fig. Nov., 1919. 

1646. Shamel, A. D. A bud variation of the Le Grande Manitou dahlia. Jour. Heredity 
10:367-368. 1 fig. Nov., 1919. 

1647. Sheppard, Hubert. Hermaphroditism in man. Anat. Rec. 18: 259-260. April 
20, 1920. — Author's abstract of paper read before American Association of Anatomists April 
1-3, 1920: — In 1911 Gudernatsch asserted that "hermaphroditism in the sense that separate 
testicles and ovaries are found has not been demonstrated in man, nor even in other mam- 
mals beyond a doubt." In so far as we are able to determine, this assertion has not been 
questioned. We thought it worth while, in the light of this and other investigations, to report 
a study of the anatomical structures of an extreme case of hermaphroditism which came to 
the dissecting room. — The testicles in this individual were located in the scrotum and the ova- 
ries in the pelvic cavity. The tissue from both organs proved to be normal in structure under 
a close microscopic examination. The broad ligament was thicker and wider than is usually 
found in a female subject, due to the fact that the uterus was a little lower in the pelvis than 
normal. The uterus measured about 5 cm. in length, 4 cm. in width and 2 cm. in thickness. 
A muscular wall, as well as a lumen which opened downward into the vagina, could be easily 
seen by both microscopic and macroscopic examinations. The oviduct took a normal course 
to the lateral angle of the uterus. A microscopic examination of the tube showed a lumen 
with walls containing the usual tunics. The cervix of the uterus passed into the inferior 
portion of the prostate about one-half inch below the urethra. The position of the organs 
might be described as follows: The bladder was superior and anterior to the uterus, with the 
prostate almost below the bladder, and a little anterior to the inferior portion of the uterus. 
Both are connected to the prostate, the urethra entering the prostatic substance near its 
superior anterior surface, the cervix of the uterus occupying the lower two-thirds. The cervix 
of the uterus held almost the exact position of the utriculus prostaticus of the male. — 
Externally the genitalia featured decidedly as a male. However, upon a closer examination of 
the region, and palpation of the organs, certain irregularities could be observed. The penis 
was small with a urethral orifice three-fourths as large as the organ itself. The opening grad- 
ually increased in size until it terminated at the cervix of the uterus. This portion of the 
urethra was in all respects a vagina attached to the inferior surface of the penis. Both the 
lumen of the uterus and the urethra opened directly into the vaginal opening. — It has been 
found in all true cases of hermaphroditism that there is always a sharp distinction between 
the male and female genital tissue and never an indefined mixing of the two elements (true 
ovitestis). In this unusual case we found the same phenomenon with a wuder separation of 
the two kinds of tissue, the testes and ovaries in the exact position of a normal individual. — 
Hubert Sheppard. 

1648. Shull, George H. A third duplication of genetic factors in shepherd's-purse. 
Science 51 : 590. June 11, 1920. — -Author's abstract of paper read before American Philosophi- 
cal Society, April 23, 1920. — In the third generation of a cross between a wild biotype of the 
common shepherd's-purse (Bursa btirsa-pastoris) from Wales and Heeger's shepherd's-purse 
(B. Heegeri) there appeared a small number of plants of unique type, having a more coriaceous 
texture than in the plants of either of the two original strains involved in the cross. This new 
type has been designated coriacea. It differs from the common form, not only in texture, 
but the lobing of the leaf is reduced and simplified and the angles of the lobes are almost 
spinescent. The proportion of coriacea to the typical sibs in this F 3 family was 12:187 or 



218 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

almost exactly a 1 : 15 ratio. This suggested at once the presence of two independently 
inherited factors for the normal texture, the coriacea type being produced only when these 
two factors K and L were absent. Subsequent breeding has shown that coriacea breeds true 
when selfed, and has also confirmed the interpretation of this as a third case of duplication of 
factors in this species. The two characters previously shown to be thus constituted are the 
triangular form of capsule, and the division of the leaf to the midrib which brings to light 
the characteristic lobing found in the form designated rhomboidea. The duplication of the 
capsule determiners is practically universal while that of the leaf-lobe factor is less frequently 
found. Studies on the coriacea character are still too limited in extent to justify a statement 
as to the prevalence of duplication of the factor for the usual texture of the leaves. — George 
H. Shull. 

1649. Siemens, H. W. Rashygienens biologiska grundvalar. [Biological foundations of 
race hygiene.] 98 p. Gleerup: Lund, 1918. 

1650. Siemens. [German rev. of: Haecker, V. Die Erblichkeit im Mannesstamm und 
der vaterrechtliche Familienbegriff. (Inheritance in man and the male-line concept of the 
family.) 32 p. Gustav Fischer: Jena, 1917.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 213. 
Mar., 1920. 

1651. Sirks, M. J. Verwantschap als biologisch vraagstuk. [Relationship as a biological 
problem.] Genetica 2: 27-50. Jan., 1920. 

1652. Sirks, M. J. De analyse van een spontane boonenhybride. [Analysis of a spontane- 
ous bean hybrid.] Genetica 2: 97-114. Mar., 1920. 

1653. Sirks, M. J. Uit het Instituut voor Veredeling van Landbouwgewassen. Vergelijk- 
ing van gerst en tarwerassen, van het Instituut afkomstig met andere voortrefflelijke rassen 
van deze gewassen 1915-1917. [From the Institute for the Improvement of Agricultural Plants. 
Comparison of barley and wheat varieties originating from the Institute with other superior 
races of these plants 1915-1917.] Med. Landb.-Hoogeschool Wageningen 14: 1-34, 210-232. 
1918. 

1654. Sirks, M. J., and J. Bijhotjwer. Onderzoekingen over de eenheid der linne- 
aansche soort Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. [Investigation of the homogeneity of the Lin- 
nean species Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L.] Genetica 1: 401-442. Sept., 1919. 

1655. Soler, Rafael Angel. Cultivo del tomate. [Tomato culture.] Revist. Agric. 
Com. y Trab. 2: 479-483. 8 fig. 1919. 

1656. Sperlich, Adolf. Die Fahigkeit der Linienerhaltung (phyletische Potenz), ein auf 
die Nachkommenschaft von Saisonpfianzen mit festem Rhythmus ungleichmassig iibergehender 
Faktor. [Capacity to maintain lines (phyletic potency), a factor distributed irregularly to the 
offspring of plants with fixed seasonal rhythm.] Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien 128: 379. 1919. 
—See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1559. 

1657. Sperlich, Adolf. Uber den Einfluss des Quellungszeitpunktes, von Treibmitteln 
und des Lichtes auf die Samenkeimung von Alectorolophus hirsutus All.: Charakterisierung 
der Samenruhe. [On the influence of the time of application of forcing -agents and of light on the 
germination of seeds of Alectorolophus hirsutus. Characterization of seed rest.] Sitzungsber. 
Akad. Wiss. Wien 128: 477. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1559. 

1658. Spragg, Frank A. The spread of Rosen rye. Jour. Heredity 11: 42-44. 1 fig. 
Jan., 1920. 

1659. Stein, E. [German rev. of: Klebahn, H. Impfversuche mit Pfropfbastarden. 
(Infection experiments with graft hybrids.) Flora 11-12: 418-430. 1918.] Zeitschr. indukt. 
Abstamm. Vererb. 22 : 304. May, 1920.— See also Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 2124. 



No. 2, September, 1920) GENETICS 219 

1660. Stein, E. [German rev. of: van Hkkui.km:-., M. A. De invloed van radium- 
stralen op de ontwikkeling der eieren van Daphnia pulex. (Effects of the rays of radium on the 
oogenesis of Daphnia pulex.) Genetics 1: 305-320. July, 1919. (See Bot. Absts. 3, Entry 
1044.)] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 286-287. May, 1920. 

1661. Steinach, E. Histologische Beschaffenheit der Keimdruse bei homosexuellen 
Mannern. [Histological condition of the gonads in homosexual men.] Arch. Entwicklungs- 
mcch. Organ. 46: ::!) :;?. PI. 3-5. 1920.— Interstitial cells characteristic of the ovary were 
found in the testes of several homosexual men, associated with degeneration of male inter- 
stitial cells, and of the seminal tubules. As reported elsewhere (Steinach und Lichten- 
stebn, Munch, med. Wochensch. Nr. 6, 1918), these testes were removed and cryptorchid 
testes with normal puberty gland implanted, restoring normal sexual instincts to the homo- 
sexuals. — H. D. Goodale. 

1662. Steinach, E. Kiinstliche und natiirliche Zwitterdriisen und ihre analogen Wirk- 
ungen. [Artificial and natural hermaphroditic glands and their analogous functioning.] Arch. 
Entwicklungsmech. Organ. 46 : 12-28. 1920. — A discussion of castration, feminization, mascu- 
linization, and hermaphroditization, some of it based on work previously unpublished, with 
particular reference to the similarity between homosexuals and certain artificial hermaphro- 
dites. Two instances of homosexual goats are described. — H. D. Goodale. 

1663. Stockard, Charles R., and G. N. Papanicolaou. Variations of structural 
expression in the inheritance of Polydactyly. Anat. Rec. 18 : 262-263. April 20, 1920. — Author's 
abstract of paper read before American Association of Anatomists, April 1-3, 1920. — The 
inheritance of Polydactyly in a strain of guinea-pigs has been studied for the past several years. 
This character when it appears in the race is inherited as a Mendelian dominant. — The expres- 
sion of the character in a series of individuals presents a most striking condition. The extra 
toe on the hind foot may be a perfectly developed functional toe in one animal, while in others 
the toe presents varying degrees of imperfect development and structure until in some it is 
represented by only a minute toe-nail attached to the foot by a thread-like filament. This 
poorly formed toe is frequently broken off or lost shortly after birth, and would often escape 
notice if not carefully looked for. Other animals inherit the extra toe, but fail to develop 
it sufficiently to show any evidence of its existence at birth. The fact that these have the 
character for extra toes is demonstrated by their offspring which may exhibit the toe as 
frequently as do offspring from parents with well-expressed Polydactyly. — These normal 
variations in the expression of this dominant character renders it a most uncertain quantity 
for judging the influences of experimental treatments on its inheritable behavior in different 
groups of animals. — Charles R. Stockard and G. N. Papanicolaou. 

1664. Stomps, Theo. J. Uber zwei Typen von Weissrandbunt bei Oenothera biennis L. 
[On two types of white margins in Oenothera biennis L.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 
22:261-274. May, 1920. 

1665. Stout, A. B. The aims and methods of plant breeding. Jour. New York Bot. Gard. 
21: 1-16. Jan., 1920. — Author notes rise of subject during past three decades which has cul- 
minated in the present day development of genetics. Broadly considered, plant breeding, 
through selection of seed parents, is older than written history, but modern methods of plant 
breeding are based on a knowledge of sexuality in plants. Notes work of early investigators 
in study of sexuality, hybridization and selection including the early pedigree methods of 
Le Cotjteur and Shirreff, also the early work on sugar beets. — Importance of hybridization 
as a means of inducing variation is noted. Also development and importance of chromosome 
theory of inheritance and Mendel's Law. The rise of the mutation theory, linkage, multiple 
and modifying factors is also noted. Author notes "the germ plasm is the seat in which most 
of the hereditary changes occur." Cites the case of the 6,500 varieties of Dahlia in cultiva- 
tion in the United States, all of which have descended from a single American species during 
the past 130 years. Similarly with Phlox, 200 varieties of which have descended from a single 



220 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

wild Texan species which was introduced into cultivation in 1835. — Importance of bud sports 
is noted in the case of the Sword fern and variegated Coleus and also with the citrus fruits. — 
Discusses modern method of plant breeding with respect to pedigree culture, and summarizes: 
"In practical application, the methods of plant breeding are (1) to maintain in a highly- 
productive condition races whose qualities make their cultivation desirable, (2) to recognize 
and preserve new characteristics which may lead to further improvement, (3) to combine 
qualities of different strains into one strain through crossing, and (4) to induce hereditary 
variation through hybridization. Plant breeding aims to regulate, to control, to direct, 
and to utilize the processes of heredity and variation." — C. E. Myers. 

1666. Streeter, Geo. L. Formation of single-ovum twins. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hos- 
pital 30: 235-238. 4 fig- 1919. — The mature ovum here referred to is the one previously 
described by the same author (Carnegie Inst. Washington Pub!., 272.) The ovum, which 
is about 17 days old, contains two embryos. One of these is considerably more advanced 
than the other. The primary embryo is in the primitive-groove stage, and has an embry- 
onic plate 0.92 mm. long by 0.78 mm. wide. Two small vesicles slightly separated from each 
other are found in the loose mesenchyme in the posterior region of the body-stalk. These 
two vesicles represent the Amniotic vesicle and the yolk-vesicle, respectively, of the smaller 
twin. This small embryo is undoubtedly abnormal. By comparing this ovum with the 
Miller specimen and the Bryce-Teacher specimen, the author is able to indicate how in all 
probability monozygotic, or identical twins are formed. The ovum is one of unusual interest, 
in that it shows the youngest stage of twinning so far recorded for the human species. — /. T. 
Patterson. 

1667. Strong, Leonell C. Roughoid, a mutant located to the left of sepia in the third 
chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. Biol. Bull. 38: 33-37. Jan., 1920. — New mutant, 
characterized by roughened eyes, found to lie to the left of sepia, which had been furthest to 
the left of known third-chromosome loci. Roughoid sepia crossover value of 24.9 was obtained. 
— A. H. Sturtevant. 

1668. Stuckey, H. P. Work with Vitis rotundifolia, a species of Muscadine grapes. Geor- 
gia Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 133 : 60-74. 4 pi- (colored) , 8 fig . Dec, 1919. — Work with rotundifolia 
was started at the Experiment Station in 1909. A history of workers with this species of 
grape is given. The work at the Station bears out the fact that Vitis rotundifolia is self- 
sterile, though the fruiting vines produce pollen. This pollen is infertile due to a degenera- 
tion of the generative nuclei. Work with more than two thousand seedlings which have been 
brought into bearing shows that approximately one-half are males and one-half are females. 
The male vines are more vigorous in growth and a larger percentage of these produce flower 
before the female vines. In more than one thousand bearing vines, it was found that the 
color of the tendrils and new growth correspond to the color of the fruit; vines having red or 
reddish green tendrils bear black or reddish black grapes, while those with green tendrils, 
internodes and new growth, produce light or amber-colored fruit, as the Scuppernong. Male 
vines fall into these two groups just as the females except they bear no fruit. Black is domi- 
nant over white and latter color is pure recessive. A formula showing crosses between plants 
heterozygous for black, red and white is given. Thomas X dark male produced only plants 
with dark fruit, but seedlings from Scuppernong X dark male produced plants of different colors 
of fruits. Certain male vines were prepotent for quality. In Flowers X light male no. 1, out 
of 41 seedlings, only one produced fruit inferior in flavor to the Flowers; the others were supe- 
rior. From nine vines of Flowers X Black No. 1 , only one produced fruit equal in flavor to the 
Flowers. New varieties described are Hunt, Irene, November, Qualitas, Spalding and 
Stuckey. It is further stated that pruned vines growing by the trellis system, when in good 
bearing should produce 50 to 60 pounds or about a bushel of fruit per year. Test of various 
strains of Scuppernongs, which is the most common variety of Vitis rotundifolia, demon- 
strated that nurserymen have made some effort to eliminate poor-bearing types and those 
untrue to name. Last page of the bulletin details methods of planting and pruning, and uses 
of the fruit.— T. H. McIIatton. 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 221 

1669. Sturtevant, Robert S. Hybridizing bearded irises. Clard. Chron. 67: 184. 
April 10, 1920. — Refers to a number of crosses of horticultural varieties and presents evidence 
to show that plicala characters are not due to a recessive factor as proposed by Bliss [see 
Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1460]; also indicates thai in I he Iris, venation acts as a simple Mendelian 
dominant but that in regard to color and its disposition in other ways a more complex expla- 
nation is needed. — J. Marion Shull. 

1670. Sumner, Francis B. Geographic variation and Mendelian inheritance. Jour. Exp. 
Zool. 30: 369-402. 7 fig. April 5, 1920.— Paper is continuation of earlier biometric and genetic 
work on geographic races of deer-mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) found in California. 
Characters chosen for study were length of tail, foot, ear, pelvis, femur and skull, width of 
dorsal tail stripe, color of pelage, pigmentation of foot and number of caudal vertebrae. Fewer 
grades for any one character have been found than number of localities from which material 
was collected. Members of same subspecies collected from different localities often differ 
widely. To a certain extent and for certain characters gradations considered follow geograph- 
ic and climatic sequence. Degrees of difference in characters are, however, not propor- 
tional to geographic intervals between races and there are other incongruities which greatly 
complicate the situation. Characters which vary together, when geographic sequence is 
considered, may or may not vary together within any single local collection and vice versa. 
It seems that special factors, operating locally, must be responsible for modification of parts 
which do not ordinarily vary together. Animals from coastal stations, which probably pre- 
sent graded series in respect to both temperature and humidity, show similar gradation in 
respect to mean width of tail stripe and mean length of tail, foot and ear. Suggestion is made 
that environment in course of time has modified characters of animals dwelling at various 
points. Variations within each race are partly hereditary and partly 'somatic' in origin. 
Differences between local races do not act, in crossing, as simple Mendelian factors although 
theory of multiple factors would undoubtedly be invoked by many geneticists. Author pre- 
fers theory of contamination of genes. Deviations from type of various characters in F t 
and F 2 generations have been compared. Conclusion is made that variation is slightly greater 
in F s . Incidentally differences have been observed between sexes, viz., smaller feet and larger 
pelvis in females. These are attributed to presence of at least two hormones varying inde- 
pendently.— P. W. Whiting. 

1671. Sutton, Arthur W. Brassica crosses. Card. Chron. 67: 20. Jan. 10, 1920.— 
Issue is taken with the statements of a writer in a recent issue of the journal in regard to crosses 
between cauliflower and kohl-rabi. Cauliflower crosses readily with any other type of Bras- 
sica but the resulting forms are worthless. — C. B. Hutchison. 

1672. Tammes, T. De leer der erffactoren en hare toepassing op den mensch. Rede, uit- 
gesproken bij het aanvaarden van het ambt van buitengewoon hoogleeraar aan de Rijks-Univ. te 
Groningen. [The theory of hereditary factors and its applicability to man. Address, delivered 
on assumption of the office of Professor Extraordinarius in the State University at Groningen.] 
H/f. p. Wolters: Groningen., 1919. 

1673. Th., G. Systematic breeding. Florists' Exchange 49: 882. April 10, 1920.— Popu- 
lar account of the value of systematic breeding based on a knowledge of the laws of heredity, 
especially as applied to carnation breeding. Lack of such knowledge may result in an occa- 
sional striking prize in commercial breeding, but no continuous series of successes. Describes 
some work of carnation breeders. — Dorner & Sons, Ward, and Fisher. Systematic breed- 
ing in the hands of these men brought the five-inch carnation and many other improve- 
ments. Dorner & Sons' promising new carnation productions are tested out by Samuel 
Goddard, Framingham, Mass. Carnation breeding is toward better keeping qualities, better 
form and color, larger number of blooms per plant without decrease in flower size and produc- 
tion of a good yellow type. — Orland E. White. 

1674. Th., G. Systematic breeding organization proposed. Florists' Exchange 49: 1089. 
May 8, 1920.— Discussion of the advantages of systematic breeding and of the formation of a 



222 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

society of growers interested in applying theoretical knowledge to their own problems. Rec- 
ords of practical breeders' work should be kept by a central body. Work is often repeated 
through lack of an organization through which knowledge can be distributed. Many a valu- 
able discovery has probably been made by individual workers and then lost to the world 
because the records have not been passed on. Author says "Darwin's theories today are 
repudiated to a large extent, while Mendel's law is recognized." — Orland E. White. 

1675. Thomson*, J. Arthur. [French rev. of: Macleod, J. The quantitative method in 
biology. 15x23 cm.,v+228 p., 27 fig. Longmans, Green & Co.: New York, 1919. (See also 
Bot. Absts. 4. Entry 758.)] Scientia 27: 244-246. 1920. 

1676. Tischler, G. [German rev. of : (l) Renner, O. Ueber Sichtbarwerden der Mendel- 
schen Spaltung im Pollen von Oenotherabastarden. (On the visibility of Mendelian segrega- 
tion in hybrids of Oenothera.) Ber. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. 37: 129-135. 1919. (2) Idem. ZurBiol- 
ogie und Morphologie der mannlichen Haplonten einiger Onotheren. (Biology and morphology 
of the male haplonts of some Oenotheras.) Zeitschr. Bot. 11: 305-380. 39 fig. 1919.] Zeit- 
schr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22: 221-223. Mar., 1920. 

1677. Tornau, Dr. Einige Mitteilungen uber variabilitatsverhaltnisse in einem kon- 
stanten Weizenstamm. [Some communications concerning variability relations in a constant 
wheat strain.] Jour. Landw. 67: 111-149. 1919. — A biometrical study of variability and cor- 
relation in a pure line of wheat, the constants for different years being compared. — C. E. 
Lcighty. 

1678. Van Fleet, W. Rose-breeding notes for 1918. Amer. Rose Ann. 1919 : 29-35. 1919. 
— Description of results from crossing numerous species and types of roses. Considerable 
improvement is seen in newer hybrids of Rosa rugosa, R. Hugonis, R. Soulieanea, R. Moyesii. 
Color range in R. rugosa hybrids covers single and double, constant-blooming forms in clear 
whites to glowing crimsons. No pure yellows. Creams, common and bright yellows may be 
expected in time. Main ideal for R. rugosa hybrids is high class blooms of Hybrid Perpetual 
and Hybrid Tea types combined with vigorous, hardy, disease-resistant plants. Premier 
English rose of 1918 is Mermaid, said to be result of R. bracleata crossed with a tea-scented 
variety. Efforts are being made to secure hybrids of R. bracteata able to endure climate of 
northern plains region, hybrids of R. bracteata X R. Carolina giving promising results, and 
enduring zero weather. They have beautifully-formed pink buds. No success has been 
attained in attempts to cross Harison's Yellow for over 20 years. More success with seedlings 
of this variety, especially one similar to one of reputed parents of Harison's Yellow. Out of 
many thousand seeds of Harison's Yellow sown, only three grew so far. There is possibility 
of fragrance of the sweetbrier being intensified through breeding work. — Orland E. White. 

1679. van Wisselingh, C. Uber Variabilitat und Erblichkeit. [Concerning variability 
and heredity.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 22 : 65-126. 10 fig. Jan., 1920. — Empha- 
sizes importance of a study of the lower and simpler plants in the attempt to get at 
fundamentals of heredity and variation. Many illustrations are cited from author's and 
Gerassimoff's extensive studies of S-pirogyra. Variations in the form and size of the cell, 
thickness and markings of cell walls, number and form of chromatophores, presence or absence 
of pyrenoids and method of starch-formation, number of nuclei, abnormalities in nuclear and 
cell-division, number of chromosomes, and nature and development of nucleoli are described 
in detail, and the causes giving rise to them are discussed. Variations in cell length, rate of 
starch formation and cell division may be induced through alterations in amount of light, but 
are not heritable. Thickness and markings on cell walls are heritable even in cells without 
nuclei. Chromatophores without pyrenoids form starch in a diffuse manner and are passed 
on through innumerable cell generations regardless of environmental conditions. Binucleate 
cells may be produced through anaesthesia, low temperatures, or centrifuging. This condi- 
tion is perpetuated by cell division and so is heritable. Instead of two nuclei there may be 
one giant nucleus. In either case the cells assume a much larger diameter which is inherited 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 223 

both through cell division and conjugal ion. Author concludes that the nucleus is not the 
sole bearer of hereditary factors but that on the contrary heritable variations may arise in 
and be transmitted by the chromatophores and the cytoplasm. — Lcunas L. Burlingame. 

1680. Vestergaard, II. A. B. Observations on inheritance in lupines, wheat, and barley. 
Tidsskr. Planteavl. 26: 491-510. 7 fig. 1919. 

1681. Vigiani, D. Sulla selezione del frumento "Gentil Rosso." [Upon the selection of 
the wheat "Gentil Rosso."] Staz. Sper. Agr. Italiane 52: 5-13. 1919. 

1682. Vogt, A. Der Altersstar, seine Hereditat und seine Stellung nach exogener Krank- 
heit und Senium. [Senile cataract, its heredity and its place in exogenous disease and senile 
degeneration.] Zeitschr. Augenheilkunde 40: 123. 1918. 

1683. von Graevenitz. [German rev. of: Crane, M. B. Heredity of types of inflores- 
cence and fruits in tomato. Jour. Genetics 5: 1-10. 1915.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. 
Vererb. 22:223-224. Mar., 1920. • 

1684. von Ubisch, G. II. Beitrag zu einer Faktorenanalyse von Gerste. [Contribution 
to a factorial analysis of barley.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 20: 65-117. 7 fig., 11 
diagrams. Jan., 1919. 

1685. von Wettstein, Fritz. Vererbungserscheinungen und Systematik bei Haplonten 
und Diplohaplonten im Pflanzenreich. [Genetical phenomena and taxonomy in haplonts and 
diplonts in the vegetable kingdom.] Zeitschr. indukt. Abstamm. Vererb. 21: 233-246. Nov., 
1919. 

1686. W., B. C. A. [Rev. of: Punnett, R. C. Mendelism. 5th ed., Macmillan & Co.: 
London, 1919.] Jour. Botany 57: 357-358. 1919. 

1687. W., F. A. The meaning of continuous variation in color. Jour. Heredity 11: 84-86. 
1 fig. Feb., 1920. 

16S8. Waldron, L. R., and J. A. Clark. Kota, a rust resisting variety of common spring 
wheat. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 11: 187-195. 1 pi. 1919.- — A variety of bearded hard red 
spring wheat, named Kota, has been found to possess resistance to the form or forms of stem 
rust of wheat present at Fargo, North Dakota, Brookings, South Dakota, and St. Paul, Minne- 
sota, in 1918. Preliminary tests with Kota show it to have yielding ability. In baking tests 
it ranked high when compared with other bread wheats.— H. K. Hayes. 

1689. Waldron, L. R. First generation crosses between two alfalfa species. Jour. Amer. 
Soc. Agron. 12: 133-143. 1920. — A report on the weight of plants of the first generation 
hybrids, secured by crossing Medicago sativa (common alfalfa) with Medicago falcata (yellow- 
flowered). The hybrids showed 47.5 per cent more weight than the parents. No significant 
differences were observed in the heights of the hybrid and the non-hybrid plants. Increased 
weight was then probably due to an increased number of stems per plant. Plants of M. falcata 
showed less winter-killing than the other groups. — F. M. Schertz. 

1690. Wangerin, W. Der Generationswechsel im Tier- und Pflanzenreich. [The alter- 
nation of generations in the animal and plant kingdoms.] Schrift. Naturf. Ges. Danzig 15: 1-13. 
1918. 

1691. Warren, Don C. Spotting inheritance in Drosophila busckii Coq. Genetics 5: 
60-110. 1 pi., 4 fig- Jan., 1920. — Variation was noted among males of D. busckii in number of 
spots on tergum of fifth abdominal segment. Selection isolated two types, the two-spot and 
the six-spot, although the germinal behavior of the three separate strains was distinct. 
Crosses indicate that (1) the same high factor has been isolated in all three strains; (2) the 



224 GENETICS [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

high or low is neither completely dominant to the other; (3) the female may transmit the 
factor for specific configuration although she is always of the six-spot type.- — Stock 501 gave 
a mutant with an exceptionally large outer spot. Tests with two-spot line indicate that the 
factor for the middle spots may be sex-linked in this particular strain. — Temperature has a 
differential effect on spotting. Low temperatures (11-15°C.) emphasize outer spots and 
reduce the middle ones, even in the two-spot selected lines. — Six females appeared simultane- 
ously in one stock, lacking the middle spots. When mated to brothers, these gave rise to a 
variable abnormal strain. Selection purified the stock. Crosses show that male can trans- 
mit the factor, although not showing the character himself. — To conclude, inheritance of 
spotting in D. busckii is complicated. The same spot in the female and in different strains 
of males are due to different factors. Environment, particularly temperature, has a differen- 
tial effect on the development of the various spots, and is important in the interpretation 
of selection. — Joseph Krafka, Jr. 

1692. Weatherwax, Paul. The origin of the intolerance of inbreeding in maize. Amer. 
Nat. 54: 184-187. Mar.-Apr., 1920. — In regard to androgyny and to protogyny of individual 
inflorescences maize presents no fundamental difference from other American representatives 
of Maydeae. This fact together with reduction in number of inflorescences due to the mode 
of long continued cultivation and hence widespread cross-pollination make it unnecessary to 
assume the introduction of intolerance of self-pollination from another group. — D. F. Jones. 

1693. Weimer, J. L. Variations in Pleurage curvicolla (Wint.) Kuntze. Amer. Jour. Bot. 
6: 406-^09. 1919. — Data on the extent of variation in certain characters due to differences 
in substratum upon which a pure strain of Pleurage curvicolla was grown, indicates unreli- 
ability of taxonomic criteria for species formation in fungi. Spore size was found to be rela- 
tively constant but size of perithecia showed greater variation and secondary spore appen- 
dages, a recognized character for this species, were not seen. Observations of author and 
others indicate that this species may have 128, 256, or 512 spores in ascus as a result of 7, 8 or 
9 mitoses. [See also Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 694.] — T. H. Goodspeed. 

1694. Wenholz, H. Maize breeding. Agricultural research in Australia. Advisory 
Council Sci. and Ind. Commonwealth of Australia Bull. 7: 39-48. 1918. — Author believes that 
improvement of maize can be accomplished largely by selection within a variety and therefore 
the experiment farms of New South Wales have been restricted to the use of one variety which 
previous experience has shown to be the best for the district. — Study of ear characters had 
led to the conclusion that some of them are associated with yield. These characters are 
length and shape of ear, weight and percentage of shelled grain, space between the rows, fill- 
ing and character of the butts and tips, depth of grain and size of core. The ideal ear with 
many of these desirable characters highly developed has not been found by experiment to 
be positively correlated with yielding capacity under all conditions. — Data are being col- 
lected to discover what visible characters in the ear are associated with yielding capacity. 
Thus far it is found that although depth of grain is correlated with yield in a late-maturing 
variety on the coast, this correlation does not exist with the early variations of the table- 
lands. In regions of good rainfall, moderate-sized core is correlated with yielding capacity 
while in regions of scanty rainfall smallness of core is a character somewhat related to drought 
resistance but not to very high yields. — Another measurable ear character found to be related 
to yield is the weight. Author states that uniformity in the appearance, size, shape of ear, 
and character of the indentation of the grain gives a greater uniformity in the maturing of the 
crop and in consequence a greater uniformity in flowering which latter has been found to be 
directly associated with a smaller percentage of barren stalks.— Ear-to-row breeding is highly 
recommended and in ear-to-row tests author notes having made some very careful observa- 
tions which have thrown considerable light on maize breeding and selection. It has been 
found, for instance, that some rows from individual ears contain a high percentage of barren 
stalks while other rows have practically none. It has also been found that many of the 
highest-yielding rows in the tests have been most uniform in the type of ears produced. 
Author considers that this observation supports the practice of breeding for uniformity in 



No. 2, September, 1920] GENETICS 225 

ear type. — In breeding for early maturity aut hor recommends select bag early-maturing plants 
in the field instead of the longer process of elimination of the late-maturing types in the 
variety by gradual acclimatization. — In breeding for drought -resist ance 1 he greatest difficulty 
to be overcome is the "blasting" effect of hot, dry winds on pollen viability, although in BOme 
districts this is obviated by planting at the proper time. It is stated that while breeding 
may produce a drought-resistant pollen it must be borne in mind that the limitation of mois- 
ture in the soil is also a contributing factor in low yields. — J. H. Kcmpton. 

1695. White, Orland E. [Rev. of: East, Edward M., and Donald F. Jones. Inbreed- 
ing and outbreeding. U x 21 cm., 285 p., 46 fig. J. B. Lippincott: Philadelphia, 1919.) 
Torreya 20: 32-34. Mar.-Apr., 1920.^See also Bot. Absts. 4, Entry 571 ; 5, Entries 437, 1607. 

1696. Wiogans, C. C. Some factors favoring or opposing fruitfulness in apples. Missouri 
Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 32: 1-60. 6 fig. 1918. — Studied individual fruit spurs of six com- 
mercial varieties of apples. Three varieties were known as annual bearers and these developed 
fairly high percentage of blossoms each year while three were classed as alternate bearers. 
Two of the annual bearers were able to develop blossoms in successive seasons on the same 
spur in much greater proportion than other varieties observed. Bearing spurs ranged from 2 
to 8 years in age, 3 to 6 or 7 years being most effective fruiting age. — Found slightly higher con- 
centration of sap (freezing point method) in bearing than in non-bearing spurs and not-d 
marked decrease in sap concentration in late June or early July. Sugar and starch were shown 
by chemical methods to be present in slightly greater quantities in bearing than in non-bearing 
spurs. Determined effect of girdling, fertilizers, cultural treatments, and etherization on 
concentration of cell sap. — H. K. Hayes. 

1697. Wilder, Harris Hawthorne. Physical correspondence in two sets of duplicate 
twins. Jour. Heredity 10: 410-420. Fig. 15-19. Dec, 1919. 

1698. Winters, A. Y. Eugenics, the war instinct and democracy. Jour. Heredity 10: 
254-256. June, 1919. 

1699. Woods, Frederick Adams. Twins prove the importance of chromosomes. Jour. 
Heredity 10: 423-425. Dec., 1919. 

1700. Woods, Frederick Adams. A definition of heredity— " Nature vs. nurture" not a 
good expression. Jour. Heredity 10: 426-427. Dec, 1919. 

1701. Wriedt, Chr. The brindle colour in cattle in relation to red. Jour. Genetics 9: 83. 
Dec, 1919. — Author concludes from records on Telemark breed in Norway that brindle is 
dominant to red (and not a heterozygote between red and black as J. Carlson had concluded), 
on the basis of the following: Brindle X brindle or brindle X red gives both brindle and red, 
but red X red gives only red. Black is said to be very rare in this breed, the characteristic 
colors being brindle and red. — J. A. Dctlefsen. 

1702. Zeleny, Charles. A change in the bar gene of Drosophila melanogaster involving 
further decrease in facet number and increase in dominance. Jour. Exp. Zool. 30: 293-324. 
9 fig. April 5, 1920. — Author, who has for some time been studying the effect of selection upon 
the physical appearance and hereditary determiners ("bar gene") of the barred eye of Droso- 
phila melanogaster, reports several mutants that have arisen in respect to this character. 
Bar gene, which is sex-linked, is concerned with the production of an eye with a greatly re- 
duced number of facets (an average of about seventy-five, instead of the usual eight hundred 
of normal "full-eye" flies). The F t generation of bar by full-eye is nearly intermediate 
between the parents. To avoid the effects of varying temperature, the flies of these data were 
reared at uniform temperature. Though considerable variability occurs in facet number, 
one male appeared, having only nineteen facets, a number markedly lower than the lowest 
otherwise known for bar eye. This fly produced a race with average of twenty-two or twenty- 



226 HORTICULTURE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

three facets. The gene concerned is named ultra-bar, and shows a marked dominance over 
both bar and full-eye, so that the Fi generation has eyes almost as small as those of ultra-bar. 
Crossing-over tests seem to show that ultra-bar is an allelomorph of bar. Author calls atten- 
tion to this evidence of mutation in a gene during selection, but thinks the direction of muta- 
tion probably not significant inasmuch as mutations toward full-eye have also occurred. — 
John S. Dexter. 

HORTICULTURE 

C. H. Gotjrley, Editor 
FRUITS AND GENERAL HORTICULTURE 

1703. Allen, W. J. Orchard notes. February. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 142- 
143. 1920. 

1704. Allen, W. J. Apricot growing in New South Wales. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31:201-207. 1 fig. 1920. 

1705. Allen, W. J. Peach growing in New South Wales. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 
31:127-133. 2 fig. 1920. 

1706. Allen, W. J., and W. C. G. Brereton. Orchard notes. January. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales 31 : 65-67. 1920. 

1707. Allen, W. J., and W. le Gay Brereton. Orchard notes. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales 31: 294-295. 1920. 

1708. Allen, W. J., and S. A. Hogg. Cherry growing in New South Wales. Agric. Gaz. 
New South Wales 31 : 277-279. 1920. 

1709. Allen, W. J., and S. A. Hogg. Orchard notes. March. Agric. Gaz. New South 
Wales 31: 221-222. 1920. 

1710. Andre, G. Sur l'inversion du sucre de canne pendant la conservation des oranges. 
[The inversion of sucrose in oranges during storage.] Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci. Paris 170: 126- 
128. 1920.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2193. 

1711. Anonymous. The cocoanut raft. Sci. Amer. 122:339. 1 fig. 1920. 

1712. Anonymous. Lime sulphur spray following Bordeaux. New Zealand Jour. Agric. 19: 
371-374. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 2001. 

1713. Anonymous. The most valuable crop. Sci. Amer. Monthly 1 : 316. 1920. — A note 
concerning the value of the cocoanut palm. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1714. Anonymous. Liming fruit trees. Jour. Dept. Agric. Victoria 17: 699. 1919. — 
The following formula is given for washing tree trunks: 10 pounds of fresh quicklime in 50 
gallons of water, enough water being added at first to cover the lime, add 8 pounds of flowers 
of sulphur, allow to boil for 20 minutes, and add the remaining quantity of water. — J. J. 
Skinner. 

1715. Anonymous. Conference on fruit growing. Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 45: 60-80. 
1919. — This is a report of a discussion of the distribution, varieties, disease control, and 
grading of deciduous fruits. —J. K. Shaw. 

1716. Anonymous. Revival of indigo. Sci. Amer. Supplem. 88: 271, 279. 1919. [Ab- 
stract.] 



No. 2, September, 1920] HORTICULTURE 227 

1717. Anonymous. Spraying programs for the orchard and fruit, garden. Monthly Bull. 
Ohio Agric. Exp. St a. 5: 67 -78. 1920. 

1718. Baker, C. F. Cooperative seed exchange. Philippine Agric. 8: 19-21. 1919. — 
This paper gives a list of tropical plants, seeds of which are desired by the College of Agricul- 
ture (Philippine Islands) in exchange for seeds of the College stock. — S. F. T release. 

1719. Ballou, F. H., and I. P. Lewis. Horticultural notes from the county experiment 
farms of Ohio. Monthly Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 52-57. 3 -pi. 1920.— Plans for prun- 
ing, fertilizing, landscaping and management are given. — R. C. Thomas. 

1720. Ballou, F. H., and I. P. Lewis. Culture and feeding of the apple orchard. 
Monthly Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 43-48. 2 pi. 1920. — The article includes a comparison 
of the value of fertilizers used respectively with the grass mulch and tillage systems of culture. 
— R. C. Thomas. 

1721. Ballou, F. H., and I. P. Lewis. Pruning tests in young apple orchards. Monthly 
Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 85-90. 5 pi. 1920. — This is a report of tests made in orchards 
of County Experiment Farms in Ohio. Seven methods are discussed briefly, viz., (1) Light 
dormant pruning. (2) Heavy dormant pruning. (3) Light summer pruning. (4) Heavy 
summer pruning. (5) Light dormant pruning with summer clipping of new shoots. (6) 
Heavy dormant pruning with summer clipping of new shoots, and (7) No pruning. — R. C. 
Thomas. 

1722. Balme, Juan. El olivo y su porvenir en Mexico. [The olive and its future in Mexico.] 
Rev. Agric. [Mexico] 3 : 379-383. 2 fig. 1919. — History of olive culture in California and other 
parts of the new world, and the possibilities of growing the tree in Mexico. — John A. Stevenson. 

1723. Beckwith, Charles C. The effect of certain nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers 
on the yield of cranberries. Soil Sci. 8: 483-490. 1919. —As a result of one year's studies on 
the effect of fertilizers on the yield of cranberries, the optimum amount of a mixed fertilizer 
consisting of sodium nitrate, 75 pounds; dried blood, 75 pounds; rock phosphate, 300 pounds; 
potassium sulfate, 50 pounds, was found to be 800 pounds. A mixture of mineral and organic 
nitrogen did not prove superior to sodium nitrate alone. Calcium cyanamid and barium 
phosphate proved unsatisfactory sources of nitrogen and phosphorus respectively. — W.J. 
Robbins. 

1724. Bernard, Charles. La culture du the aux Indes neerlandaises. [Tea-culture in 
the Dutch East Indies.] Rev. G6n. Sci. Pures et Appliquees 30: 17-18. 1919. — This paper, 
by the Director of the Tea-Experiment Station in Buitenzorg, Java, covering the industry 
indicated by the title, is of such conciseness as not to lend itself to further condensation 
into an abstract. — G. J. Peirce. 

1725. Blair, W. S. Orchard cultivation. Fruit Growers' Assoc. Nova Scotia Ann. Rept. 
55: 18-27. 1919. — Early plowed land contained 5.6 per cent more moisture in August than 
land plowed two weeks later. In another experiment sod land contained 5.9 per cent moisture 
in August while land cultivated six times and seeded to a cover crop on July 20 contained 14.1 
per cent. Of the cover crops used crimson clover depleted the soil moisture least and millet 
most. — Paul A. Murphy. 

1726. Boulger, G. S. [Rev. of: Bedford, Duke of, and Spencer Pickering. Science 
and fruit growing : Being an account of the results obtained at the Woburn Experimental Fruit 
Farm since its foundation in 1894. zxii-\-351 p. Macmillan & Co. : New York, 1919.] Jour. 
Botany 58:28-29. 1920. 

1727. Boyer, G. Etudes sur la biologie et la culture des champignons superieurs. [Biol- 
ogy and culture of mushrooms.] Mem. Soc. Sci. Phys. Nat. Bordeaux VII, 2: 233-344. 4 V^-r 
20 fig. 1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1931. 



228 HORTICULTURE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1728. Cabrera, Teodoro. La utilidad de los guayabos. [Uses of the guava-trees.] 
[Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 628. 1919. 

1729. Call, L. E. Director's report. Kansas Agric. Exp. Sta. Ann. Rept. 1917-18. 68 p. 
1918.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1466, 2024. 

1730. Calvino, Mario. ReseSo general sobre la arboricultura frutal de Mexico. [Fruit 
trees of Mexico.] Rev. Agric. [Mexico] 5: 34-42. 6 fig. 1919. — Lists the fruits of Mexico both 
for the tropical and the temperate belts, giving uses and possibilities of development of each. 
Fruits belonging to the following genera are discussed: Crataegus, Carasus, Persea, Juglans, 
Casimiroa, Diospyros, Lucuma, Citrus, Musa, Theobroma, Annona, Spondias, Carica, Achras, 
Psidium, Chrysophyllum, Mangifera, Cocos, Cudonia, Phoenix, Vitis, and Olea. — John A. 
Stevenson. 

1731. Condit, 1. J. Caprifigs and caprification. Univ. California Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 
319: 341-375. 1920. — Figs which drop may be of the Smyrna class, the fruits of which require 
caprification in order to set and remain on the tree; they may be of the caprifig class, the 
fruits of which drop unless inhabited by the fig insect; or they may be common figs which 
drop because of unsuitable climatic conditions. Varieties of caprifigs which consistently 
bear quantities of polleniferous figs year after year, should be discarded, as they are of no 
value in caprification. A list of commercially grown varieties is given. — A. R. C. Haas. 

1732. Ducomet, M. V. Par quel moyen peut-on assurer a 1'obtenir la propriety des vari- 
etes nouvelles de plants cultivees. [How can the ownership of new varieties of cultivated plants 
be assured to the owner.] Jour. Soc. Nation. Hortic. France 20: 120-121, 139-144, 173-177. 
June, July and August, 1919. — -The writer calls attention to the fact that the originator of a 
new and worthy plant is not protected in his rights in the same way that an inventor or writer 
is. He thinks that a man who has spent years in developing a worthy plant should be pro- 
tected by law so that no one else would be allowed to propagate and disseminate it without 
paying a royalty to the originator. The writer recommends for France: — (1) That an asso- 
ciation of French plant breeders be formed. — (2) That one or more government establish- 
ments, open to the public, be instituted for the acceptance and preservation of new 
varieties. — (3) That committees of acceptance and control be appointed. — (4) That every 
request for entry be accompanied by a detailed description of the new variety; a supply of 
seeds, bulbs, roots, buds or grafts; as exact an account as possible of the parentage of the 
new form; and a promise to send periodically fresh supplies of seeds, roots, etc., and to 
permit visits to the plantations in the event of controversy. — (5) That the request for 
registration of the new variety be publicly announced.— (6) That in the case of annuals a 
provisional certificate be given after one year and a final certificate after not less than two 
years and that certificate in the case of perennials be granted in as short a time as the 
nature of each permits. — (7) That the certificate guarantee only the authenticity of the 
plants not their productivity or any other quality. — (8) That the certificate be revoked if the 
variety prove unstable or is shown not to be a novelty.— (9) That during the period of 
certification no sale of the variety be allowed without the authorization of the originator.' — 
No recommendation is made as to the length of the period of protection for the originator. 
— H. C. Thompson. 

1733. Ellenwood, C. W. Bearing habits of the Delicious apple. Monthly Bull. Ohio 
Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 27-28. 2 tables. 1920. 

1734. Enfer, V. L'ensachage des fruits. [Bagging fruits.] Rev. Hortic. 91: 294-295. 
June, 1919. — The enclosing of fruits in sacks has long been practiced as a protection against 
various insects and hail, and because fruits thus protected are improved in texture and size. 
Sacks of a size appropriate to the fruit to be enclosed are chosen, the deformed and excess 
fruits removed, and those remaining enclosed when they are the size of a small nut, or at least 
by June 15 before the egg-laying period of the codling moth. Small holes are cut near the bot- 



No. 2, September, 1920] HORTICULTURE JJ'.I 

toms of the sacks in order that air may be admitted and excess moisture drained out. The 
fruit may remain covered until harvested, but the more highly colored varieties should be 
gradually uncovered by cutting out parts of the sack about September 10. It may be removed 
entirely several days later, after the skin has hardened somewhat. Bits of paper should be 
left attached to the peduncles of the fruits, in order to prevent attacks by birds. — E. J. 
Kraus. 

1735. Enter, V. Selection des jeunes fruits. [The selection of young fruits.] Rev. 
Hortie. 91 : 333-331. August, 1919. — In spite of the fact that many fruit buds are removed 
by pruning or are destroyed by cold or unfavorable weather, still, more generally remain than 
can be matured into good fruits. It is advisable, therefore, to remove all deformed and small 
fruits as early in the season and as rapidly as possible. When the fruit spurs are close together 
the fruits from half of them should be removed entirely in order that there may be a crop the 
following year. Later, selection is to be made of those which are to be sacked. The number 
of fruits to be preserved on each tree will vary with the vigor of the tree and the final volume 
of the fruit when mature. If a variety is the more valuable because of its extraordinary size, 
very few fruits should be allowed to remain even on vigorous trees. — E. J. Kraus. 

173b. Fenzi, E. O. Le culture ortive in Tripolitania. [Vegetable culture in Tripoli tania.] 
Bull. R. Soc. Toscana Orticult. 44: 105-109. 1919. — A discussion of the crops cultivated in 
this Italian colony. — W. II. Chandler. 

1737. Ginarte, Benjamin Munoz. Algo mas sobre el cultivo de la pifia. [More about 
pineapple culture. 1 Revist. Agric. Com. y Trab. 2: 592-593. Fig. 1-2. 1919. — The opinion of 
Rossi that the pineapple is a native of Brazil is recorded. The qualities of the fruits of dif- 
ferent varieties of pineapple and closely related plants are described. A classification by 
Rossi is given. — F. M. Blodgett. 

173S. Gladwin, F. E. A test of methods of pruning the Concord grape in the Chautauqua 
grape belt. New York Agric. Exp. Sta. [Geneva] Bull. 464: 189-213. 10 pi. 1919.— Experi- 
ments covering a period of eight years were conducted at Fredonia, N. Y. Seven methods of 
training were tested and early winter pruning compared with late winter pruning. So far as 
yield is concerned, the single-stem Kniffin, theMunson, and the Chautauqua methods of train- 
ing proved about equal; while fruit from the high-renewal and two-stem Kniffin methods was 
smaller in quantity and poorer in quality. Considering all of the advantages and disadvan- 
tages of the several methods, the single-stem Kniffin outranked all other methods of training. 
On the whole, late winter pruning made a slightly better showing than early winter pruning; 
but the difference in yield, wood growth, and maturity of fruit was too slight to warrant the 
definite conclusion that either method of pruning is to be preferred to the other. — F. C. 
Stewart. 

1739. Green, W. J. Smudging to prevent frost. Monthly Bull. Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 
5:63. 1920. 

1740. Grueber, Charles. Annual report of the senior fruit inspector. Tasmania Agric. 
and Stock Dept. Rept. 1918-19: 10-11. 1919. — Administrative report on enforcement of vari- 
ous regulations at the port of entry and departure. The "apples and pears standaridization 
act" was not complied with satisfactorily. Many growers preferred to ship ungraded stock 
and some such shipments sold as well as stock marked "Fancy." — Shipments from Hobart 
for the year were over one million cases of fresh fruit. — D. Reddick. 

1741. Hatton, Ronald G. Paradise apple stocks; their fruit and blossom described. 
Jour. Roy. Hortic. Soc. 44: 89-94. Fig. 26-38. 1919.— The author lists nine types of dwarf 
apple stocks grown at the Wye College Fruit Experiment Station, England. These have been 
compared with a series of "free" or standard stocks and there appears to be no strict 
dividing line between the two series. Eight of the dwarf types have fruited and tabular 
description of the flowers and fruit are given. — J. K. Shair. 



230 HORTICULTURE [Bot. Absts., Vol. V, 

1742. Haywood, A. H. The rice bean (Phaseolus calcaratus) or so-called Jerusalem pea 
(P. trinervis). Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 2S9-290. 1 fig. 1920.— Notes are given on 
the plant as a cover crop for bananas. Its use is recommended. — L. R. Waldron. 

1743. Hodgson, R. W. Pruning the navel oranges. California Citrograph 5: 138, 169. 
1920. 

1744. Honnet, G. Les hybrides en 1919. [The hybrids in 1919.] Rev. Vitic. 52: 53-59. 
1920. — The oldest hybrids most resistant to drought are: Oberlins, Gaillard Number 2, Con- 
derc 202 X 75, 146 X 51, Seibel 1000, 2859, Bertille-Serve 450; those less resistant are: S. 2003, 
2006, G. 194, 157, S. 2734, 880, C. 272 X 60. Two black grapes, B-S, 413 and C. 106 X 46, have 
grown and produced well. The new black direct producers are: Baco Number 1, B-S 872, 
893, 1129, Malegue 829 X 6, M. 2049 X 3, S. 4121, 4643, 4636 and 5212. Among the white varieties 
are: C. 162 X 5, S. 2638, 4681, 4955, 4986, 5279, M. 1647 X 8, 1157 X 1, Baco 22A, B. 43 X 23. A 
certain number of these new varieties appear to be very promising. They are more resistant 
to fungous diseases than Vinifera varieties. — L. Bonnet. 

1745. Houser, J. S. Recent tests of materials to control San Jose scale. Monthly Bull. 
Ohio Agric. Exp. Sta. 5: 49-51. 1920. 

1746. Howard, A., and G. L. C. Report of the Imperial Economic Botanists. Sci. Rept. 
Agric. Res. Inst. Pusa 1918-19: 46-67. PI. 5 and 6. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1159. 

1747. Hyde,W. C. Orchard cover-crop experiments on the Mountere Hills. New Zealand 
Jour. Agric. 19: 364-365. Fig. 1. 1919.— See Bot. Absts. 5, Entry 1262. 

1748. Jones, J. Plant importations. Report on the Agricultural Department, Dominica, 
1918-19: 2-3. [Imp. Dept. Agric. Barbados, 1919.] — Notes are given on the following plants: 
Mexican apple (Casimiroa edulis), Rambutam (Nephelium lappaceum), Poularia suavis, 
Jaboticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora), Brazil nut (Bertholetia excelsa), Sapucaia nut (Lecythis 
Zabucajo), Suwarri nut (Caryocar nuciform) and Chicle gum tree. Other plants under trial 
are Sarawak bean (Dolichos Hosei), from St. Lucia, and Cytisus Palmensis, C. stenopetalus 
and C. pallidus, plants used in the Canary Islands for forage purposes. Mention is also 
made of Momordica cochin-chinensis , the seeds of which contain an oil of remarkable drying 
properties. — J. S. Dash. 

1749. Jones, J. Plot experiments with orchard cultivation. Report on the Agricultural 
Department, Dominica, 1918-19: 18-23. [Imperial Department of Agriculture, Barbados. 
1919.]— The author treats in a full and interesting manner the difficulties encountered while 
carrying on manurial and other experiments with such permanent crops as cacao and limes. 
Many useful suggestions are given.— J. S. Dash. 

1750. Kirby, R. S., and J. S. Martin. A study of the formation and development of the 
flower beds of Jonathan and Grimes Golden in relation to different types (clover sod, blue grass 
sod, cover crop, and clean tillage) of soil management. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25: 265-290. 
PL 7. 1920. — Experiments made at Council Bluffs, Iowa, indicate that flower buds of apple 
form earlier and in greater numbers where soil moisture is less, and that nitrogen added by 
clover sod induces earlier formation of flower buds. The flowers are differentiated during a 
period of about four weeks on each tree, at some time between July 1 and September 15, 
according to variety and location. — H. S. Conard. 

1751. Kelley, W. P., and E. E. Thomas. The effects of alkali on citrus trees. Cali- 
fornia Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 318: 305-337. 1920. — The bulletin aims to enable citrus growers 
to recognize the effects of alkali, to appreciate the seriousness of alkali in citrus culture, to 
apprehend the relationships between irrigation and the accumulation of alkali, and to see 
that the application of certain fertilizers, especially nitrate of soda, may bear an important 
relation to the accumulation of alkali. The discussion is confined mainly to the effects of 



No. 2, September, 1020] HORTICULTURE 231 

excessive salt concentration. Alkali content of the soil may ultimately reach a harmful con- 
centration where irrigation water is applied that contains only a relatively low concentration 
of alkali salts. The rate of salt accumulation varies in different soils, depending on (1) the 
composition of the water, (2) the amounts applied, and (3) the freedom with which it pene- 
trates into the subsoil. There exists a close relationship between the composition of irri- 
gation water and the accumulation of alkali salts, and the condition of the citrus trees. — A. 
R. C. Haas. 

L752. Laffeb, II. E. The pruning of the vine. Agric. Gaz. New South Wales 31: 47-55, 
121-126. Fig. 5-13. 1920. (Continued from: Ibid. 30: 808. 1919.] 

1753. Larue, P. Taille du Pineau a Chablis. [Pruning the Chablis Pineau grape.] 
Rev. Vitic. 52:7-11. 2 fig. 1920. 

1754. Lewis, C. I., A. E. Murneek, and C. C. Cate. Pear harvesting and storage investi- 
gations in Rogue River Valley. (Second report.) Orgeon Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 162: 1-39. 
Fig. 1- IB. 1919. Fruits of Bartlett pears increase gradually in size, but at an accelerated 
rate in volume, throughout the growing season, apparently independently of climatic or 
cultural conditions. A distinct correlation appears to exist between the degree of maturity 
of Bartlett pears and the resistance offered by the cortical and epidermal tissues to pressure 
as measured by the amount of pressure required to force into them a ^5 inch steel ball up to 
one half its diameter. There is no direct relationship between such resistance to pressure and 
the diameter of the fruit. Storage investigations showed that, in the case of Bartlett pears, 
the size of the fruit was not a factor in time of ripening or decay. Fruits picked during the 
middle or latter part of the season of development kept longer than those picked early, and 
were superior in quality, and those picked exceptionally late were superior both in keeping 
and eating qualities. No difference in rate of maturity in storage was noted when a change 
in temperature of 10° to 15°F. was registered, provided the same approximate percentage of 
humidity was maintained. In the case of Bosc pears it was determined that both relatively 
high temperature with low humidity and low temperature with high humidity were harmful 
to proper ripening, that fruit picked very early in the season must be allowed to ripen partially 
before being placed at low temperatures, and that at least two weeks should elapse before 
putting the fruit into cold storage, though this time may be decreased under conditions of 
higher humidity. — E. J. Kraus. 

1755. Lodian, L. Strange things to eat. Sci. Amer. 122: 302, 312, 314. 9 fig. 1920 — 
A popular enumeration of seeds, bulbs and flowers used by cosmopolitan New York City for 
food, which are out of the ordinary for that region. — Chas. H. Otis. 

1756. Macottn, W. T. The commercial varieties of apples of Canada and the United States. 
Fruit Growers' Assoc. Nova Scotia Ann. Rept. 55: 119-137. 1919. 

1757. Manaresi, A. Sulla biologia fiorale del pesco. 2a nota. [On the floral biology of 
the peach. 2nd note.] Staz. Sperim. Agrarie Italiane 52: 42-67. 1919.— A study of the 
structure of the flower, its various parts and functions in a large number of varieties. Sta- 
tistical study of the size of the various types of buds in different varieties, of the shape of the 
flower as connected with the character and adherence of the stone; the classification of the 
varieties into two groups characterized by a campanulaceous perianth in one case and a 
rosaceous perianth in the other case. A study of the flowering period and its daily perio- 
dicity; the action of meteorological conditions upon the functions and longevity of the various 
floral parts; form and dimension of pollen, and its relation to varietal classification. Study 
of the germination of the pollen of seventy varieties, of the size of the pollen tube, its morpho- 
logical characteristics and speed of germination when tested in solutions of the following 
sugars: lactose, saccharose, maltose, glucose, laevulose, and galactose in solutions ranging in 
concentrations from 5 to 30 per cent. Distinct differences were obtained with the different 
sugars, saccharose being the most generally useful in concentrations ranging from 10 to 20 per 

BOTANICAL ABSTRACTS, VOL. V, NO. 2 



232 HORTICULTURE jBot. Absts., Vol. V, 

cent ; maltose in a concentration of 10 to 15 per cent may give results that approach and some 
times surpass those obtained with saccharose; lactose and glucose gave relatively good results 
only in concentrations varying from 5 to 15 per cent while galactose gave passable results at 
this concentration the optimum being between 5 and 10 per cent. Laevulose gave very poor 
results. Distinct differences were to be observed in the pollen tubes germinated in the dif- 
ferent sugars, and in the different concentrations. Accidental differences were observed in 
some varieties in the position of the style with respect to the position of the anthers, and 
differences in the number of styles and ovules in the pistils. Anthesis was found to take place 
exclusively in day time, and mostly in the forenoon, the petals first expanding being the ones 
first touched by the sun. Cleistoganry was often observed in good seasons, and dehiscence 
took place mostly in the early forenoon under the direct guidance of the sun. Anthesis 
appears to follow a centrifugal path along the branch. The influence of the position and alti- 
tude of the tree and of grafting upon the time of flowering are also touched upon. A bibliog- 
raphy is appended. — A. Bonazzi. 

1758. Marshall, Roy E. Pruning fruit trees. Virginia Polytech. Inst. Ext. Bull. 38. 
37 p., 29 fig. 1919. — A popular discussion of the training and pruning of apple, peach, pear, 
cherry, and plum trees with special emphasis on those phases of the subject of most practical 
importance in eastern United States. — F. D. Fromme. 

1759. Maktix, J. N., and L. E. Yocum. A study of the pollen and pistils of apples in rela- 
tion to the germination of the pollen. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 25: 391-410. Fig. 163-166. 1920. 
— The pollen of the five varieties of apples studied contains proteins or amino-acids, some pec- 
tin, and occasionally small amounts of sugars at the time of pollination. Pollen grains ger- 
minate in sugar solutions from pure water to 70 per cent, but most successfully at 2| per cent. 
A temperature of 22°-25°C. was best. The stigma is papillate; pollen germinates when caught 
between the papillae. The styles contain much cane sugar at some distance below th